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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34967249

RESUMO

This paper presents an actuated spring-loaded inverted pendulum model with a vertically constrained suspended load mass to predict the vertical GRF and energetics of walking and running. Experiments were performed to validate the model prediction accuracy of vertical GRF. The average correlation coefficient was greater than 0.97 during walking and 0.98 during running. The model's predictions of energy cost reduction were compared with experimental data from the literature, and the difference between the experimental and predicted results was less than 7%. The predicted results of characteristic forces and energy cost under different suspension stiffness and damping conditions showed a tradeoff when selecting the suspension parameters of elastically suspended backpacks.

2.
Small ; : e2105193, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786835

RESUMO

Given the inherent characteristics of transition metal fluorides and open tunnel-type frameworks, intercalation-conversion-type FeF3 ·0.33H2 O has attracted widespread attention as a promising lithium-ion battery cathode material with high operating voltage and high energy density. However, its low electronic conductivity and poor structural stability impede its practical application in high-rate capacity and long-lifetime batteries. Herein, rod-like Nb-substituted FeF3 ·0.33H2 O (Nb-FeF3 ·0.33H2 O@C) nanocrystals with a carbon coating derived from in situ carbonization in an ionic liquid are deliberately designed and prepared. Based on first-principles calculations and electrochemical analysis, it is shown that substitution of Nb into a proportion of Fe sites can dramatically reduce the total energy of the system and the bandgap, thus boosting the structural stability and electronic conductivity of FeF3 ·0.33H2 O. Simultaneously, the combination of a surface conductive carbon coating and assembly of the nanoparticles into a rod-like mesoporous architecture can produce an omni-directional ion/electron transmission network and a robust 3D composite structure. The Nb-FeF3 ·0.33H2 O@C composite with 3% Nb-doping displays high capacity (583.2 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C), good rate capacity (187.8 mAh g-1 at a high rate of 5.0 C), and excellent long-term cycle stability (160.4 mAh g-1 after 300 long cycles).

3.
J Biomech Eng ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773459

RESUMO

Backpacks are essential for travel but carrying a load during a long journey can easily cause muscle fatigue and joint injuries. Previous studies have suggested that suspended backpacks can effectively reduce the energy cost while carrying loads. Researchers have found that adjusting the stiffness of a suspended backpack can optimize its performance. Therefore, this paper proposes a stiffness-adjustable suspended backpack; the system stiffness can be adjusted to suitable values at different speeds. The stiffness of the suspended backpack with a 5-kg load was designed to be 690 N/m for a speed of 4.5 km/h, and it was adjusted to 870 and 1050 N/m at speeds of 5.5 and 6.5 km/h, respectively. The goal of this study was to determine how carrying a stiffness-adjustable suspended backpack affected performance while carrying a load. Six healthy participants participated in experiments where they wore two backpacks under three conditions: the adjustable-stiffness suspended backpack condition (S_A), the unadjustable-stiffness suspended backpack condition (S_UA), and the ordinary backpack condition (ORB). Our results showed that the peak accelerations, muscle activities, and peak ground reaction forces in the S_A condition were reduced effectively by adjusting the stiffness to adapt to different walking speeds; this adjustment decreased the metabolic cost by 4.21 ± 1.21% and 2.68 ± 0.88% at 5.5 km/h and 4.27 ± 1.35% and 3.38± 1.31% at 6.5 km/h compared to the ORB and S_UA, respectively.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735345

RESUMO

Identifying geometric features from sampled surfaces is a significant and fundamental task. The existing curvature-based methods that can identify ridge and valley features are generally sensitive to noise. Without requiring high-order differential operators, most statistics-based methods sacrifice certain extents of the feature descriptive powers in exchange for robustness. However, neither of these types of methods can treat the surface boundary features simultaneously. In this paper, we propose a novel neighbor reweighted local centroid (NRLC) computational algorithm to identify geometric features for point cloud models. It constructs a feature descriptor for the considered point via decomposing each of its neighboring vectors into two orthogonal directions. A neighboring vector starts from the considered point and ends with the corresponding neighbor. The decomposed neighboring vectors are then accumulated with different weights to generate the NRLC. With the defined NRLC, we design a probability set for each candidate feature point so that the convex, concave and surface boundary points can be recognized concurrently. In addition, we introduce a pair of feature operators, including assimilation and dissimilation, to further strengthen the identified geometric features. Finally, we test NRLC on a large body of point cloud models derived from different data sources. Several groups of the comparison experiments are conducted, and the results verify the validity and efficiency of our NRLC method.

5.
Nurs Res ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty is a major cause of adverse health outcomes such as hospitalization, falls, disability, and morbidity among older adults; the elucidation of factors affecting frailty trends over time may facilitate the development of effective interventions. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the trend of frailty over time (at baseline, with 6-month and 12-month follow-ups) among Chinese nursing home residents and identify associated resident- and institutional-level factors. METHODS: This longitudinal study included 353 residents who were admitted into 27 nursing homes in Jinan, China. Frailty was defined based on the seven self-reported components of the FRAIL-NH scale, which was designed for nursing home residents. Information was gathered using scales that assessed resident-level (sociodemographic characteristics and physical, psychological, and social factors) and institutional-level characteristics (hospital affiliation, fitness sites, green space, occupancy percentage, staff-resident ratio, staff turnover rate). These data were subjected to a multilevel linear analysis. RESULTS: Frailty was identified in 49.7% of residents at baseline and exhibited a progressively worsening trend over 1 year. Among institutional-level characteristics, the provision of fitness sites in nursing homes was a protective factor for frailty. Among resident-level characteristics, undernutrition was a significant independent risk factor and played a key role in increasing frailty over time. Other risk factors for frailty included younger age, poorer self-rated health, lower physical function, chewing difficulty, loneliness, anxiety, and being less active in leisure activities. DISCUSSION: Frailty was highly prevalent among Chinese nursing home residents and gradually increased over time. The results of this study could be used to inform the development of interventions targeted at modifiable risk factors and shape public health policies aimed at promoting healthy aging and delaying frailty and its adverse outcomes.

6.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 334, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite incarcerated population being at an increased risk of tuberculosis (TB) and serving as a potential source of TB transmission for the general population, prison TB remains understudied. Given its adverse impact on progress towards TB elimination, World Health Organization (WHO) has identified prison TB research as a top priority to guide TB treatment/control interventions. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 921 notified TB cases that were diagnosed at Kality Federal Prison, Ethiopia during 2009-2017. To assess trends of microbiologically confirmed pulmonary TB (PTB), extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB), and TB-HIV co-infection, an ecological analysis of aggregated cases was used to report trends over time. Additionally, we used multivariable log binomial regression to identify patient characteristics associated with microbiologically confirmed PTB, EPTB, and TB-HIV co-infection. RESULTS: Microbiologically confirmed PTB proportion increased over time. Young age was identified as an important risk factor for EPTB (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 1.74, 95% CI 0.97, 3.13) while HIV coinfection was negatively associated with EPTB (aPR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.55, 0.97). While previous TB history was associated with a lower likelihood of EPTB (aPR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.25, 0.70), it was associated with an increased risk of TB-HIV coinfection (aPR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.10, 1.71). Clinically diagnosed PTB patients were more likely to have TB-HIV coinfection compared to microbiologically confirmed PTB patients (aPR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.02, 1.72). CONCLUSIONS: Increasing proportion of microbiologically confirmed PTB may suggest delayed access to treatment, severe disease and increased risk of intramural transmission. Associations with clinical/demographic factors varied for different types of TB and were not always consistent with what has been previously reported for the general population, necessitating the need to refocus prison TB control/treatment strategies based on context specific epidemiological factors.

7.
Cancer Lett ; 526: 142-154, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715254

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) small nucleolar RNA host gene 7 (SNHG7) has been widely reported in various cancers, including lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). However, it is largely unknown whether SNHG7 is involved in docetaxel resistance of LUAD. In the current study, we identified the high expression of SNHG7 in docetaxel-resistant cells. Through functional assays, we determined that silencing of SNHG7 decreased IC50 value of LUAD cells to docetaxel and suppressed proliferation and autophagy in LUAD cells, and reversed M2 polarization in macrophages. Mechanistically, we uncovered that SNHG7 promoted autophagy via recruiting human antigen R (HuR) to stabilize autophagy-related genes autophagy related 5 (ATG5) and autophagy related 12 (ATG12). Moreover, exosomal SNHG7 was transmitted from docetaxel-resistant LUAD cells to parental LUAD cells and thus facilitated docetaxel resistance. Additionally, exosomal SNHG7 activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway to promote M2 polarization in macrophages via recruiting cullin 4A (CUL4A) to induce ubiquitination and degradation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Taken together, we concluded that exosomal SNHG7 enhances docetaxel resistance of LUAD cells through inducing autophagy and macrophage M2 polarization. All findings in the study suggested that SNHG7 may be a promising target for relieving docetaxel resistance in LUAD.

8.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696207

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death of any single infectious agent, having led to 1.4 million deaths in 2019 alone. Moreover, an estimated one-quarter of the global population is latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), presenting a huge pool of potential future disease. Nonetheless, the only currently licensed TB vaccine fails to prevent the activation of latent TB infections (LTBI). These facts together illustrate the desperate need for a more effective TB vaccine strategy that can prevent both primary infection and the activation of LTBI. In this study, we employed a machine learning-based reverse vaccinology approach to predict the likelihood that each protein within the proteome of MTB laboratory reference strain H37Rv would be a protective antigen (PAg). The proteins predicted most likely to be a PAg were assessed for their belonging to a protein family of previously established PAgs, the relevance of their biological processes to MTB virulence and latency, and finally the immunogenic potential that they may provide in terms of the number of promiscuous epitopes within each. This study led to the identification of 16 proteins with the greatest vaccine potential for further in vitro and in vivo studies. It also demonstrates the value of computational methods in vaccine development.

9.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Irisin is not only a myokine but also an adipokine that is critical in many diseases including in the development of such diseases as obesity, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, coronary artery disease, and chronic inflammation. However, the association between irisin and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unclear. This systematic review aimed to assess circulating irisin levels in patients with CKD and compare them with those in non-CKD patients. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, ISI Web of Science, and CNKI were searched to identify observational studies of circulating irisin levels in patients with CKD. Two reviewers independently searched the databases and screened studies according to the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted using a standardized collection form. Meta-analysis was performed to compare the differences in circulating irisin levels between CKD and non-CKD patients. RESULTS: A total of 9 studies (6 cross-sectional and 3 case controls) involving 859 CKD patients and 393 non-CKD individuals were selected. The pooled data indicated that circulating irisin concentrations were significantly lower in CKD nondialysis patients (WMD = - 84.79, 95% CI - 170.23, 0.50; p < 0.05), peritoneal dialysis patients (WMD = - 235.81, 95% CI - 421.99, - 49.62; p = 0.01), and hemodialysis patients (WMD = - 217.46, 95% CI - 381.35, - 53.57; p = 0.009) than in healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed that irisin levels were decreased in patients with CKD. Moreover, circulating irisin levels were lower in dialysis patients than in nondialysis patients.

10.
EJNMMI Res ; 11(1): 59, 2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are beneficial in patients with lung cancer. We explored the clinical value of [99mTc]Tc-Galacto-RGD2 single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT/CT) in patients with lung cancer, integrin αvß3 expression, and neovascularization in lung cancer subtypes was also addressed. METHODS: A total of 185 patients with lung cancer and 25 patients with benign lung diseases were enrolled in this prospective study from January 2013 to December 2016. All patients underwent [99mTc]Tc-Galacto-RGD2 imaging. The region of interest was drawn around each primary lesion, and tumour uptake of [99mTc]Tc-Galacto-RGD2 was expressed as the tumour/normal tissue ratio(T/N). The diagnostic efficacy was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Tumour specimens were obtained from 66 patients with malignant diseases and 7 with benign disease. Tumour expression levels of αvß3, CD31, Ki-67, and CXCR4 were further analysed for the evaluation of biological behaviours. RESULTS: The lung cancer patients included 22 cases of small cell lung cancer (SCLC), 48 squamous cell carcinoma (LSC), 97 adenocarcinoma (LAC), and 18 other types of lung cancer. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of [99mTc]Tc-Galacto-RGD2 SPECT/CT using a cut-off value of T/N ratio at 2.5 were 91.89%, 48.0%, and 86.67%, respectively. Integrin αvß3 expression was higher in non-SCLC compared with SCLC, while LSC showed denser neovascularization and higher integrin αvß3 expression. Integrin αvß3 expression levels were significantly higher in advanced (III, IV) than early stages (I, II). However, there was no significant correlation between tumour uptake and αvß3 expression. CONCLUSIONS: [99mTc]Tc-Galacto-RGD2 SPECT/CT has high sensitivity but limited specificity for detecting primary lung cancer, integrin expression in the tumour vessel and tumour cell membrane contributes to the tumour uptake.

11.
Clin Nephrol ; 96(5): 253-262, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) and coagulation disorders are common complications of sepsis that affect its prognosis. However, the relationship between coagulation function and the prognosis of septic AKI has not been fully elucidated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, clinical data from patients with septic AKI admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University from June 2016 to March 2019 were analyzed. Based on clinical outcomes within 60 days, septic AKI patients were divided into a survival and non-survival group, and the survivors were divided into a recovered and non-recovered group depending on renal function. RESULTS: A total of 338 septic AKI patients were enrolled and followed up; 86 patients died, and 124 patients' renal function did not recover. The all-cause mortality rate in the septic AKI group was higher than in the non-AKI group by 1 : 1 propensity score matching (25.4 vs. 18.9%). The recovery rate for renal function was 50.8% (128/252), and 228 patients (67.5%) had at least one abnormal coagulation index. Logistic analysis indicated that male sex, advanced age, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, thrombocytopenia, and an increased international standardized ratio (INR) were independent risk factors for all-cause mortality in septic AKI. Concomitant heart disease and prolonged activated partial thrombin time (APTT) were independent risk factors for renal function non-recovery among survivors. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that the cumulative survival rate was lower, and the mean survival time was shorter, in the abnormal coagulation parameter group compared to the normal coagulation parameter group (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Many patients with septic AKI have a poor prognosis. Coagulation disorders, including thrombocytopenia, increased INR, and prolonged APTT might predict poor clinical outcomes in patients with septic AKI.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Sepse , Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Injúria Renal Aguda/terapia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/complicações
12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(14): 16374-16383, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821602

RESUMO

The development of comprehension in the mechanism of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries creates more opportunities and potential for the application of interlayer. However, the viable design of versatile interlayer to retard the shuttling effects and improve the sluggish kinetics is still a focus and paramount challenge. Herein, we present a tentacles-like metallic nickel-modified and nitrogen-doped carbon skeleton (NCS) to serve as adsorbent and catalyst in the lithium-sulfur battery (LSBs). The carbonized skeleton and derived carbon tubes jointly construct conductive networks and adequate ion pathways. Meanwhile, abundant metallic nickel nanoparticles synergistically build a multifunctional interface with polar networks for the fixation and conversion of polysulfides, giving rise to significant improvement of cyclic stability and reaction kinetics of LSBs. As a result, the Li-S batteries using NCS as an interlayer could possess superior electrochemical performance including cyclic stability, high specific capacity (1204.8 mAh g-1 at 0.2C, 998.7 mAh g-1 at 1C), and good Coulombic efficiency. More importantly, even with the areal sulfur loading of up to 6.1 and 7.5 mg cm-2, it still demonstrates superior electrochemical performance with the areal capacity of 4.2 and 5.9 mAh cm-2 with steady cycling, respectively. In conclusion, we confirm this work provides a promising way to explore and expand the application of metal nanoparticles in interlayers for advanced Li-S batteries.

13.
STAR Protoc ; 2(2): 100459, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851142

RESUMO

Regulating gene expression through retroviral infection has been widely used in mouse bone marrow transplantation (BMT) to test the capacity of self-renewal, as well as multi-lineage differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). However, it remains challenging to achieve high transduction efficiency in bone marrow cells as transduction of these cells subsequently leads to transplantation failure. Here, we present a modified protocol to overcome this issue, enabling reproducible and high-efficient retroviral transduction of HSPCs for BMT. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Yang et al. (2019).

14.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 616016, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33746793

RESUMO

Background: Hemodialysis patients not only suffer from somatic disorders but are also at high risks of psychiatric problems. Early this year, the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused great panic and anxiety worldwide. The impact of this acute public health event on the psychological status of hemodialysis patients and its relationship with their quality of life have not been fully investigated. Methods: This study comprised two parts. The initial study enrolled maintenance hemodialysis patients treated in Ruijin Hospital for more than 3 months from March to May 2020 during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Patients completed three questionnaires including the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R), General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), and Kidney Disease Quality of Life (KDQOL) Short Form (SF). Follow-up study was performed from December 2020 to January 2021, when the pandemic of COVID-19 has been effectively contained in China. Only patients enrolled in the initial study were approached to participate in the follow-up study. Results: There were 273 maintenance dialysis patients enrolled in the initial study and 247 finished the follow-up study. For the initial study, the estimated prevalence of nonspecific psychiatric morbidity was 45.8% (125/273) by GHQ-28. By IES-R, 53/273 (19.4%) patients presented with total scores above 24 that reflected clinical concerns. We found a significant difference regarding KDQOL scores between patients with different stress response (IES-R) groups (p = 0.026). Our follow-up study showed that KDQOL and SF-36 scores were significantly improved in comparison with those in the initial study (p = 0.006 and p = 0.031, respectively). Though total scores of GHQ-28 and IES-R did not change significantly, some subscales improved with statistical significance. Furthermore, gender, education background, and duration of hemodialysis were three factors that may affect patients' mental health, quality of life, or health status while dialysis duration was the only variable that correlated with those parameters. However, these correlations were combined effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the dialysis itself. Conclusions: We found a correlation between changes in the mental health status of dialysis patients and changes in their quality of life. These responses were also mediated by patients' psychosocial parameters. Our results urge the necessity of psychotherapeutic interventions for some patients during this event.

15.
Am J Med Sci ; 361(4): 461-468, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Central catheter infections are of concern in patients on hemodialysis because of the high risk of catheter-related bloodstream infections, sepsis, and death. Adequate nursing is critical for the prevention of such infections. This study aimed to use the PDCA (plan-do-check-act) method to reduce the incidence of central venous catheter infection using management in the maintenance of central venous catheter in patients on hemodialysis, compared with routine care. METHODS: This pilot study recruited patients on hemodialysis via central venous catheterization at the Blood Purification Center of Ruijin Hospital between November 2017 and November 2018. The patients were randomized to the routine and PDCA groups. All participants received routine nursing. The PDCA group received central venous catheter management by PDCA. The incidence of central venous catheterization-related infections, nursing satisfaction, and quality of life were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: A total of 122 participants were enrolled in each group. The incidence of central catheter-related bloodstream infection, as the primary outcome, was 0.8 and 8.8 cases per 1000 catheter days in the PDCA and routine groups, respectively (P < 0.001). In addition, as the secondary outcomes, the scores of nursing satisfaction (health guidance, nursing technology, and therapeutic effects) score and quality of life (physiological, psychological, social, and environmental status) were better in the PDCA group than in the routine group (all P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study suggests that the PDCA cycle model can effectively reduce the incidence of central venous catheter-related infections and improve satisfaction and quality of life in patients on hemodialysis.


Assuntos
Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Melhoria de Qualidade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 10(1): 326-339, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569316

RESUMO

Background: Serial profiling of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) could reflect dynamic molecular changes in response to treatment and potentially predict impending disease progression (PD). Herein, we investigated the molecular factors and dynamic changes in ctDNA that can serve as predictors of survival outcomes of patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received osimertinib therapy after progression from prior EGFR inhibitor regimen. Methods: Capture-based targeted sequencing was performed on the baseline and longitudinal plasma samples collected from 72 and 57 patients, respectively, using a 168-gene panel. Results: Analysis revealed that inferior overall survival (OS) was correlated with various baseline molecular features including high allelic fraction (AF) of EGFR sensitizing mutations (P=0.045), high maximum AF (maxAF, P=0.060), or harboring concurrent genomic alterations such as copy number amplification (CNA) in EGFR (P=0.026) or in other genes (P=0.026), and genes involved in the cell cycle (P=0.004) or TP53 signaling pathway (P=0.032). Moreover, ctDNA clearance at first follow-up after 6 weeks of osimertinib therapy was correlated with significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS) (P=0.022) and OS (P=0.009). Molecular PD, reflected by the emergence of new mutation or increased AF of existing mutations, was detected at an average lead time of 2.5 months prior to radiological PD. Patients with molecular PD were more likely to harbor CNA (P=0.035) and TP53 mutations (P=0.023). Conclusions: Molecular factors derived from serial ctDNA profiling can serve as predictive and prognostic markers, which could allow early detection of PD, preceding imaging modalities by 2.5 months.

17.
J Chem Neuroanat ; 111: 101888, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212191

RESUMO

Koumine (KM) is a major alkaloid monomer in the traditional Chinese medicine herb Gelsemium elegans Benth that has exhibited therapeutic potential in clinical applications. However, the pharmacological toxicological mechanism of this drug has not been fully explored. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impacts of KM administration at a therapeutic dose in offspring. On gestational day 0, mice were injected with KM once daily for 4 consecutive days. Male and female offspring were subjected to behavioral tests and neuropathological analyses from postnatal day 60. Prenatal KM exposure resulted in cognitive and memory impairments in the Morris water maze, Y-maze test, and novel object recognition test. The open field test and elevated plus maze test indicated that prenatal KM exposure induced anxiety-like behavior in offspring. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that KM exposure inhibited hippocampal long-term potentiation. Immunostaining for neurogenesis markers DCX and BrdU demonstrated that KM suppressed adult neurogenesis in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. In addition, prenatal KM exposure induced a significant reduction in dendritic spine density in hippocampal neurons. Synaptic formation-related proteins were decreased in the KM group based on western blot. No sex differences in the effects of KM were observed. Collectively, our results indicate that prenatal KA exposure has detrimental neural effects on offspring. This study provides a preliminary preclinical toxicological assessment of the safety of KM use during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Alcaloides Indólicos/farmacologia , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Animais , Espinhas Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez
18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(1): 2072-2080, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347756

RESUMO

As typical 2D materials, VSe2 and MoSe2 both play a complementary role in Li/Na/K storage. Therefore, we designed and optimized the VSe2/MoSe2 heterostructure to gain highly efficient Li/Na/K-ion batteries. Most importantly, achieving fast Li/Na/K-ion diffusion kinetics in the interlayer of VSe2/MoSe2 is a key point. First of all, first-principles calculations were carried out to systematically investigate the packing structure, mechanical properties, band structure, and Li/Na/K storage mechanism. Our calculated results suggest that a large interlayer spacing (3.80 Å), robust structure, and metallic character pave the way for achieving excellent charge-discharge performance for the VSe2/MoSe2 heterostructure. Moreover, V and Mo ions both suffer a very mild redox reaction even if Li/Na/K ions fill the interlayer space. These structures were all further verified to show thermal stability (300 K) by means of the AIMD method. By analyzing the Li/Na/K diffusion behavior and the effect of vacancy defect on the structural stability and energy barrier for Li interlayer diffusion, it is found that the VSe2/MoSe2 heterostructure exhibits very low-energy barriers for Na/K interlayer diffusion (0.21 eV for Na and 0.11 eV for K). Compared with the VSe2/MoSe2 heterostructure, the V0.92Se1.84/MoSe2 heterostructure not only can still maintain a stable structure and metallic character but also has much lower energy barrier for Li interlayer diffusion (0.07 vs 0.48 eV). These discoveries also break new ground to eliminate the obstacles preventing Li+ diffusion in the interlayer of other heterostructure materials. Besides, both VSe2/MoSe2 and V0.92Se1.84/MoSe2 heterostructures have low average open-circuit voltage (OCV) values during Li/Na/K interlayer diffusion (1.07 V for V0.92Se1.84/MoSe2 vs Li+, 0.86 V for VSe2/MoSe2 vs Na+, and 0.54 V for VSe2/MoSe2 vs K+), such low OCV values are beneficial for anode materials with excellent electrochemical properties. The above findings offer a new route to design anode materials for Li/Na/K-ion batteries.

19.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 146: 111848, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166671

RESUMO

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), which is widely used as an industrial plasticizer, may cause liver damage. Concomitantly, bad dietary habits can exacerbate the liver burden. In this study, high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats were treated with DEHP (10, 100, or 300 mg/kg bw) for 5 weeks, and a biochemical method was adopted to detect serum lipid contents. Key metabolic genes and pathological changes were assessed by different methods (RT-PCR, Western Bloting, ELISA and HE staining). The rats which were exposed to DEHP at a dose of 10 mg/kg bw exhibited dyslipidemia and increased transcription of SREBP-1 and its target FAS, thereby prompting de novo lipogenesis, but they did not become obese. Instead, DEHP at a dose of 300 mg/kg bw elevated the levels of AMPK phosphorylation and the mRNA levels of PPAR-α, PGC-1α, CPT-1 and lipin-1 in the liver, which led to fatty acid oxidation. Additionally, DEHP at the highest dose increased the TNF-α mRNA expression in the liver. Based on these findings, we conclude that excess fatty acid oxidation might increase the inflammatory response. No toxic effects on hepatic function were observed. These findings suggest that different doses of DEHP have the potential to disturb hepatic metabolic imbalance in HFD-fed rats.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ácidos Graxos , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
20.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 157, 2020 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: K-mer spectra of DNA sequences contain important information about sequence composition and sequence evolution. We want to reveal the evolution rules of genome sequences by studying the k-mer spectra of genome sequences. RESULTS: The intrinsic laws of k-mer spectra of 920 genome sequences from primate to prokaryote were analyzed. We found that there are two types of evolution selection modes in genome sequences, named as CG Independent Selection and TA Independent Selection. There is a mutual inhibition relationship between CG and TA independent selections. We found that the intensity of CG and TA independent selections correlates closely with genome evolution and G + C content of genome sequences. The living habits of species are related closely to the independent selection modes adopted by species genomes. Consequently, we proposed an evolution mechanism of genomes in which the genome evolution is determined by the intensities of the CG and TA independent selections and the mutual inhibition relationship. Besides, by the evolution mechanism of genomes, we speculated the evolution modes of prokaryotes in mild and extreme environments in the anaerobic age and the evolving process of prokaryotes from anaerobic to aerobic environment on earth as well as the originations of different eukaryotes. CONCLUSION: We found that there are two independent selection modes in genome sequences. The evolution of genome sequence is determined by the two independent selection modes and the mutual inhibition relationship between them.


Assuntos
Eucariotos , Evolução Molecular , Genoma , Animais , Composição de Bases , Genoma/genética , Células Procarióticas , Seleção Genética
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