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1.
Genet Med ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447483

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Emerging studies suggest that low-pass genome sequencing (GS) provides additional diagnostic yield of clinically significant copy-number variants (CNVs) compared with chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA). However, a prospective back-to-back comparison evaluating accuracy, efficacy, and incremental yield of low-pass GS compared with CMA is warranted. METHODS: A total of 1023 women undergoing prenatal diagnosis were enrolled. Each sample was subjected to low-pass GS and CMA for CNV analysis in parallel. CNVs were classified according to guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. RESULTS: Low-pass GS not only identified all 124 numerical disorders or pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP) CNVs detected by CMA in 121 cases (11.8%, 121/1023), but also defined 17 additional and clinically relevant P/LP CNVs in 17 cases (1.7%, 17/1023). In addition, low-pass GS significantly reduced the technical repeat rate from 4.6% (47/1023) for CMA to 0.5% (5/1023) and required less DNA (50 ng) as input. CONCLUSION: In the context of prenatal diagnosis, low-pass GS identified additional and clinically significant information with enhanced resolution and increased sensitivity of detecting mosaicism as compared with the CMA platform used. This study provides strong evidence for applying low-pass GS as an alternative prenatal diagnostic test.

2.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microdeletions and microduplications can occur in any pregnancy independent of maternal age. The spectrum and features of pathogenic copy number variants including the size, genomic distribution and mode of inheritance are not well studied. These characteristics have important clinical implications regarding expanding noninvasive prenatal screening for microdeletions and microduplications. OBJECTIVES: The aim is to investigate the spectrum and characteristics of pathogenic copy number variants in prenatal genetic diagnosis and to provide recommendations for expanding the scope of noninvasive prenatal screening for microdeletions and microduplications. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective study of 1,510 pregnancies who underwent invasive prenatal diagnostic testing by chromosomal microarray analysis. Prenatal samples were retrieved by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling and sent to our prenatal genetic diagnosis laboratory for chromosomal microarray analysis. The risk of carrying a fetus with pathogenic copy number variants are stratified by the patients' primary indication for invasive testing. We searched the literature for published prenatal chromosomal microarray data to generate a large cohort of 23,865 fetus. The characteristics and spectrum of pathogenic copy number variants including the type of aberrations (gains or losses), genomic loci, sizes, and the mode of inheritance were studied. RESULTS: Overall, 375/23,865 (1.6%) fetuses carried pathogenic copy number variants for any indication for invasive testing, and 44 (11.7%) of them involve 2 or more pathogenic copy number variants. A total of 428 pathogenic copy number variants were detected in these fetuses, of which 280 are deletions and 148 are duplications. 360 (84.1%) were less than 5Mb in size and 68 (15.9%) were between 5-10Mb. The incidence of carrying a pathogenic copy number variant in the high-risk group is 1 in 36, and the low-risk group is 1 in 125. Parental inheritance study results were available in 311 positive cases, 71 (22.8%) were maternally inherited, 36 (11.6%) were paternally inherited, and 204 (65.6%) occurred de novo. CONCLUSION: Collectively, pathogenic copy number variants are common in pregnancies. High-risk pregnancies should be offered invasive testing with chromosomal microarray analysis for the most comprehensive investigation. Detection limits on size, parental inheritance, and genomic distribution should be carefully considered before implementing copy number variant screening in expanded noninvasive prenatal screening.

3.
DNA Res ; 26(4): 313-325, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173071

RESUMO

The diversity of disease presentations warrants one single assay for detection and delineation of various genomic disorders. Herein, we describe a gel-free and biotin-capture-free mate-pair method through coupling Controlled Polymerizations by Adapter-Ligation (CP-AL). We first demonstrated the feasibility and ease-of-use in monitoring DNA nick translation and primer extension by limiting the nucleotide input. By coupling these two controlled polymerizations by a reported non-conventional adapter-ligation reaction 3' branch ligation, we evidenced that CP-AL significantly increased DNA circularization efficiency (by 4-fold) and was applicable for different sequencing methods but at a faction of current cost. Its advantages were further demonstrated by fully elimination of small-insert-contaminated (by 39.3-fold) with a ∼50% increment of physical coverage, and producing uniform genome/exome coverage and the lowest chimeric rate. It achieved single-nucleotide variants detection with sensitivity and specificity up to 97.3 and 99.7%, respectively, compared with data from small-insert libraries. In addition, this method can provide a comprehensive delineation of structural rearrangements, evidenced by a potential diagnosis in a patient with oligo-atheno-terato-spermia. Moreover, it enables accurate mutation identification by integration of genomic variants from different aberration types. Overall, it provides a potential single-integrated solution for detecting various genomic variants, facilitating a genetic diagnosis in human diseases.

4.
J Invest Dermatol ; 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078570

RESUMO

Genetic studies based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms have provided valuable insights into the genetic architecture of complex diseases. However, a large fraction of heritability for most of these diseases remains unexplained, and the impact of small insertions and deletions (InDels) has been neglected. We performed a comprehensive screen on the exome sequence data of 1,326 genes using the SOAP-PopIndel method for InDels in 32,043 Chinese Han individuals and identified 29 unreported InDels within 25 susceptibility genes associated with psoriasis. Specifically, we identified 12 common, 9 low-frequency, and 8 rare InDels that explained approximately 1.29% of the heritability of psoriasis. Further analyses identified KIAA0319, RELN, NCAPG, ABO, AADACL2, LMAN1, FLG, HERC5, CCDC66, LEKR1, AFF3, ABCG2, ANXA7, SYTL2,GIPR, METTL1, and FYCO1 as unreported genes for psoriasis. In addition, identified InDels were associated with the following reported genes: IFIH1, ERAP1, ERAP2, LNPEP, UBLCP1, and STAT3; unreported independent associations for exonic InDels were found within GJB2 and ZNF816A. Our study enriched the genetic basis and pathogenesis of psoriasis and highlighted the non-negligible impact of InDels on complex human diseases.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5058, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911034

RESUMO

Synthetic oligonucleotides (oligos) are important tools in the fields of molecular biology and genetic engineering. For applications requiring a large number of oligos with high concentration, it is critical to perform high throughput oligo synthesis and achieve high yield of each oligo. This study reports a microreactor chip for oligo synthesis. By incorporating silica beads in the microreactors, the surface area of the solid substrate for oligo synthesis increases significantly in each microreactor. These beads are fixed in the microreactors to withstand the flushing step in oligo synthesis. Compared to conventional synthesis methods, this design is able to avoid protocols to hold the beads and integrate more microreactors on a chip. An inkjet printer is utilized to deliver chemical reagents in the microreactors. To evaluate the feasibility of oligo synthesis using this proof-of-concept synthesizer, an oligo with six nucleotide units is successfully synthesized.

6.
Biomaterials ; 197: 182-193, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660994

RESUMO

Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) usually contain a fully phosphorothioate (PS) backbone, which possibly interact with many genes and proteins under intracellular conditions. G3139 is an ASO that targets Bcl-2 mRNA and induces cell apoptosis. Here, we report a kind of cytidinyl-lipid combined with a cationic lipid (DNCA/CLD, molar ration, 28:3, named mix), which may interact with oligonucleotides via H-bond formation, pi-stacking and electrostatic interaction, accompanied by low zeta potentials. The IC50 value of G3139 delivered by mix-lipid reduced from above 20 µM to 0.158 µM for MCF-7/ADR, and exhibited stronger antiproliferation upon other cancer cell lines. In addition, PS modification in the 3'-half of G3139 (especially at positions 13-16) enhanced serum stability, target specificity and anticancer activity. Also, a locked nucleic acid (LNA) gapmer G3139 (LNA-G3139) showed superior antiproliferation (78.5%) and Bcl-2 mRNA suppression effects (85.5%) at 200 nM, mainly due to its high complementary RNA affinity. More apoptosis-associated targets were identified, and a lower level of non-specific protein binding (HSA) revealed that both antisense and aptamer mechanisms might simultaneously exist. A combination of a new delivery system and chemical modifications, such as in LNA-G3139, may have potential clinical application prospects in the future.

7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1870: 151-163, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30539553

RESUMO

Based on the nucleobase rich character of the binding pocket of A-site 16S ribosomal RNA of Escherichia coli, it was proposed that the neamine moiety of synthesized Neamine-nucleoside conjugates could bind to the groove of RNA while the nucleobase moiety would bind specifically to the sequence of the 16S rRNA A-site fragment. Thus the designed conjugate compound 5 was found to have the same dissociation constant as neamine for binding to 16S rRNA and the neamine-amino acid substituted nucleoside conjugate 8 and 9 showed 6.3 and 4.8 times greater RNA binding affinity, respectively, as compared with neamine. The results obtained successfully demonstrate the need for chemically modifying neamine and probe the changes induced using NMR protocols to assist in the discovery of new aminoglycoside antibiotics.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Framicetina/farmacologia , Nucleosídeos/farmacologia , RNA Bacteriano , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Framicetina/química , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Nucleosídeos/química
8.
Bioconjug Chem ; 30(1): 231-241, 2019 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582682

RESUMO

The photoisomerization of azobenzenes provides a general means for the photocontrol of many important biomolecular structures and organismal functions. For temporal and spatial control activity of thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) by light, azobenzene derivatives were carefully selected as light-triggered molecular switches to replace TT loops and the TGT loop of TBA to reversibly control enzyme activity. These molecules interconverted between the trans and cis states under alternate UV and visible light irradiation, which consequently triggered reversible formation of G-quadruplex morphology. In addition, we investigated the impact of three azobenzene derivatives on stability, thrombin binding ability, and anticoagulant properties. The result showed that 4,4'-bis(hydroxymethyl)azobenzene at the TGT loop position significantly photoregulated affinity to thrombin and blood clotting in human plasma, which provided a successful strategy to control blood clotting in human plasma and a further evidence for design of TBA analogues with pivotal positions of modifications.

9.
Org Biomol Chem ; 16(40): 7488-7497, 2018 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30272759

RESUMO

The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) was reported to participate in the development of a variety of tumors. BC15 is a DNA aptamer targeting hnRNP A1. Firstly, through sequence truncation, we identified 31-mer sequence BC15-31 as the core sequence of BC15 with a strong binding affinity and high selectivity to the hnRNP A1 protein. Isothymidine (isoT) modification was then applied for the structural optimization of BC15-31, systematic modification and biological evaluation were carried out. Incorporation of isoT in the 1,3 sites at the 5'-end of BC15-31 can significantly enhance the protein affinity. Chemical modifications close to the 3'-end can greatly improve the stability of the aptamer. Furthermore, BC15-31 modified with isoT at both the 5'-end and 3'-end displayed an additive effect with enhanced bioactivity and stability at the same time. Our study strategy on BC15 provides a useful guideline for chemical modification and optimization of the aptamer for further clinical application.

10.
Org Biomol Chem ; 16(38): 7029-7035, 2018 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30234864

RESUMO

Manually controlling siRNA activity is an essentially important way to spatiotemporally investigate gene expression and function. Owing to ease of operation and precise manipulation, light can be used for controlled regulation of siRNA-induced gene silencing. Here, we developed a series of caged siRNAs with folic acid modification at the 5' terminus of the antisense strand of the siRNA through a photolabile linker. The attachment of the folic acid moiety temporarily masked the corresponding siRNA activity. Upon illumination, these caged siRNAs were activated, and their gene silencing activities were restored. Based on this strategy, we successfully photomodulated gene expression of both an exogenous gene (for green fluorescent protein, GFP) and an endogenous gene (for mototic kinesin-5, Eg5) in cells.

11.
Opt Express ; 26(15): 19182-19198, 2018 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30114178

RESUMO

In this paper, we discuss the evolution of the Gaussian-shaped soliton clusters in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media, which is modeled by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The influences of three initial incident parameters (the initial transverse velocity, the initial position, the input power) on propagation dynamics of the soliton clusters are all discussed in detail. The results show that the intensity distribution, the trajectory, the center distance, and the angular velocity of the clusters can be controlled by adjusting the initial incident parameters. A series of analytical solutions on the propagation dynamics of the clusters are derived by borrowing ideas from classical physics. The results in this paper may have potential applications in the beam controlling and all-optical interconnection with the interacting characteristics of (2+1)-dimensional soliton clusters.

12.
Biomaterials ; 178: 147-157, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29933101

RESUMO

Lipid derivatives of nucleoside analogs have been highlighted for their potential for effective gene delivery. A novel class of nucleobase-lipids are rationally designed and readily synthesized, comprising thymine/cytosine, an ester/amide linker and an oleyl lipid. The diversity of four nucleobase-lipids termed DXBAs (DOTA, DNTA, DOCA and DNCA) is investigated. Besides, DNCA is demonstrated to be an effective neutral transfection material for nucleic acid delivery, which enbles to bind to oligonucleotides via H-bonding and π-π stacking with reduced toxicity in vitro and in vivo. Several kinds of nucleic acid drugs including aptamer, ssRNA, antisense oligonucleotide, and plasmid DNAs can be delivered by DXBAs, especially DNCA. In particular, G4-aptamer AS1411 encapsulated by DNCA exhibits cellular uptake enhancement, lysosome degradation reduction, cell apoptosis promotion, cell cycle phase alteration in vitro and duration prolongation in vivo, resulting in significant anti-proliferative activity. Our results demonstrate that DNCA is a promising transfection agent for G4-aptamers and exhibites bright application prospects in the permeation improvement of single-stranded oligonucleotides or plasmid DNAs.

13.
Oncol Lett ; 16(1): 632-642, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29928450

RESUMO

In the present study, the anti-tumor effects of combination treatment with an siRNA targeting B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine kinase (BRAF)V600E and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway inhibitors was investigated in melanoma cell lines harboring BRAFV600E. Human melanoma A375 and WM115 cells were treated with siRNA targeting to BRAF or BRAFV600E, combined with treatment with PI3K signaling pathway inhibitors. CCK-8 and EdU proliferation assays were performed to assess cell viability and proliferation, respectively, following treatment. In addition, flow cytometry analysis was performed to determine cell cycle distribution, and western blot analysis was performed to analyze the activity of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and PI3Ksignaling pathways following treatment. Targeting BRAFV600E using small interfering (si)RNA significantly decreased cell viability and DNA replication in tumor cell lines that harbor oncogenic BRAFV600E. Inhibition of BRAFV600E by siRNA combined with treatment with PI3K or mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway inhibitors significantly decreased cell viability and proliferation compared with siRNA or inhibitor treatment alone. Concomitant BRAFV600E and PI3K inhibition led to G1/S phase arrest in melanoma cells. However, melanoma cells in which oncogenic BRAFV600E is not highly expressed (WM115 cells) were not sensitive to BRAFV600E targeted therapy. The PI3K signaling pathway inhibitors were more effective in this cell line. The results from the present study provide an insight into the potential effectiveness of combination therapy and personalized cancer treatments.

14.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 10: 75-90, 2018 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29499958

RESUMO

Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been continuously explored for clinical applications. However, neither nanocarriers nor conjugates have been able to remove the obstacles. In this study, we employed a combined nanochemistry strategy to optimize its delivery dilemma, where different interactions and assembly modes were cooperatively introduced into the forming process of siRNA/lipids nanoplexes. In the nanoplexes, the 3',3″-bis-peptide-siRNA conjugate (pp-siRNA) and gemini-like cationic lipids (CLDs) were employed as dual regulators to improve their bio-behavior. We demonstrated that the "cicada pupa"-shaped nanoplexes of MT-pp-siRNA/CLDs (MT represented the mixed two-phase method) exhibited more compact multi-sandwich structure (∼25 layers), controllable size (∼150 nm), and lower zeta potential (∼22 mV) than other comparable nanoplexes and presented an increased siRNA protection and stability. Significantly, the nanoplex was internalized into melanoma cells by almost caveolae-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis (∼99.46%), and later reduced/avoided lysosomal degradation. Finally, the nanoplex facilitated the silencing of mRNA of the mutant B-Raf protein (down by ∼60%). In addition, pp-siRNA had a high intracellular sustainability, a significantly prolonged circulating time, and accumulation in tumor tissues in vivo. Our results have demonstrated that the combined approach can improve the intracellular fate of siRNA, which opens up novel avenues for efficient siRNA delivery.

15.
Opt Express ; 26(1): 265-272, 2018 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29328303

RESUMO

We propose and demonstrate an adjustable all-fiber comb filter with precisely controlled channel spacing by employing a tapered fiber in one arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) for the first time. Using fused taper technology to draw the fiber, we can precisely control the optical path difference between the two arms of the MZI, thus realizing a precisely controllable channel spacing. By rotating the polarization controller state in the other arm of the MZI, the transmission spectrum wavelength can be continuously tuned. Comb filters with controllable channel spacings from 0.2 to 3.0 nm have been numerically studied and achieved in experiment. Applications of a filter based on a multi-wavelength tunable all-fiber laser source are also demonstrated.

16.
Curr Protoc Hum Genet ; 96: 8.18.1-8.18.16, 2018 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29364520

RESUMO

Balanced chromosomal rearrangements (or balanced chromosome abnormalities, BCAs) are common chromosomal structural variants. Emerging studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) for detection of BCA-associated breakpoints, but the requirement for a priori knowledge of the rearranged regions from G-banded chromosome analysis limits its application. The protocols described here are based on low-pass WGS for detecting BCA events independent from chromosome analysis, and has been validated using genomic data from the 1000 Genomes Project. This approach adopts non-size-selected mate-pair library (3∼8 kb) with 2∼3 µg DNA as input, and requires only 30 million read-pairs (50 bp, equivalent to 1-fold base-coverage) for each sample. The complete procedure takes 13 days and the total cost is estimated to be less than $600 (USD) per sample. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17.
Med Res Rev ; 38(3): 829-869, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29315675

RESUMO

Gene-based therapy is one of essential therapeutic strategies for precision medicine through targeting specific genes in specific cells of target tissues. However, there still exist many problems that need to be solved, such as safety, stability, selectivity, delivery, as well as immunity. Currently, the key challenges of gene-based therapy for clinical potential applications are the safe and effective nucleic acid drugs as well as their safe and efficient gene delivery systems. In this review, we first focus on current nucleic acid drugs and their formulation in clinical trials and on the market, including antisense oligonucleotide, siRNA, aptamer, and plasmid nucleic acid drugs. Subsequently, we summarize different chemical modifications of nucleic acid drugs as well as their delivery systems for gene-based therapeutics in vivo based on nucleic acid chemistry and nanotechnology methods.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Terapia Genética , Ácidos Nucleicos/química , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Nanopartículas/química
18.
Genet Med ; 20(7): 697-707, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29095815

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recent studies demonstrate that whole-genome sequencing enables detection of cryptic rearrangements in apparently balanced chromosomal rearrangements (also known as balanced chromosomal abnormalities, BCAs) previously identified by conventional cytogenetic methods. We aimed to assess our analytical tool for detecting BCAs in the 1000 Genomes Project without knowing which bands were affected. METHODS: The 1000 Genomes Project provides an unprecedented integrated map of structural variants in phenotypically normal subjects, but there is no information on potential inclusion of subjects with apparent BCAs akin to those traditionally detected in diagnostic cytogenetics laboratories. We applied our analytical tool to 1,166 genomes from the 1000 Genomes Project with sufficient physical coverage (8.25-fold). RESULTS: With this approach, we detected four reciprocal balanced translocations and four inversions, ranging in size from 57.9 kb to 13.3 Mb, all of which were confirmed by cytogenetic methods and polymerase chain reaction studies. One of these DNAs has a subtle translocation that is not readily identified by chromosome analysis because of the similarity of the banding patterns and size of exchanged segments, and another results in disruption of all transcripts of an OMIM gene. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates the extension of utilizing low-pass whole-genome sequencing for unbiased detection of BCAs including translocations and inversions previously unknown in the 1000 Genomes Project.

19.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 9: 218-229, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29246300

RESUMO

In this study, chemical modification of 2'-deoxyinosine (2'-dI) and D-/L-isothymidine (D-/L-isoT) was performed on AS1411. They could promote the nucleotide-protein interaction by changing the local conformation. Twenty modified sequences were obtained, FCL-I and FCL-II showed the most noticeable activity improvement. They stabilized the G-quadruplex, remained highly resistant to serum degradation and specificity for nucleolin, further inhibited tumor cell growth, exhibited a stronger ability to influence the different phases of the tumor cell cycle, induced S-phase arrest, promoted the inhibition of DNA replication, and suppressed the unwound function of a large T antigen as powerful as AS1411. The microarray analysis and TaqMan PCR results showed that FCL-II can upregulate the expression of four breast-cancer-related, lowly expressed miRNAs and downregulate the expression of three breast-cancer-related, highly expressed miRNAs (>2.5-fold). FCL-II resulted in enhanced treatment effects greater than AS1411 in animal experiments (p < 0.01). The computational results further proved that FCL-II exhibits more structural advantages than AS1411 for binding to the target protein nucleolin, indicating its great potential in antitumor therapy.

20.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 9: 242-250, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29246303

RESUMO

Rapid progress has been made toward small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based therapy for human disorders, but rationally optimizing siRNAs for high specificity and potent silencing remains a challenge. In this study, we explored the effect of chemical modification at the cleavage site of siRNAs. We found that modifications at positions 9 and 10 markedly reduced the silencing potency of the unmodified strand of siRNAs but were well tolerated by the modified strand. Intriguingly, addition of the 2'-methoxyethyl (MOE) group at the cleavage site improved both the specificity and silencing activity of siRNAs by facilitating the oriented RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) loading of the modified strand. Furthermore, we combined MOE modifications at positions 9 and 10 of one strand together with 2'-O-methylation (OMe) at position 14 of the other strand and found a synergistic effect that improved the specificity of siRNAs. The surprisingly beneficial effect of the combined modification was validated using siRNA-targeting endogenous gene intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1). We found that the combined modifications eliminated its off-target effects. In conclusion, we established effective strategies to optimize siRNAs using site-specific MOE modifications. The findings may allow the creation of superior siRNAs for therapy in terms of activity and specificity.

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