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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 435, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949256

RESUMO

The aphid Schlechtendalia chinensis(Bell) induces horned galls on their primary host Rhus chinensis(Mill). These galls serve as closed habitats to support thousands of aphids per gall. Ecological parameters inside a gall are unknown. In this study, we showed that the microclimate inside galls was reltively stable, with nearly 100% humidity and 30-50 lux light regardless of outside environmental conditions. Gall-residing aphids produce waste gas and honeydew. A gall contained 26 organic volatiles inside with acetic acid as the largest component. Honeydew is rich in sugars and may provide nutrients for microbial growth. However, no evidence for pathogenic microorganisms was found inside a gall. The acidic environment in a gall may curb microbial growth. On the secondary host, the moss Plagiomnium maximoviczii (Lindb.) T. J. Kop., the microclimate is unstable and humidity fluctuated at 45~100%, while light ranged from 150 to 500 lux on different environmental conditions. Aphid alternated in two different habitats, the gall generation increased from a single fundatrix to thousands of aphids, however, survival rate of the moss generation is less 3%. A comparison of the environmental traits between gall and moss revealed that a stable habitat with dark and moist is advantageous for aphid reproduction.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5193, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914739

RESUMO

The galls induced by Schlechtendaia chinensis, Schlechtendaia peitan and Nurudea shiraii on Rhus chinensis and gall induced by Kaburagia rhusicola rhusicola on Rhus potaninii Maxim. are the largest plant galls and have great economic and medical values. We examined the structures of galls and their functional adaptation using various macro- and microscopic techniques. The highly adapted structures include a stalk at the base that is specialized for mechanical support and transport of nutrients for aphids, and a network of vascular bundles which accompanying schizogenous ducts arranged in a way to best support aphid feeding and population growth. There are many circular and semicircular xylems traces in an ensiform gall in cross sectional views, which would provide more nutrition and occupy less space. We infer the evolution trail was flower-like gall, horned gall, circular gall and ensiform gall. And the possible evolutionary trend of the gall was bigger chamber, more stable mechanical supporting, easier for exchanging substance and transporting nutrients.

3.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0200049, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30408037

RESUMO

Schlechtendalia chinensis, a gall-inducing aphid, has two host plants in its life cycle. Its wintering host is a moss (typically Plagiomnium maximoviczii) and its main host is Rhus chinensis (Sumac), on which it forms galls during the summer. This study investigated bacteria associated with S. chinensis living on the two different host plants by sequencing 16S rRNAs. A total of 183 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) from 50 genera were identified from aphids living on moss, whereas 182 OTUs from 49 genera were found from aphids living in Sumac galls. The most abundant bacterial genus among identified OTUs from aphids feeding on both hosts was Buchnera. Despite similar numbers of OTUs, the composition of bacterial taxa showed significant differences between aphids living on moss and those living on R. chinensis. Specifically, there were 12 OTUs from 5 genera (family) unique to aphids living on moss, and 11 OTUs from 4 genera (family) unique to aphids feeding in galls on R. chinensis. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) also revealed that bacteria from moss-residing aphids clustered differently from aphids collected from galls. Our results provide a foundation for future analyses on the roles of symbiotic bacteria in plant-aphid interactions in general, and how gall-specific symbionts differ in this respect.


Assuntos
Afídeos/microbiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bryopsida/parasitologia , Microbiota , Rhus/parasitologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Análise de Componente Principal , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
4.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 9841, 2018 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29959354

RESUMO

For galling aphids and their hosts, tannins are crucial for plant-insect interactions and for protecting the host plant from herbivory. Due to their peculiar chemical characteristics, tannins from plant galls have been used for medical and chemical purposes for more than 2000 years. In this study, hydrolyzable tannin concentrations in galls increased from gall initiation (38.34% on June 21) to maturation (74.79% on August 8), then decreased gradually thereafter (58.83% on October 12). We identified a total of 81 genes (named as GTS1-81) with putative roles in gallotannin biosynthesis and 22 genes (TS1-22) in condensed tannin biosynthesis. We determined the expression profiles of these genes by real-time PCR over the course of gall development. Multiple genes encoding 1-beta-D-glucosyl transferases were identified, which may play a vital role in gallotannin accumulation in plant galls. This study is the first attempt to examine the molecular basis for the regulation of tannin accumulation in insect gallnuts. The differentially expressed genes we identified may play important roles in both tannin biosynthesis and plant-insect interactions.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Rhus/metabolismo , Taninos/metabolismo , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Herbivoria , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Rhus/genética , Rhus/parasitologia , Transcriptoma
5.
Proteomics ; 18(9): e1700378, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29577599

RESUMO

Aphid saliva plays an essential role in the interaction between aphids and their host plants. Several aphid salivary proteins have been identified but none from galling aphids. Here the salivary proteins from the Chinese gall aphid are analyzed, Schlechtendalia chinensis, via an LC-MS/MS analysis. A total of 31 proteins are identified directly from saliva collected via an artificial diet, and 141 proteins are identified from extracts derived from dissected salivary glands. Among these identified proteins, 17 are found in both collected saliva and dissected salivary glands. In comparison with salivary proteins from ten other free-living Hemipterans, the most striking feature of the salivary protein from S. chinensis is the existence of high proportion of proteins with binding activity, including DNA-, protein-, ATP-, and iron-binding proteins. These proteins maybe involved in gall formation. These results provide a framework for future research to elucidate the molecular basis for gall induction by galling aphids.


Assuntos
Afídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Glândulas Salivares/metabolismo , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/metabolismo , Animais , China
6.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 6459, 2017 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28743930

RESUMO

Some insect galls are formed on sumac plants by certain aphid species and have been used for medicinal and chemical purposes as they are rich in tannins. The most prominent species among gall aphids in China is Schlechtendalia chinensis, which formed horn-shaped galls on the winged rachis of Rhus chinensis. S. chinensis has a complex life cycle, with a switch of hosts between R. chinensis and certain mosses, and a switch of sexual and asexual reproduction (cyclical parthenogenesis). We have cloned a full-length cDNA of the ß-tubulin gene from S. chinensis, using qPCR and RACE. This cDNA has 1606 base pairs with a 251 bp 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) and a 15 bp 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR). The gene encodes a protein with 376 amino acids residues. The expression levels of the ß-tubulin gene in S. chinensis were investigated among fundatrigeniae and overwintering larvae rearing under either natural conditions, or at 7.5 °C and 18 °C. No significant differences (P > 0.01) in gene expression levels were found in insects under these conditions. It is indicates that the ß-tubulin gene is highly conserved and then it may be used as a reference for further research in gene expression and reproduction determination in this important aphid.


Assuntos
Afídeos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Animais , Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Tubulina (Proteína)/química , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo
7.
Mol Biol Rep ; 40(10): 5943-52, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24078090

RESUMO

Lac insects are commercial scale insects with high economic value. The combined molecular phylogeny of 20 lac insect populations was generated using elongation factor 1 alpha, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene loci. The 20 populations of lac insects clustered into four distinct clades supported by high bootstrap values in maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Clade A at the base of the dendrogram comprises Kerria ruralis and two populations of Kerria lacca and is the branch with most primitive species. Clade B includes K. lacca, Kerria sindica and the three populations P, V and Z from India. They clustered with high bootstrap support and have evolved later than those in Clade A. The three unidentified populations P, V and Z exhibited a close relationship with K. lacca and are the same species. In Clade C, three populations of Kerria yunnanensis (Ym, Yj and Yl), population Ys from Thailand and population H from India clustered as a group, in which population H clustered with Ym with 100 % bootstrap in all three analysis methods. In Clade D, Kerria chinensis, Kerria pusana and three populations of K. yunnanensis clustered together with strong support, and are located in the upper branches of the dendrogram and are recently evolved taxa. The majority of populations from the Indian subcontinent clade are more closely related to outgroup taxa from the primitive family Pseudococcidae, as compared to the Eurasian populations. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the Indian subcontinent is the centre of original of lac insects which have translocated to the Eurasian Continent. Based on the theory of continental drift and existing fossil records, it is suggested that lac insect evolved from ancient scale insects during the late Cretaceous period when the Indian subcontinent drifted towards the Eurasian Continent. Changes in the global environment have impacted on the distribution and evolution of lac insects during the mid-Cretaceous and early Cenozoic. With increasing temperatures lac insects are likely to translocate to subtropical areas.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/genética , Genes Mitocondriais/genética , Hemípteros/genética , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Animais , Ásia , Sequência de Bases , Europa (Continente) , Geografia , Dados de Sequência Molecular
8.
J Econ Entomol ; 106(4): 1628-37, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24020275

RESUMO

The aphid Schlechtendalia chinensis (Bell) induces galls on its primary host, Rhus chinensis Mill. We studied temporal changes in gall and aphid clonal population size throughout the period of gall development. Gall-size changes occurred in four stages: a first slow growth period, a fast growth period, a second slow growth period, and a growth reduction period. Gall volume and surface area increased abruptly toward the end of July, peaking during October, in parallel with an increase in aphid clonal population size, from one individual to > 10,000 aphids per gall. Clear changes were seen in the clone dynamics of S. chinensis. Fundatrix began to produce first-generation apterous fundatrigenia during late May to early June. Second-generation apterous fundatrigenia appeared at the start of July. Alate fundatrigeniae with wing pads first appeared at the end of August, but accounted for < 1% of the individuals in the galls. Adult alate fundatrigeniae first appeared at the start of October. Abrupt changes in aphid density and crowding might trigger the induction of alate morphs in the galls. Of the eight gall properties that we recorded, gall volume was the most accurate measure of gall fitness.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/fisiologia , Rhus/fisiologia , Animais , China , Cadeia Alimentar , Hemípteros/genética , Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/genética , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/fisiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Rhus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano
9.
J Insect Sci ; 11: 106, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22221325

RESUMO

The taxonomic status of the Chinese lac insects Kerria yunnanensis (Ou and Hong) (Hemiptera: Kerridae) and K. ruralis (Wang, Yao, Teiu and Liang) were analyzed in this paper by comparing morphological, cellular, and molecular data. Cladistic analysis showed K. yunnanensis and K. ruralis to be distinct from other Kerria species such as K. lacca and K. chinensis. The karyotype of K. yunnanensis was 3A and the chromosome structure was K = 6 m + 2 sm + 10T, while in K. ruralis the karyotype was 3B and the chromosome structure was K = 8 m + 10 T. Kerria ruralis and K. yunnanensis had the closest relationship among species in the genus as they had the most similar karyotype homology. Based on the karyotype analysis, K. sindica and K. lacca formed a sister group with K. ruralis and K. yunnanensis. Kerria pusana and K. nepalensis were clustered as a sister branch, indicating the close relationship of these taxa. The karyotype of K. chinensis was however, different from the other six species and formed a separate branch. RAPD analysis also showed that K. yunnanensis and K. ruralis had distinct differences from other species of Kerria, although they did not form sister taxa. Molecular analysis based on the EF1α gene using ML, MP, and Mr. Bayes' methods indicated that seven species of lac insects cluster in two major groups. In group 1, K. sindica and K. lacca formed a sister clade and were primitive members of the genus. In group 2, K. chinensis formed the earliest diverging branch followed by K. ruralis. Kerria yunnanensis was the next to diverge followed by the cluster containing K. pusana and K. nepalensis. Hybridization testing showed that crosses neither between K. yunnanensis and K. sindica, nor between K. yunnanensis and K. lacca could produce first generation larvae. This was indicative that K. yunnanensis had a distant genetic relationship from the other species. Morphological, cellular, molecular, and hybridization results confirmed the independent status of the Chinese endemic species K. yunnanensis and K. ruralis. Kerria ruralis was genetically closely related to K. yunnanensis, but relatively far from K. lacca. The main commercial species in China was K. yunnanensis, while in Thailand it was K. chinensis. The commercial species in Myanmar included K. nepalensis and K. pusana, the latter being most widely used in lac production.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/classificação , Animais , China , Hemípteros/anatomia & histologia , Hemípteros/genética , Hibridização Genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Filogenia , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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