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1.
Mol Cell ; 81(16): 3323-3338.e14, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352207

RESUMO

The emerging "epitranscriptomics" field is providing insights into the biological and pathological roles of different RNA modifications. The RNA methyltransferase METTL1 catalyzes N7-methylguanosine (m7G) modification of tRNAs. Here we find METTL1 is frequently amplified and overexpressed in cancers and is associated with poor patient survival. METTL1 depletion causes decreased abundance of m7G-modified tRNAs and altered cell cycle and inhibits oncogenicity. Conversely, METTL1 overexpression induces oncogenic cell transformation and cancer. Mechanistically, we find increased abundance of m7G-modified tRNAs, in particular Arg-TCT-4-1, and increased translation of mRNAs, including cell cycle regulators that are enriched in the corresponding AGA codon. Accordingly, Arg-TCT expression is elevated in many tumor types and is associated with patient survival, and strikingly, overexpression of this individual tRNA induces oncogenic transformation. Thus, METTL1-mediated tRNA modification drives oncogenic transformation through a remodeling of the mRNA "translatome" to increase expression of growth-promoting proteins and represents a promising anti-cancer target.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Metiltransferases/genética , Neoplasias/genética , tRNA Metiltransferases/genética , Guanosina/análogos & derivados , Guanosina/genética , Humanos , Metilação , Neoplasias/patologia , Oncogenes/genética , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA de Transferência/genética
2.
Sci Adv ; 7(27)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193418

RESUMO

The global outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) necessitates the rapid development of new therapies against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Here, we present the identification of 200 approved drugs, appropriate for repurposing against COVID-19. We constructed a SARS-CoV-2-induced protein network, based on disease signatures defined by COVID-19 multiomics datasets, and cross-examined these pathways against approved drugs. This analysis identified 200 drugs predicted to target SARS-CoV-2-induced pathways, 40 of which are already in COVID-19 clinical trials, testifying to the validity of the approach. Using artificial neural network analysis, we classified these 200 drugs into nine distinct pathways, within two overarching mechanisms of action (MoAs): viral replication (126) and immune response (74). Two drugs (proguanil and sulfasalazine) implicated in viral replication were shown to inhibit replication in cell assays. This unbiased and validated analysis opens new avenues for the rapid repurposing of approved drugs into clinical trials.


Assuntos
Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Antivirais/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Proguanil/farmacologia , Proguanil/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Sulfassalazina/farmacologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Nature ; 593(7860): 597-601, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902106

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is an abundant internal RNA modification1,2 that is catalysed predominantly by the METTL3-METTL14 methyltransferase complex3,4. The m6A methyltransferase METTL3 has been linked to the initiation and maintenance of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), but the potential of therapeutic applications targeting this enzyme remains unknown5-7. Here we present the identification and characterization of STM2457, a highly potent and selective first-in-class catalytic inhibitor of METTL3, and a crystal structure of STM2457 in complex with METTL3-METTL14. Treatment of tumours with STM2457 leads to reduced AML growth and an increase in differentiation and apoptosis. These cellular effects are accompanied by selective reduction of m6A levels on known leukaemogenic mRNAs and a decrease in their expression consistent with a translational defect. We demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of METTL3 in vivo leads to impaired engraftment and prolonged survival in various mouse models of AML, specifically targeting key stem cell subpopulations of AML. Collectively, these results reveal the inhibition of METTL3 as a potential therapeutic strategy against AML, and provide proof of concept that the targeting of RNA-modifying enzymes represents a promising avenue for anticancer therapy.

4.
Curr Opin Hematol ; 28(2): 80-85, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337619

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In recent years, the N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification of RNA has been shown to play an important role in the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and the maintenance of leukemic stem cells (LSCs). In this review we summarise the recent findings in the field of epitranscriptomics related to m6A and its relevance in AML. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have focused on the role of m6A regulators in the development of AML and their potential as translational targets. The writer Methyltransferase Like 3 and its binding partner Methyltransferase Like 14, as well as the reader YTH domain-containing family protein 2, were shown to be vital for LSC survival, and their loss has detrimental effects on AML cells. Similar observations were made with the demethylases fat mass and obesity-associated protein and AlkB homologue 5 RNA demethylase. Of importance, loss of any of these genes has little to no effect on normal hemopoietic stem cells, suggesting therapeutic potential. SUMMARY: The field of epitranscriptomics is still in its infancy and the importance of m6A and other RNA-modifications in AML will only come into sharper focus. The development of therapeutics targeting RNA-modifying enzymes may open up new avenues for treatment of such malignancies.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Epigênese Genética , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Epigenômica/métodos , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Metilação , RNA/genética
5.
Sci Rep ; 6: 31968, 2016 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27555369

RESUMO

Progressive macular hypomelanosis (PMH) is a common skin disorder that causes hypopigmentation in a variety of skin types. Although the underlying aetiology of this condition is unclear, there is circumstantial evidence that links the skin bacterium Propionibacterium acnes to the condition. We now describe the first detailed population genetic analysis of P. acnes isolates recovered from paired lesional and non-lesional skin of PMH patients. Our results demonstrate a strong statistical association between strains from the type III phylogenetic lineage and PMH lesions (P = 0.0019), but not those representing other phylogroups, including those associated with acne (type IA1). We also demonstrate, based on in silico 16S rDNA analysis, that PMH isolates previously recovered from patients in Europe are also consistent with the type III lineage. Using comparative genome analysis, we identified multiple genomic regions that are specific for, or absent from, type III strains compared to other phylogroups. In the former case, these include open reading frames with putative functions in metabolism, transport and transcriptional regulation, as well as predicted proteins of unknown function. Further study of these genomic elements, along with transcriptional and functional analyses, may help to explain why type III strains are associated with PMH.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/diagnóstico , Hipopigmentação/diagnóstico , Propionibacterium acnes/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Bases , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Genoma Bacteriano , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos , Hipopigmentação/microbiologia , Masculino , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Filogenia , Propionibacterium acnes/classificação , Propionibacterium acnes/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Pele/patologia , Adulto Jovem
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