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1.
Obes Rev ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048787

RESUMO

Weight loss maintenance is a major challenge for obesity treatment. Weight control registries can be useful in identifying psychological and behavioural factors that could contribute to better long-term success. The objective of this study is to describe the existing weight control registries and their participants and identify correlates of weight loss maintenance. A comprehensive search of peer-reviewed articles published until November 2018 was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus. Studies that reported results from weight control registries were considered. Fifty-two articles, corresponding to five registries (the United States, Portugal, Germany, Finland, and Greece), were included. Registries differed in inclusion criteria and procedures. Of 51 identified weight loss and maintenance strategies, grouped in 14 domains of the Oxford Food and Activity Behaviors taxonomy, the following were the most frequently reported: having healthy foods available at home, regular breakfast intake, increasing vegetable consumption, decreasing sugary and fatty foods, limiting certain foods, and reducing fat in meals. Increased physical activity was the most consistent positive correlate of weight loss maintenance. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic review of information about successful weight loss maintenance obtained from weight control registries. Key common influential characteristics of success were identified, which can inform future prospective studies and weight management initiatives.

2.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 161: 108031, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004695

RESUMO

AIMS: To examine the association between dietary anti-inflammatory index (D-AII) and metabolic syndrome (MetS)prevalence, 10-year (2002-2012) diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia incidence and 10-year transition from healthy (absence of all MetS traits, excluding waist circumference) to unhealthy metabolic status. METHODS: In 2001-2002, n = 1514 men and n = 1528 women (>18 years old) in Athens, Greece, free of cardiovascular disease were recruited. MetS was defined according to the revised NCEP ATP III (2005) or the IDF criteria or the harmonized criteria. The validated D-AII was calculated using a standardized procedure (range 10-77). RESULTS: Inverse associations were observed between D-AII and transition from healthy to unhealthy metabolic status (Odds Ratio (OR)3rd vs. 1st tertile = 0.88 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI)(0.73, 0.98)) and diabetes (OR3rd vs. 1st tertile = 0.55, 95%CI(0.29, 0.77)). In women, D-AII was inversely associated with transition from healthy to unhealthy metabolic status (OR3rd vs. 1st tertile = 0.55, 95%CI(0.26, 0.90), diabetes (OR3rd vs. 1st tertile = 0.41, 95%CI(0.18, 0.64) and hypertension (OR3rd vs. 1st tertile = 0.75, 95%CI(0.20, 0.95), yet only with diabetes incidence in men (OR3rd vs. 1st tertile = 0.62, 95%CI(0.38, 0.93). CONCLUSIONS: Diet with high anti-inflammatory load seems an effective preventive measure to retain a metabolically benign status, principally in terms of glycemic control.

3.
J Affect Disord ; 265: 389-394, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some questions regarding the benefits of the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern (MDP) are still unanswered, especially in non-Mediterranean areas. As such, this study intends to evaluate the association between the adherence to the MDP with the presence of Common Mental Disorders (CMD) in Brazilian older adults, adopting two different concepts of MDP. METHODS: The sample included 545 elders from 2015 Health Survey of São Paulo City (cross-sectional population-based study). CMD were identified through the Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20). Data from two 24-hour dietary recall were used to construct two concepts of MDP according to the Mediterranean-diet score (MDS): Traditional MDP (included only foods with characteristics of the original MDP) and Brazilian-MDP (included foods with non-Mediterranean characteristics). The analyses included two different models (crude model and adjusted model for potential confounders) of logistic regression. RESULTS: Moderate and high adherence to Traditional MDP were associated with a lower prevalence of CMD (OR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.35-0.98 and OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.18-0.96, respectively), after adjustment for sociodemographic, lifestyle and health status variables. In turn, the presence of CMD was not significantly associated with any level of adherence to the Brazilian-MDP. LIMITATIONS: due to the cross-sectional feature of the study, we cannot determine a cause-effect relationship; some covariates were self-reported; the results cannot apply to the elderly from other regions. CONCLUSION: Moderate and high adherence to the traditional MDP was found to reduce the risk of mental disorders in Brazilian elderly. Nevertheless, an increased intake of non-Mediterranean food components can limit this effect.

4.
J Phys Act Health ; : 1-5, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although plenty of evidence indicates that weight loss maintainers are highly physically active, studies focusing on the sex-specific differences in activity levels between maintainers and regainers are scarce. The authors aimed to investigate sex-specific differences in activity patterns in a cohort of Mediterranean maintainers and regainers. METHODS: Sample includes 756 participants of the MedWeight registry (60.5% women), aged 18-65 years, who lost ≥10% of their initial weight, and either maintained their loss for ≥12 months or regained it. Participants completed a series of questionnaires, including demographics and weight history. Activity levels were evaluated with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short version. RESULTS: Maintainers of both sexes were, in total, more active than their same-sex regainers. When specific activities were considered, women maintainers spent more time walking than regainers (Padjusted = .02), whereas men maintainers spent more time in vigorous activities (Padjusted = .001) and walking than regainers (Padjusted = .001). Modest increments in activity of sex-relevant intensity were associated with increased odds for maintenance. CONCLUSIONS: Maintainers attained a more active lifestyle than their same-sex regainers, involving more walking for both sexes and more vigorous activities for men. The detected differences, according to activity intensity, support that activity patterns associated with successful weight loss are distinguishable between sexes.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913961

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Timely recognition of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is essential in optimizing prevention and treatment for Alzheimer disease. Because of the paucity of data on MCI epidemiology in Greece and the variability of worldwide published results, we investigated the prevalence and determinants of MCI in the elderly population in Greece. METHODS: As part of the Hellenic Epidemiological Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet (HELIAD), we randomly selected 1960 individuals 65 years and older to undergo full neurological and neuropsychological assessment by a multidisciplinary team. MCI was diagnosed according to the Petersen criteria. RESULTS: The age-standardized and gender-standardized prevalence of MCI in people aged 65 years and older in Greece is 13.11%. The amnestic and multidomain MCI subtypes are more common than their nonamnestic and single-domain counterparts, respectively. Almost two thirds of cases are because of suspected Alzheimer disease. Every additional year of age increases the odds of prevalent MCI by 7.4%, every additional year of education decreases the odds of MCI by 6.3%, and apolipoprotein E (APOE-ε4) carriage increases the odds of MCI by 57.9%. CONCLUSIONS: MCI prevalence in the elderly population in Greece is on par with previously reported rates. Prospective studies with robust methodology will enhance our understanding of the dementia continuum.

6.
Sports Med ; 50(2): 403-413, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Besides physical activity as a target for dementia prevention, sedentary behaviour is hypothesized to be a potential target in its own right. The rising number of persons with dementia and lack of any effective treatment highlight the urgency to better understand these modifiable risk factors. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether higher levels of sedentary behaviour are associated with reduced global cognitive functioning and slower cognitive decline in older persons without dementia. METHODS: We used five population cohorts from Greece, Australia, USA, Japan, and Singapore (HELIAD, PATH, SALSA, SGS, and SLAS2) from the Cohort Studies of Memory in an International Consortium. In a coordinated analysis, we assessed the relationship between sedentary behaviour and global cognitive function with the use of linear mixed growth model analysis (mean follow-up range of 2.0-8.1 years). RESULTS: Baseline datasets combined 10,450 older adults without dementia with a mean age range between cohorts of 66.7-75.1 years. After adjusting for multiple covariates, no cross-sectional association between sedentary behaviour and cognition was found in four studies. One association was detected where more sedentary behaviour was cross-sectionally linked to higher cognition levels (SLAS2, B = 0.118 (0.075; 0.160), P < 0.001). Longitudinally, there were no associations between baseline sedentary behaviour and cognitive decline (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these results do not suggest an association between total sedentary time and lower global cognition in older persons without dementia at baseline or over time. We hypothesize that specific types of sedentary behaviour may differentially influence cognition which should be investigated further. For now, it is, however, too early to establish undifferentiated sedentary time as a potential effective target for minimizing cognitive decline in older adults without dementia.

7.
Public Health Nutr ; 23(3): 439-445, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439074

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to explore the associations between social life and adherence to a healthy dietary pattern, the Mediterranean diet (MD), in a population-representative cohort of older people. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Adherence to the MD was evaluated by an a priori score; tertiles of the score, indicating low, medium and high adherence, were used in the analyses. Social life was assessed by a questionnaire evaluating participation in leisure-time activities and the number of social contacts; primary occupation was also recorded and job characteristics were further explored. SETTING: Community-dwelling older adults. PARTICIPANTS: Adults from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet (HELIAD) study (n 1933; age range 65-99 years). RESULTS: Each unit increase in the number of social contacts/month and in the frequency score of intellectual, social and physical activities was associated with a 1·6, 6·8, 4·8 and 13·7 % increase in the likelihood of a participant being in the high MD adherence group, respectively. The analysis by age group revealed that younger elderly participants had a 1·4, 8·4 and 11·3 % higher likelihood to be in the high adherence group for each unit increase in the number of social contacts/month and in the frequency score of engagement in intellectual and physical activities, respectively. Similar associations were found for older elderly participants with high compared with low MD adherence, except for the intellectual activities. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that high MD adherence is associated with good social life, suggesting a clustering of health-promoting lifestyle factors in older adults.

8.
Nutrition ; 71: 110640, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of older adults is increasing rapidly. Malnutrition is a major problem in this age group, which may adversely affect health and quality of life. Several physiological, socioeconomic, and neuropsychological factors can lead to malnutrition. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of community-dwelling older adults, and explore the associations of malnutrition risk with physiological, socioeconomic, and neuropsychological characteristics. METHODS: This study is part of the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet study, a cross-sectional observational study in Greece, and study participants were 1831 urban-dwelling elderly individuals (mean age: 73.1 ± 5.9 y; 40.8% men). Risk for malnutrition was assessed with the Determine Your Nutritional Health checklist. Data on age, sex, level of education, marital status, depression, cognitive performance, body mass index, total energy intake, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet were recorded. Correlations and multivariate analyses were performed between these variables and risk for malnutrition. RESULTS: The estimated prevalence of moderate and high nutritional risks was 34.8% and 29.4%, respectively. Risk for malnutrition was associated with marital status (unmarried), increased body mass index, male sex, lower level of education, lower cognitive performance, and lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional screening should be performed frequently in all community-dwelling older adults. Health experts should perform nutritional screening in all community-dwelling older adults as part of secondary prevention, and nutrition counselling and support should be offered in those at risk for malnutrition.

9.
Aging Ment Health ; 24(1): 137-147, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621435

RESUMO

Background: Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) refers to self-evaluations of impairment in cognitive functions in the absence of objective deficits. Frailty is a multidimensional syndrome that results in increased vulnerability. Both terms are associated with cognitive decline and increased incidence of dementia. The aim of this study was to explore potential associations between SCD and frailty in elderly individuals.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we included 1454 participants aged 65 and older from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet (HELIAD) study. Individuals with a diagnosis of dementia, mild cognitive impairment, severe anxiety or depression were excluded. SCD were assessed with eighteen questions categorized into cognitive domains. Frailty was assessed according to the Fried definition, the Frailty Index (FI) and the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI). Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association.Results: Lower educational level, female sex and low socioeconomic status were found to be associated with frailty and more SCD complaints. Having two or more types of SCD complaints was significantly associated with frailty according to all frailty definitions. All types of SCD complaints were significantly associated with the FI and the TFI. In addition, SCD complaints concerning problems requiring mathematical reasoning had the strongest association with frailty.Conclusion: We found that SCD complaints may be a valid indicator of frailty in cognitively unimpaired older people. We believe that SCD may provide a crucial proactive assessment to detect frailty and to implement programs that will help maintain good health and quality of life during aging.

10.
Front Nutr ; 6: 161, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681787

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this observational study was to examine the incidence of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) in a 246-km continuous ultra-marathon. Methods: Over 2 years, 63 male finishers of the annual Spartathlon ultra-marathon foot race from Athens to Sparta, Greece were included in the data analysis. A blood sample was drawn from an antecubital vein the day before the race as well as within 15 min post-race and analyzed for sodium concentration. During the second year of data collection, blood was also drawn at the 93-km checkpoint (n = 29). Height and weight were measured pre and post-race. Results: Mean race time of all subjects was 33 ± 3 h with a range of 23.5 and 36.0 h. Of the 63 finishers recruited, nine began the race with values indicative of mild hyponatremia. Seven runners were classified as hyponatremic at the 93-km checkpoint, three of whom had sodium levels of severe hyponatremia. After the race, 41 total finishers (65%) developed either mild (n = 27, 43%) or severe hyponatremia (n = 14, 22%). Mean change in bodyweight percentage and serum sodium from pre-race to post-race was -3.6 ± 2.7% (-2.5 ± 1.9 kg) and -6.6 ± 5.6 mmol·L-1, respectively. Pre-race serum sodium level was not a significant predictor of post-race serum sodium levels (ß = 0.08, R 2 = 0.07, P = 0.698), however, there was a significant negative association between change in bodyweight percentage and post-race serum sodium concentration (ß = -0.79, R 2 = 0.29, P = 0.011). Conclusion: The incidence of EAH of 52 and 65%, when excluding or including these individuals with pre-race hyponatremia, was the highest reported in current literature.

11.
Br J Nutr ; 122(12): 1368-1376, 2019 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735186

RESUMO

Malnutrition risk screening in cirrhotic patients is crucial, as poor nutritional status negatively affects disease prognosis and survival. Given that a variety of malnutrition screening tools is usually used in routine clinical practice, the effectiveness of eight screening tools in detecting malnutrition risk in cirrhotic patients was sought. A total of 170 patients (57·1 % male, 59·4 (sd 10·5) years, 50·6 % decompensated ones) with cirrhosis of various aetiologies were enrolled. Nutritional screening was performed using the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, Nutritional Risk Index, Malnutrition Screening Tool, Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS-2002), Birmingham Nutritional Risk Score, Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, Royal Free Hospital Nutritional Prioritizing Tool (RFH-NPT) and Liver Disease Undernutrition Screening Tool (LDUST). Malnutrition diagnosis was defined using the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA). Data on 1-year survival were available for 145 patients. The prevalence of malnutrition risk varied according to the screening tools used, with a range of 13·5-54·1 %. RFH-NPT and LDUST were the most accurate in detecting malnutrition (AUC = 0·885 and 0·892, respectively) with a high sensitivity (97·4 and 94·9 %, respectively) and fair specificity (73·3 and 58 %, respectively). Malnutrition according to SGA was an independent prognostic factor of within 1-year mortality (relative risk was 2·17 (95 % CI 1·0, 4·7), P = 0·049) after adjustment for sex, age, disease aetiology and Model for End-stage Liver Disease score, whereas nutrition risk according to RFH-NPT, LDUST and NRS-2002 showed no association. RFH-NPT and LDUST were the only screening tools that proved to be accurate in detecting malnutrition in cirrhotic patients.

12.
Obes Res Clin Pract ; 13(5): 469-477, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594698

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association of predicted lean and fat mass on 10-year first and recurrent CVD incidence separately for men and women. METHODS: Two prospective studies, ATTICA (2002-2012, n=3042 subjects free-of-CVD, n=1514 men (46±13 years) and n=1528 women (45±14 years)) and GREECS (2004-2014, n=2172 subjects with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), n=1649 men (65±13 years) and n=523 women (62±11 years)) were used. Lean mass index (LMI) and fat mass index (FMI) were created through total body lean and fat mass (indirectly calculated through population formulas based on body weight, height and waist circumference) divided by height squared. Follow-up was performed in n=2020 of ATTICA (n=317 first CVD events) and in n=2172 patients of GREECS (n=811 recurrent CVD events). RESULTS: In ATTICA study, CVD rate from 1st to 3rd FMI tertile was 9.4%, 16.1% and 19.9% while in GREECS 36.2%, 37.0%, 38.3%. The LMI-related rates were 17.1%, 15.0% and 11.9% vs. 38.8%, 35.8% and 36.7%. Multiadjusted analysis revealed U-shape trend between LMI and CVD recurrence with 2nd LMI tertile having the best prognosis; this observation was more evident in women. In apparently healthy subjects, LMI-cardioprotective association was revealed only in 3rd tertile (HR=0.91 95%CI (0.74, 0.95)); this was more evident in men. The FMI aggravating association (3rd tertile) was retained significant only in healthy women and ACS men. CONCLUSION: This work expands previous findings regarding body composition and cardiac health, implying that the association of lean and fat mass on long-term CVD incidence varies according to sex and prevention stage.

13.
Age Ageing ; 48(6): 917-921, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504089

RESUMO

Apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele has been associated with a number of age-related diseases but previous studies failed to identify any link with Frailty syndrome. The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between APOE ε4 allele and frailty syndrome. We operationalised Frailty according to the Fried definition, and we determined the APOE genotype in 1234 participants of the hellenic longitudinal investigation of ageing and diet study. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between APOE ε4 allele and frailty. Models were adjusted for age, education, sex, presence (or absence) of hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infraction, coronary disease, congestive heart failure, arrhythmia or other heart disease, family history of dementia and current smoking. The same models were performed after exclusion of patients with dementia and participants with APOE ε2/ε4 genotype. In the fully adjusted model, carriers of APOE ε4 allele had 2.753 higher odds of frailty relative to non-carriers. After trichotomization of APOE genotype, APOE ε4 heterozygotes had 2.675 higher risk of frailty compared to non-carriers while exclusion of patients with dementia or/and APOE ε2/ε4 genotype did not alter the association. The APOE ε4 allele may be a significant biomarker of frailty with diagnostic and prognostic capacity.

14.
Environ Res ; 177: 108632, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from studies to date, regarding the role of chronic pesticide exposure on cognitive function remain contradictory. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between self-reported pesticide exposure and cognitive function. METHODS: Data from a population-based cohort study of older adults (HEllenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet) in Greece was used. Pesticide exposure classification was based on 1) living in areas that were being sprayed; 2) application of spray insecticides/pesticides in their gardens; and 3) occupational application of sprays. Associations between z-scores of cognitive performance and self-reported pesticide exposure were examined with linear regression analyses. Adjusted models were applied, for all analyses. RESULTS: Non-demented individuals who reported that they had been living in areas near sprayed fields, had poorer neuropsychological performance, compared to those who had never lived in such areas. Sub-analyses revealed poorer performance in language, executive and visual-spatial functioning, and attention. These associations remained after a sensitivity analysis excluding subjects with mild cognitive impairment. CONCLUSION: Self-reported exposure to pesticides was negatively associated with cognitive performance.


Assuntos
Cognição , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Feminino , Jardins , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos
15.
Ann Hum Biol ; 46(5): 393-399, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446794

RESUMO

Background: Pre-school years are important for adopting health behaviours; however, today's children seem to be overweight, present low physical activity (PA) levels and exceed screen time (ST) recommendations.Aim: To examine (a) time trends in PA in Greek pre-school children, (b) the associations among PA, body mass index (BMI) and ST and (c) potential PA differences between boys and girls.Subjects and methods: Data from five cross-sectional cohorts (2005 [n = 252]; 2008 [n = 212]; 2011 [n = 187]; 2014 [n = 194]; 2017 [n = 128]) were compared. PA was assessed using Omron HJ-720IT-E2 pedometers, whereas ST was reported by participants' parents. A 4-way ANOVA was applied on children's average week step counts.Results: A significant association (F = 828.90, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.638) between ST and PA was revealed, with children that had ST < 1 hour/day presenting the higher PA levels and being the only ones that met PA recommendations (11,500 steps/day). Statistically significant PA differences, though of no practical importance, were found among cohorts. There were no significant PA differences between boys and girls or among BMI categories. Nevertheless, obesity prevalence was found to exist at alarming levels (24.5% in 2008-41.4% in 2017), and a large percentage of children (23.6% in 2008-63.3% in 2017) presented excessive ST (> 2 hours/day).Conclusion: Effective interventions aiming at reducing ST and enhancing PA seem imperative if children's health is to be safeguarded.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Tempo de Tela , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/etiologia , Estações do Ano , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Mov Disord ; 34(9): 1345-1353, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification and characterization of Parkinson's disease (PD) in its prodromal stage is crucial. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between motor function and the probability of prodromal PD in a community-dwelling older population. METHODS: We used data from a population-based cohort of older adults (HELIAD study). Subjective motor function was evaluated with a 12-item motor symptoms questionnaire and objective motor function indirectly with a physical activity questionnaire and two gait speed tests. The probability of prodromal PD was calculated according to the Movement Disorder Society research criteria for n = 1731 without PD. Regression multiadjusted models were used to investigate the associations between each motor measure and prodromal PD probability. RESULTS: For each unit increase in motor symptoms score and for each kcal/kg/day lower energy expenditure (corresponding to 20 minutes of light walking/day for a 75-kg man) there was a 27% and 3% higher probability for prodromal PD, respectively (P < 0.001). Having at least one subjective motor symptom increased the odds of having possible/probable prodromal PD (n = 49; P < 0.05). Including subjective and indirect motor variables in the same model showed that both (symptoms and physical activity) contributed significantly to the model (P < 0.01). Excluding subthreshold parkinsonism from the calculation showed that gait speed less than 0.8 m/s was also associated with a higher prodromal PD probability score (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Subjective motor symptoms as well as simple objective motor measures of physical activity or gait speed are associated with a higher probability of prodromal PD in older adults. These data may serve to enable the early identification of prodromal PD cohorts, particularly if they are confirmed in longitudinal studies. © 2019 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

17.
PLoS Med ; 16(7): e1002853, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With no effective treatments for cognitive decline or dementia, improving the evidence base for modifiable risk factors is a research priority. This study investigated associations between risk factors and late-life cognitive decline on a global scale, including comparisons between ethno-regional groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We harmonized longitudinal data from 20 population-based cohorts from 15 countries over 5 continents, including 48,522 individuals (58.4% women) aged 54-105 (mean = 72.7) years and without dementia at baseline. Studies had 2-15 years of follow-up. The risk factors investigated were age, sex, education, alcohol consumption, anxiety, apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE*4) status, atrial fibrillation, blood pressure and pulse pressure, body mass index, cardiovascular disease, depression, diabetes, self-rated health, high cholesterol, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, physical activity, smoking, and history of stroke. Associations with risk factors were determined for a global cognitive composite outcome (memory, language, processing speed, and executive functioning tests) and Mini-Mental State Examination score. Individual participant data meta-analyses of multivariable linear mixed model results pooled across cohorts revealed that for at least 1 cognitive outcome, age (B = -0.1, SE = 0.01), APOE*4 carriage (B = -0.31, SE = 0.11), depression (B = -0.11, SE = 0.06), diabetes (B = -0.23, SE = 0.10), current smoking (B = -0.20, SE = 0.08), and history of stroke (B = -0.22, SE = 0.09) were independently associated with poorer cognitive performance (p < 0.05 for all), and higher levels of education (B = 0.12, SE = 0.02) and vigorous physical activity (B = 0.17, SE = 0.06) were associated with better performance (p < 0.01 for both). Age (B = -0.07, SE = 0.01), APOE*4 carriage (B = -0.41, SE = 0.18), and diabetes (B = -0.18, SE = 0.10) were independently associated with faster cognitive decline (p < 0.05 for all). Different effects between Asian people and white people included stronger associations for Asian people between ever smoking and poorer cognition (group by risk factor interaction: B = -0.24, SE = 0.12), and between diabetes and cognitive decline (B = -0.66, SE = 0.27; p < 0.05 for both). Limitations of our study include a loss or distortion of risk factor data with harmonization, and not investigating factors at midlife. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that education, smoking, physical activity, diabetes, and stroke are all modifiable factors associated with cognitive decline. If these factors are determined to be causal, controlling them could minimize worldwide levels of cognitive decline. However, any global prevention strategy may need to consider ethno-regional differences.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Exercício , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia
18.
Angiology ; 70(9): 819-829, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185726

RESUMO

The association between lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) and 10-year first fatal/nonfatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in apparently healthy men and women was evaluated. The ATTICA prospective study was conducted during 2001-2012 and included n = 1514 men and n = 1528 women (age >18 years) from the greater Athens area, Greece. Follow-up CVD assessment (2011-2012) was achieved in n = 2020 participants (n = 317 cases); baseline Lp(a) was measured in n = 1890 participants. The recommended threshold of 50 mg/dL was used to define abnormal Lp(a) status. Ten-year CVD-event rate was 14% and 24% in participants with Lp(a) <50 and Lp(a) ≥50 mg/dL, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that participants with Lp(a) ≥50 mg/dL versus Lp(a) <50 mg/dL had about 2 times higher CVD risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11, 4.28). The sex-based analysis revealed that the independent Lp(a) effect was retained only in men (HR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.19, 2.56); in women, significance was lost after adjusting for lipid markers. Sensitivity analyses revealed that Lp(a) increased CVD risk only in case of abnormal high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, and triglycerides as well as low adherence to Mediterranean diet. Certain patient characteristics may be relevant when considering Lp(a) as a therapeutic or risk-prediction target.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Lipoproteína(a)/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto , Idoso , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Neurology ; 92(19): e2261-e2272, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944240

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Given the limited information on cognitive function before Parkinson disease (PD) clinical onset in the general population, we sought to assess prodromal PD (pPD) probability and relate it to detailed cognitive performance in a community cohort. METHODS: In a population-based cohort of 1,629 dementia-free and PD-free participants ≥65 years of age in Greece, we assessed probability of pPD according to the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society's criteria. Clinical cognitive diagnoses (cognitively unimpaired, mild cognitive impairment [MCI], dementia) considering neuropsychological testing and functional status were assigned in consensus conferences. Cognitive performance in 5 cognitive domains was assessed by a detailed neuropsychological battery and summarized in the form of z scores. We investigated associations between pPD probability (and its individual constituents) and cognitive outcomes. RESULTS: The median probability of pPD was 1.81% (0.2%-96.7%). Participants with MCI had higher probability of pPD compared to those with normal cognition (p < 0.001). Higher probability of pPD was related to lower performance in all cognitive domains (memory, language, executive, attention, and visuospatial function) (p < 0.001). Lower cognitive performance was further associated with certain nonmotor markers of pPD, such as daytime somnolence, depression, urinary dysfunction, constipation, and subthreshold parkinsonism (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Higher probability of pPD was associated with lower cognitive performance in all domains and higher probability of MCI. This may reflect a widespread pathologic process although future studies are warranted to infer causality. These results suggest to clinicians that they should assess cognition early, and to researchers that they should further look into the possible mechanisms that may underlie this observation.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Sintomas Prodrômicos
20.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 34(6): 846-854, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We studied the prevalence of subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and its determinants in a sample of 1456 cognitively normal Greek adults ≥65 years old. METHODS/DESIGN: Subjects were evaluated by a multidisciplinary team on their neurological, medical, neuropsychological, and lifestyle profile to reach consensus diagnoses. We investigated various types of SCD, including single-question, general memory decline, specific subjective memory decline based on a list of questions and three types of subjective naming, orientation, and calculation decline. RESULTS: In a single general question about memory decline, 28.0% responded positively. The percentage of our sample that reported at least one complaint related to subjective memory decline was 76.6%. Naming difficulties were also fairly common (26.0%), while specific deficits in orientation (5.4%) and calculations/currency handling (2.6%) were rare. The majority (84.2%) of the population reported subjective deficits in at least one cognitive domain. Genetic predisposition to dementia increased the odds for general memory decline by more than 1.7 times. For each one-unit reduction in the neuropsychological composite score (a mean of memory, executive, language, visuospatial, and attention-speed composite scores), the odds for decline in orientation increased by 40.3%. Depression/anxiety and increased cerebrovascular risk were risk factors for almost all SCD types. CONCLUSIONS: SCD regarding memory is more frequent than non-memory decline in the cognitively normal Greek elderly population. Genetic predisposition to dementia, lower cognitive performance, affective symptoms, and increased cerebrovascular risk are associated with prevalent SCD. Further prospective research is needed to improve understanding of the evolution of SCD over time.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/epidemiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
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