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1.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(1): 194-202, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100456

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation is a promising treatment strategy for spinal cord injury, but immunological rejection and possible tumor formation limit its application. The therapeutic effects of MSCs mainly depend on their release of soluble paracrine factors. Exosomes are essential for the secretion of these paracrine effectors. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes (BMSC-EXOs) can be substituted for BMSCs in cell transplantation. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, a rat model of T10 spinal cord injury was established using the impact method. Then, 30 minutes and 1 day after spinal cord injury, the rats were administered 200 µL exosomes via the tail vein (200 µg/mL; approximately 1 × 106 BMSCs). Treatment with BMSC-EXOs greatly reduced neuronal cell death, improved myelin arrangement and reduced myelin loss, increased pericyte/endothelial cell coverage on the vascular wall, decreased blood-spinal cord barrier leakage, reduced caspase 1 expression, inhibited interleukin-1ß release, and accelerated locomotor functional recovery in rats with spinal cord injury. In the cell culture experiment, pericytes were treated with interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α. Then, Lipofectamine 3000 was used to deliver lipopolysaccharide into the cells, and the cells were co-incubated with adenosine triphosphate to simulate injury in vitro. Pre-treatment with BMSC-EXOs for 8 hours greatly reduced pericyte pyroptosis and increased pericyte survival rate. These findings suggest that BMSC-EXOs may protect pericytes by inhibiting pyroptosis and by improving blood-spinal cord barrier integrity, thereby promoting the survival of neurons and the extension of nerve fibers, and ultimately improving motor function in rats with spinal cord injury. All protocols were conducted with the approval of the Animal Ethics Committee of Zhengzhou University on March 16, 2019.

2.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(2): 433-439, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269220

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate protein expression by antagonizing the translation of mRNAs and are effective regulators of normal nervous system development, function, and disease. MicroRNA-29b (miR-29b) plays a broad and critical role in brain homeostasis. In this study, we tested the function of miR-29b in animal and cell models by inhibiting miR-29b expression. Mouse models of middle cerebral artery occlusion were established using the modified Zea-Longa suture method. Prior to modeling, 50 nmol/kg miR-29b antagomir was injected via the tail vein. MiR-29b expression was found to be abnormally increased in ischemic brain tissue. The inhibition of miR-29b expression decreased the neurological function score and reduced the cerebral infarction volume and cell apoptosis. In addition, the inhibition of miR-29b significantly decreased the malondialdehyde level, increased superoxide dismutase activity, and Bcl-2 expression, and inhibited Bax and Caspase3 expression. PC12 cells were treated with glutamate for 12 hours to establish in vitro cell models of ischemic stroke and then treated with the miR-29 antagomir for 48 hours. The results revealed that miR-29b inhibition in PC12 cells increased Bcl-2 expression and inhibited cell apoptosis and oxidative damage. These findings suggest that the inhibition of miR-29b inhibits oxidative stress and cell apoptosis in ischemic stroke, producing therapeutic effects in ischemic stroke. This study was approved by the Laboratory Animal Care and Use Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University (approval No. 201709276S) on September 27, 2017.

3.
J Urol ; 207(1): 172-182, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455861

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most common male sexual dysfunctions. Local anesthetics (LAs) and dapoxetine are frequently used to treat PE; however, previous studies show variable efficacy. This study aims to determine the efficacy of LAs and dapoxetine using a novel classification based on neurophysiological tests. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This multicenter cohort study enrolled adult men (568) with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) ≤2 minutes. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to the results of neurophysiological tests and assigned different treatments for 12 weeks: 1) penile sensory hyperexcitability type (Sens)-LAs; 2) penile sympathetic hyperexcitability type (Symp)-dapoxetine; 3) mixed type (Mixed)-both LAs and dapoxetine; 4) normal type (Norm)-both LAs and dapoxetine. Self-estimated IELT and patient-reported outcomes were recorded. RESULTS: The total percentage of men achieving IELT >2 minutes and ≥5 minutes after treatment were 82.7% and 76.7%, respectively. For men with abnormal results of neurophysiological tests, 401 (86.6%) had improved IELT >2 minutes after the 12-week treatment course, in which 375 (81.0%) achieved IELT ≥5 minutes. All patient-reported outcome measures improved in each group after 12 weeks of treatment, with greater improvements among those with abnormal neurophysiological tests. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of LAs and dapoxetine increased in PE patients with abnormal results of neurophysiological tests. This novel classification of PE using neurophysiological tests could help guide and improve efficacy of PE therapies.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Neurológico , Ejaculação Precoce/diagnóstico , Ejaculação Precoce/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 27(10): 904-908, 2021 10 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914269

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the correlation of the sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) level with semen parameters and pregnancy outcomes of artificial insemination of the husband (AIH) in the cycle of intrauterine insemination (IUI). METHODS: We collected the clinical data on 777 cases of IUI, including female clinical indicators, male semen parameters, sperm DFI and pregnancy outcomes. According to the DFI level, we divided the patients into three groups: DFI < 15%, 15% ≤ DFI < 30% and DFI ≥ 30%. RESULTS: The sperm DFI level was significantly elevated with the increased age of the males (P = 0.002) and closely related to the total number of motile sperm (P = 0.002) and total sperm motility (P = 0.000) before treatment, as well as to sperm concentration (P = 0.000), total sperm motility (P = 0.001) and total number of progressively motile sperm (P = 0.000) after density gradient centrifugation. The rate of clinical pregnancy was decreased in the DFI ≥ 30% group. There were no statistically significant differences between sperm DFI and the rates of clinical pregnancy and abortion. CONCLUSIONS: Male age significantly affects the sperm DFI level. Sperm DFI is closely related to sperm motility and total number of progressively motile sperm, but not to the rates of clinical pregnancy and abortion in patients undergoing IUI. IUI can be used as an effective method of assisted reproduction for male infertility./.


Assuntos
Resultado da Gravidez , Sêmen , Fragmentação do DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Inseminação Artificial Homóloga , Masculino , Gravidez , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides
5.
Aging Cell ; : e13508, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751998

RESUMO

An increasing number of men are fathering children at an older age than in the past. While advanced maternal age has long been recognized as a risk factor for adverse reproductive outcomes, the influence of paternal age on reproduction is incompletely comprehended. Herein, we found that miR-125a-5p was upregulated in the sperm of aging males and was related to inferior sperm DNA integrity as an adverse predictor. Moreover, we demonstrated that miR-125a-5p suppressed mitochondrial function and increased cellular DNA damage in GC2 cells. We also found that miR-125a-5p perturbed embryo development at specific morula/blastocyst stages. Mechanistically, we confirmed that miR-125a-5p disturbed the mitochondrial function by targeting Rbm38 and activating the p53 damage response pathway, and induced a developmental delay in a p21-dependent manner. Our study revealed an important role of miR-125a-5p in sperm function and early embryo development of aging males, and provided a fresh view to comprehend the aging process in sperm.

6.
Neuroepidemiology ; 55(6): 460-472, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite their great disease burden, there have been few studies on the epidemiology of central nervous system tumours (CNSTs) in China. We used the latest data updated by GBD to analyse the trends of incidence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for CNSTs in China versus globally. METHODS: Epidemiological data on CNSTs were extracted from GBD 2019. We used Joinpoint regression analysis to calculate the magnitude and direction of the trends and the age-period-cohort method to analyse the age, period, and cohort effects of the trend. RESULTS: From 1990 to 2019, the 106.52% increase in Chinese incident cases was higher than the global increase (94.35%). The 67.32% increase in cancer deaths and 16.03% increase in DALYs were lower than the global increases (cancer death: 76.36%; DALYs: 40.06%). The age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) in China were higher than the global ASIRs, and the increase in China was higher than that globally. Although the age-standardized mortality rates and age-standardized DALY rates in China were higher, their increases in China were less than those globally. Both in China and globally, the number and incidence, mortality, and DALYs by age group showed a bimodal distribution (younger than 5 years and older), and the peak in the older age group showed a backwards trend. The proportion of incident cases, cancer deaths, and DALYs also increased in the older age group. In the age-period-cohort model, the local drifts in the older age group were above zero. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of CNSTs is very serious in China, and we should pay attention to the key populations, early diagnosis technology, improvements in medical technology, and ways to reduce medical costs. We believe our results could help policymakers allocate resources efficiently to reduce the burden of CNSTs.

7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 723409, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34712227

RESUMO

Seminal plasma (SP), particularly SP exosomes (sExos), alters with age and can affect female mouse uterine immune microenvironment. However, the relationship between fertility decline in reproductively older males, and SP and sExos age-related changes, which may compromise the uterine immune microenvironment, remains unclear. The present study demonstrated that the implantation rate of female mice treated with SP from reproductively older male mice (aged-SP group) was lower than that of those treated with SP from younger male mice (young-SP group). RNA-sequencing analysis revealed altered levels of dendritic cell (DC)-related cytokines and chemokines in the uteri of the former group compared with those of the latter group. In vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated a weaker inhibitory effect of aged SP on DC maturation than of young SP upon stimulation. After isolating and characterizing sExos from young and advanced-age male mice, we discovered that insemination of a subset of the aged-SP group with sExos from young male mice partially recovered the implantation rate decline. Additional in vivo and in vitro experiments revealed that sExos extracted from age male mice exerted a similar effect on DC maturation as SP of aged mice, indicating an age-related sExos inhibitory effect. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that age-related alterations of sExos may be partially responsible for lower implantation rates in the aged-SP group compared with those in the young-SP group, which were mediated by uterine immunomodulation. These findings provide new insights for clinical seminal adjuvant therapy.

8.
Front Genet ; 12: 706661, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34712264

RESUMO

Background: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are now under discussion as novel promising biomarkers for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). However, the role of genomic instability-associated lncRNA signatures in tumors has not been thoroughly uncovered. The purpose of our study is to probe the role of genomic instability-derived lncRNA signature (GILncSig) and to further investigate the mechanism of genomic instability-mediated ccRCC progression. Methods: The transcriptome data and somatic mutation profiles of ccRCC as well as clinical characteristics used in this study were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas database and Gene Expression Omnibus database. Lasso regression analysis was performed to construct the GILncSig. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed to elucidate the biological functions and relative pathways. CIBERSORT and EPIC algorithm were applied to calculate the proportion of immune cells in ccRCC. ESTIMATE algorithm was utilized to compute the immune microenvironment scores. Results: In total, 148 novel genomic instability-derived lncRNAs in ccRCC were identified. Immediately, on the basis of univariate cox analysis and lasso analysis, a GILncSig was appraised, through which the patients were allocated into High-Risk and Low-Risk groups with significantly different characteristics and prognoses. In addition, we confirmed that the somatic mutation count, tumor mutation burden, and the expression of UBQLN4, which were ascertainably associated with genomic instability, were significantly correlated with the GILncSig, indicating its reliability as a measurement of the genomic instability. Furthermore, the efficiency of GILncSig in prognostic aspects was better than the single mutation gene in ccRCC. In addition, MNX1-AS1 was defined to be a potential biomarker characterized by strong correlation with clinical features. Moreover, GSEA results indicated that the IL6/JAK/STAT3/SIGNALING pathway could be considered as a potential mechanism of genomic instability to influence tumor progression. Besides, the immune microenvironment showed significant differences between the GS-like group and the GU-like group, which was specifically manifested as high expression of CTLA4, GITR, TNFSF14, and regulatory T cells (Tregs) as well as low expression of endothelial cells (ECs) in the GU-like group. Finally, the prognostic value and clinical relevance of GILncSig were verified in GEO datasets and other urinary tumors in TCGA dataset. Conclusion: In conclusion, our study provided a new perspective for the role of lncRNAs in genomic instability and revealed that genomic instability may mediate tumor progression by affecting immunity. Besides, MNX1-AS1 played critical roles in promoting the progression of ccRCC, which may be a potential therapeutic target. What is more, the immune atlas of genomic instability was characterized by high expression of CTLA4, GITR, TNFSF14, and Tregs, and low expression of ECs.

9.
J Med Chem ; 64(20): 14930-14941, 2021 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636234

RESUMO

The discovery of reldesemtiv, a second-generation fast skeletal muscle troponin activator (FSTA) that increases force production at submaximal stimulation frequencies, is reported. Property-based optimization of high throughput screening hit 1 led to compounds with improved free exposure and in vivo muscle activation potency compared to the first-generation FSTA, tirasemtiv. Reldesemtiv demonstrated increased muscle force generation in a phase 1 clinical trial and is currently being evaluated in clinical trials for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

11.
Mol Hum Reprod ; 27(11)2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524457

RESUMO

Endometrial receptivity is crucial for successful embryo implantation. It is regulated by multiple factors which include ovarian steroid hormones and the immune microenvironment among others. Nod-Like Receptor Pyrins-3 (NLRP3) is a key intracellular pattern-recognition receptor and a critical component of the inflammasome, which plays an essential role in the development of inflammation and of immune responses. However, the physiological functions of NLRP3 in the endometrium remain largely unclear. This study investigated the physiological and pathological significance of NLRP3 in human endometrial epithelial cell during the implantation window. NLRP3 is highly expressed during the mid-proliferative and mid-secretory phases of the human endometrium and transcriptionally up-regulated by estradiol (E2) through estrogen receptor ß (ERß). In addition, NLRP3 promotes embryo implantation and enhances epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of Ishikawa (IK) cells via both inflammasome-dependent and inflammasome-independent pathways, which might provide a novel insight into endometrial receptivity and embryo implantation. Our findings suggest that NLRP3, which is transcriptionally regulated by E2, induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition of endometrial epithelial cells and promotes embryo adhesion.

12.
Inorg Chem ; 60(16): 12591-12601, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337951

RESUMO

We report the construction of a porphyrin and imidazolium-ionic liquid (IL)-decorated and quinoline-linked covalent organic framework (COF, abbreviated as COF-P1-1) via a three-component one-pot Povarov reaction. After post-synthetic metallization of COF-P1-1 with Co(II) ions, the metallized COF-PI-2 is generated. COF-PI-2 is chemically stable and displays highly selective CO2 adsorption and good visible-light-induced photothermal conversion ability (ΔT = 26 °C). Furthermore, the coexistence of Co(II)-porphyrin and imidazolium-IL within COF-PI-2 has guaranteed its highly efficient activity for CO2 cycloaddition. Of note, the needed thermal energy for the reactions is derived from the photothermal conversion of the Co(II)-porphyrin COF upon visible-light irradiation. More importantly, the CO2 cycloaddition herein is a "window ledge" reaction, and it can proceed smoothly upon natural sunlight irradiation. In addition, a scaled-up CO2 cycloaddition can be readily achieved using a COF-PI-2@chitosan aerogel-based fixed-bed model reactor. Our research provides a new avenue for COF-based greenhouse gas disposal in an eco-friendly and energy- and source-saving way.

13.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 22(8): 664-681, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414701

RESUMO

Copy number variations (CNVs), which can affect the role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), are important genetic changes seen in some malignant tumors. We analyzed lncRNAs with CNV to explore the relationship between lncRNAs and prognosis in bladder cancer (BLCA). Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels, DNA methylation, and DNA copy number data of 408 BLCA patients were subjected to integrative bioinformatics analysis. Cluster analysis was performed to obtain different subtypes and differently expressed lncRNAs and coding genes. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was performed to identify the co-expression gene and lncRNA modules. CNV-associated lncRNA data and their influence on cancer prognosis were assessed with Kaplan-Meier survival curve. Multi-omics integration analysis revealed five prognostic lncRNAs with CNV, namely NR2F1-AS1, LINC01138, THUMPD3-AS1, LOC101928489,and TMEM147-AS1,and a risk-score signature related to overall survival in BLCA was identified. Moreover, validated results in another independent Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) dataset, GSE31684, were consistent with these results. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis revealed that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, focal adhesion pathway, and Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway were enriched in a high-risk score pattern, suggesting that imbalance in these pathways is closely related to tumor development. We revealed the prognosis-related lncRNAs by analyzing the expression profiles of lncRNAs and CNVs, which can be used as prognostic biomarkers for BLCA.

14.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 708322, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34434931

RESUMO

Preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A) is widely used to select embryos having normal ploidy for transfer, but they require an invasive embryo biopsy procedure that may cause harm to the embryos and offspring. Therefore, a non-invasive approach to select embryos with normal ploidy for implantation is highly demanded. Non-invasive chromosome screening (NICS) methods have been proposed and applied in clinical practices, but a large-scale validation versus invasive preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) and the whole embryo ploidy has not yet been reported. In this study, by using the whole embryo as a gold standard, we validated NICS assay in a total of 265 donated human embryos and compared its performance with conventional trophectoderm (TE) biopsy PGT. The NICS assay showed promising performance, which is comparable to PGT-TE [sensitivity: 87.36 versus 89.66%; specificity: 80.28 versus 82.39%; negative predictive value (NPV): 91.2 versus 92.86%; positive predictive value (PPV): 73.08 versus 75.73%]. Additionally, NICS provides a scoring system for prioritizing embryo: embryos can be categorized into three groups with euploid prediction probabilities of 90.0, 27.8, and 72.2% for group euploid (A), aneuploid (B), and multiple abnormal chromosomes (MAC) (C), respectively. When an addition of TE assay is provided as a secondary validation, the accuracy significantly increases from 72.2 to 84.3% for group B and from 27.8 to 83.3% for group C. Our results suggest that NICS is a good rule in assay for identifying chromosomal normal embryos for transfer and might serve as a non-invasive approach for prioritizing embryos instead of preventing transfer of aneuploid and MAC embryos. It will help to ensure the safety of offspring and efficient utilization of embryos.

15.
EMBO Rep ; 22(8): e51978, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232545

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy is linked to various developmental brain disorders. Infants who are asymptomatic at birth might have postnatal neurocognitive complications. However, animal models recapitulating these neurocognitive phenotypes are lacking, and the circuit mechanism underlying behavioral abnormalities is unknown. Here, we show that ZIKV infection during mouse pregnancy induces maternal immune activation (MIA) and leads to autistic-like behaviors including repetitive self-grooming and impaired social memory in offspring. In the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), ZIKV-affected offspring mice exhibit excitation and inhibition imbalance and increased cortical activity. This could be explained by dysregulation of inhibitory neurons and synapses, and elevated neural activity input from mPFC-projecting ventral hippocampus (vHIP) neurons. We find structure alterations in the synaptic connections and pattern of vHIP innervation of mPFC neurons, leading to hyperconnectivity of the vHIP-mPFC pathway. Decreasing the activity of mPFC-projecting vHIP neurons with a chemogenetic strategy rescues social memory deficits in ZIKV offspring mice. Our studies reveal a hyperconnectivity of vHIP to mPFC projection driving social memory deficits in mice exposed to maternal inflammation by ZIKV.


Assuntos
Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Feminino , Hipocampo , Inflamação , Camundongos , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Gravidez
16.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol ; 137: 106037, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in the progression and recurrence of tumors and immunotherapy outcomes. The use of immune checkpoint blockers to improve the overall survival rate of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma has yielded inconsistent outcomes. We examined the tumor microenvironment-related genes for their clinical significance and biological functions in hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: Bioinformatic analysis was performed to screen the differentially expressed genes and to identify the core gene of the tumor microenvironment in hepatocellular carcinoma. The expression of KIF18B in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines and tumor samples was determined using western blotting, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. The malignancy-promoting ability of KIF18B was evaluated using Cell Counting Kit-8, colony formation, cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and xenograft tumor assays. RESULTS: KIF18B was identified as one of the core genes in the hepatocellular carcinoma microenvironment and was significantly associated with infiltrating immune cell subtypes and tumor cell stemness. Upregulation of KIF18B was associated with poor clinicopathological characteristics and poor patient outcomes; its downregulation inhibited the proliferation ability of hepatocellular carcinoma cells, which was consistent with the findings of in vivo experiments. Knockdown of KIF18B inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition which reduced the migration and invasion abilities of tumor cells. A pulmonary metastasis model confirmed that the downregulation of KIF18B inhibited hepatocellular carcinoma cell metastasis in vivo. CONCLUSION: KIF18B could be a useful marker for determining the treatment outcomes of immune checkpoint blockers in the context of hepatocellular carcinoma.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
17.
Adv Mater ; 33(30): e2101190, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096117

RESUMO

The growing enthusiasm for cancer immunotherapies and adoptive cell therapies has prompted increasing interest in biomaterials development mimicking natural antigen-presenting cells (APCs) for T-cell expansion. In contrast to conventional bottom-up approaches aimed at layering synthetic substrates with T-cell activation cues, transformation of live dendritic cells (DCs) into artificial APCs (aAPCs) is demonstrated herein using a facile and minimally disruptive hydrogelation technique. Through direct intracellular permeation of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG-DA) hydrogel monomer and UV-activated radical polymerization, intracellular hydrogelation is rapidly accomplished on DCs with minimal influence on cellular morphology and surface antigen display, yielding highly robust and modular cell-gel hybrid constructs amenable to peptide antigen exchange, storable by freezing and lyophilization, and functionalizable with cytokine-releasing carriers for T-cell modulation. The DC-derived aAPCs are shown to induce prolonged T-cell expansion and improve anticancer efficacy of adoptive T-cell therapy in mice compared to nonexpanded control T cells, and the gelation technique is further demonstrated to stabilize primary DCs derived from human donors. The work presents a versatile approach for generating a new class of cell-mimicking biomaterials and opens new venues for immunological interrogation and immunoengineering.

18.
Cell Death Differ ; 28(12): 3316-3328, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175897

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynecological malignancy worldwide. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying EC progression are still largely unknown, and chemotherapeutic options for EC patients are currently very limited. In this study, we found that histone methyltransferase EZH2 and DNA methyltransferase DNMT3B were upregulated in EC samples from patients, and promoted EC cell proliferation as evidenced by assays of cell viability, cell cycle, colony formation. Mechanistically, we found that EZH2 promoted EC cell proliferation by epigenetically repressing TCF3, a direct transcriptional activator of CCKN1A (p21WAF1/Cip1), in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we found that DNMT3B specifically methylated the TCF3 promoter, repressing TCF3 expression and accelerating EC cell proliferation independently of EZH2. Importantly, elevated expression of EZH2 or DNMT3B in EC patients inversely correlated with expression of TCF3 and p21, and was associated with shorter overall survival. We show that combined treatment with GSK126 and 5-Aza-2d treatment wit synergistically inhibited methyltransferase activity of EZH2 and DNMT3B, resulting in a profound block of EC cell proliferation as well as EC tumor progression in cell line-derived xenograft (CDX) and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models. These findings reveal that TCF3 functions as a tumor suppressor epigenetically silenced by EZH2 and DNMT3B in EC, and support the notion that targeting the EZH2/DNMT3B/TCF3/p21 axis may be a novel and effective therapeutic strategy for treatment of EC.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181558

RESUMO

Sepsis is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in modern intensive care units. Accurate sepsis prediction is of critical importance to save lives and reduce medical costs. The rapid advancements in sensing and information technology facilitate the effective monitoring of patients health conditions, generating a wealth of medical data, and provide an unprecedented opportunity for data-driven diagnosis of sepsis. However, real-world medical data are often complexly structured with a high level of uncertainty (e.g., missing values, imbalanced data). Realizing the full data potential depends on developing effective analytical models. In this paper, we propose a novel predictive framework with Multi-Branching Temporal Convolutional Network (MB-TCN) to model the complexly structured medical data for robust prediction of sepsis. The MB-TCN framework not only efficiently handles the missing value and imbalanced data issues but also effectively captures the temporal pattern and heterogeneous variable interactions. We evaluate the performance of the proposed MB-TCN in predicting sepsis using real-world medical data from PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2019. Experimental results show that MB-TCN outperforms existing methods that are commonly used in current practice.

20.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(6)2021 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021560

RESUMO

Understanding the functional consequence of noncoding variants is of great interest. Though genome-wide association studies or quantitative trait locus analyses have identified variants associated with traits or molecular phenotypes, most of them are located in the noncoding regions, making the identification of causal variants a particular challenge. Existing computational approaches developed for prioritizing noncoding variants produce inconsistent and even conflicting results. To address these challenges, we propose a novel statistical learning framework, which directly integrates the precomputed functional scores from representative scoring methods. It will maximize the usage of integrated methods by automatically learning the relative contribution of each method and produce an ensemble score as the final prediction. The framework consists of two modes. The first 'context-free' mode is trained using curated causal regulatory variants from a wide range of context and is applicable to predict regulatory variants of unknown and diverse context. The second 'context-dependent' mode further improves the prediction when the training and testing variants are from the same context. By evaluating the framework via both simulation and empirical studies, we demonstrate that it outperforms integrated scoring methods and the ensemble score successfully prioritizes experimentally validated regulatory variants in multiple risk loci.

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