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1.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; : ATVBAHA121316664, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Arterial stiffness is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. MGP (matrix Gla protein) is implicated in vascular calcification in animal models, and circulating levels of the uncarboxylated, inactive form of MGP (ucMGP) are associated with cardiovascular disease-related and all-cause mortality in human studies. However, the role of MGP in arterial stiffness is uncertain. Approach and Results: We examined the association of ucMGP levels with vascular calcification, arterial stiffness including carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), and incident heart failure in community-dwelling adults from the Framingham Heart Study. To further investigate the link between MGP and arterial stiffness, we compared aortic PWV in age- and sex-matched young (4-month-old) and aged (10-month-old) wild-type and Mgp+/- mice. Among 7066 adults, we observed significant associations between higher levels of ucMGP and measures of arterial stiffness, including higher PWV and pulse pressure. Longitudinal analyses demonstrated an association between higher ucMGP levels and future increases in systolic blood pressure and incident heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Aortic PWV was increased in older, but not young, female Mgp+/- mice compared with wild-type mice, and this augmentation in PWV was associated with increased aortic elastin fiber fragmentation and collagen accumulation. CONCLUSIONS: This translational study demonstrates an association between ucMGP levels and arterial stiffness and future heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in a large observational study, findings that are substantiated by experimental studies showing that mice with Mgp heterozygosity develop arterial stiffness. Taken together, these complementary study designs suggest a potential role of therapeutically targeting MGP in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

2.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(3): 54-57, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594956

RESUMO

Summary: What is already known about this topic? China has a significant population of left-behind children, and their health and living environments remain a major public health challenge. Children under 6 years old are especially vulnerable to poor health knowledge and behaviors of their caregivers. What is added by this report? The prevalence of stunting, being underweight, and often sick were 13%, 3.4%, and 5%, respectively. Only 53.9% of left-behind children could eat meat often, and 59.5% could control their intake of sugary drinks. The proportions of children who had a safe home environment, a safe play environment, and no family violence were 22.5%, 75.3%, and 45.9%, respectively. The percentages of caregivers who ensured that they rarely left their children alone and were always in their sight are 76.1% and 92.4%, respectively. What are the implications for public health practice? The implementation of early home visits is necessary to improve the physical health and safety of the living environment of left-behind children. Primary health workers should pay attention to improving the health knowledge and behaviors of caregivers.

3.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic which may compromise the management of vascular emergencies. An uncompromised treatment for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) during such a health crisis represents a challenge. This study aimed to demonstrate the treatment outcomes of rAAA and the perioperative prevention of cross-infection under the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In cases of rAAA during the pandemic, a perioperative workflow was applied to expedite coronavirus testing and avoid pre-operative delay, combined with a strategy for preventing cross-infection. Data of rAAA treated in 11 vascular centers between January-March 2020 collected retrospectively were compared to the corresponding period in 2018 and 2019. RESULTS: Eight, 12, and 14 rAAA patients were treated in 11 centers in January-March 2018, 2019, and 2020, respectively. An increased portion were treated at local hospitals with a comparable outcome compared with large centers in Guangzhou. With EVAR-first strategy, 85.7% patients with rAAA in 2020 underwent endovascular repair, similar to that in 2018 and 2019. The surgical outcomes during the pandemic were not inferior to that in 2018 and 2019. The average length of ICU stay was 1.8 ± 3.4 days in 2020, tending to be shorter than that in 2018 and 2019, whereas the length of hospital stay was similar among 3 years. The in-hospital mortality of 2018, 2019, and 2020 was 37.5%, 25.0%, and 14.3%, respectively. Three patients undergoing emergent surgeries were suspected of COVID-19, though turned out to be negative after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience for emergency management of rAAA and infection prevention for healthcare providers is effective in optimizing emergent surgical outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic.

4.
Transl Androl Urol ; 10(8): 3358-3367, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34532260

RESUMO

Background: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of aildenafil citrate in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) in Chinese population. Methods: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, double-cycle crossover trial was conducted in three medical centers. Male patients with mild to moderate ED were randomized into two groups and received either aildenafil citrate or placebos, followed by a crossover administration after a 7-day washout. The primary outcome was the duration of penile rigidity over 60% measured by RigiScan® Plus. Main secondary outcomes were the duration of penile rigidity over 80% and erectile hardness score (EHS). Results: A total of 60 patients with mild to moderate ED were enrolled in the study and 57 of them completed the trial (30 in the aildenafil group and 27 in the placebo group). The median duration of penile tip rigidity over 60% was 4.25 (0.00, 19.00) min in the aildenafil group, as compared with 0.50 (0.00, 2.75) min in the placebo group (P<0.001). The median duration of penile base rigidity over 60% was 3.25 (0.00, 12.50) min in the aildenafil group, as compared with 0.00 (0.00, 2.50) min in the placebo group (P<0.001). The duration of penile base rigidity over 80% was significantly increased in the aildenafil group versus the placebo group (P=0.002). The EHS was significantly improved in the aildenafil group (P<0.001). No severe adverse events associated with aildenafil citrate occurred in both groups. Conclusions: These results suggested that aildenafil citrate was efficient and well-tolerated in the treatment of Chinese men with mild to moderate ED. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR1900026025.

5.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113386, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526282

RESUMO

Despite extensive studies into international trade and CO2 pollution, a panel of only top exporting economies was not considered. As the current research is an endeavor to address the gap by exploring the impact of economic complexity index (ECI) and renewable energy electricity (RELC) on consumption-based carbon emissions (CCO2) in the presences of exports, imports, and gross domestic product (GDP) in the top exporting countries from 1990 to 2019. The results confirm a relationship between consumption-based carbon emissions, economic complexity index, renewable energy electricity, exports, imports, and economic growth in both the short-run and long run. Empirical evidence for cross-sectional auto-regressive distributed lags (CS-ARDL) estimates, confirms that economic complexity index imports and GDP are positively associated and have significant adverse short-run and long-run impacts on consumption-based carbon emission. Whereas, export and renewable energy electricity significantly reduce carbon emissions. To achieve carbon neutrality target, policymakers should make economic complexity reforms, import green products, and promote investments in sustainable sources.


Assuntos
Carbono , Comércio , Dióxido de Carbono , Estudos Transversais , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Eletricidade , Internacionalidade , Energia Renovável
6.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469519

RESUMO

AIMS: Recent studies suggest an association between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer incidence/mortality, but the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these associations are unclear. We aimed to examine biomarkers previously associated with CVD and study their association with incident cancer and cancer-related death in a prospective cohort study. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used a proteomic platform to measure 71 cardiovascular biomarkers among 5,032 participants in the Framingham Heart Study who were free of cancer at baseline. We used multivariable-adjusted Cox models to examine the association of circulating protein biomarkers with risk of cancer incidence and mortality. To account for multiple testing, we set a 2-sided false discovery rate (FDR Q-value) <0.05.Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF15; also known as macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 [MIC1])) was associated with increased risk of incident cancer (hazards ratio [HR] per 1 standard deviation increment 1.31, 95% CI 1.17-1.47), incident gastrointestinal cancer (HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.37-2.50), incident colorectal cancer (HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.29-2.91) and cancer-related death (HR 2.15, 95% CI 1.72-2.70). Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SFD1) showed an inverse association with cancer-related death (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.65-0.86). Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) showed an association with colorectal cancer (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.20-2.00), and granulin (GRN) was associated with hematologic cancer (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.30-1.99). Other circulating biomarkers of inflammation, immune activation, metabolism, and fibrosis showed suggestive associations with future cancer diagnosis. CONCLUSION: We observed several significant associations between circulating CVD biomarkers and cancer, supporting the idea that shared biological pathways underlie both diseases. Further investigations of specific mechanisms that lead to both CVD and cancer are warranted. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: In our prospective cohort study, baseline levels of biomarkers previously associated with CVD were found to be associated with future development of cancer. In particular, GDF15 was associated with increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, including gastrointestinal and colorectal cancers; SDF1 was inversely associated with cancer-related death, and FGF23 and GRN were associated with increased risk of colorectal and hematologic cancers, respectively. Other biomarkers of inflammation, immune activation, metabolism, and fibrosis showed suggestive associations. These results suggest potential shared biological pathways that underlie both development of cancer and CVD.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(18): e021245, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482708

RESUMO

Background Biological mechanisms underlying the association of a healthy diet with chronic diseases remain unclear. Targeted proteomics may facilitate the understanding of mechanisms linking diet to chronic diseases. Methods and Results We examined 6360 participants (mean age 50 years; 54% women) in the Framingham Heart Study. The associations between diet and 71 cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related proteins were examined using 3 diet quality scores: the Alternate Healthy Eating Index, the modified Mediterranean-style Diet Score, and the modified Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet score. A mediation analysis was conducted to examine which proteins mediated the associations of diet with incident CVD and all-cause mortality. Thirty of the 71 proteins were associated with at least 1 diet quality score (P<0.0007) after adjustment for multiple covariates in all study participants and confirmed by an internal validation analysis. Gene ontology analysis identified inflammation-related pathways such as regulation of cell killing and neuroinflammatory response (Bonferroni corrected P<0.05). During a median follow-up of 13 years, we documented 512 deaths and 488 incident CVD events. Higher diet quality scores were associated with lower risk of CVD (P≤0.03) and mortality (P≤0.004). After adjusting for multiple potential confounders, 4 proteins (B2M [beta-2-microglobulin], GDF15 [growth differentiation factor 15], sICAM1 [soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1], and UCMGP [uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein]) mediated the association between at least 1 diet quality score and all-cause mortality (median proportion of mediation ranged from 8.6% to 25.9%). We also observed that GDF15 mediated the association of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index with CVD (median proportion of mediation: 8.6%). Conclusions Diet quality is associated with new-onset CVD and mortality and with circulating CVD-related proteins. Several proteins appear to mediate the association of diet with these outcomes.

8.
Int J Pharm ; 609: 121138, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592395

RESUMO

Artesunate (ARS) is the only artemisinin-based intravenous drug approved for treatment of malaria in the clinic. ARS is rapidly metabolized in vivo to short lived (∼30-45 min) but fast acting, dihydroartemisinin (DHA). The short half-life of DHA necessitates multiple dose administration to circumvent the risk of recrudescence and development of artemisinin resistance. In this work, we report a stable, safe and potent alternative artemisinin-based injectable nanocomplex consisting of dimeric artesunate-choline conjugate (dACC) micelles coated with hyaluronic acid (HA). Firstly, dACC was synthesized by one-step esterification of two artesunate molecules with 3-(dimethylamino)-1,2-propanediol followed by quaternization. After that, dACC was self-assembled into cationic nanomicelles and further coated with anionic small molecular weight HA. The HA-coated dACC nanocomplex (dACC/HA nanocomplex) has a narrow size distribution of about 30 nm. Hemolytic toxicity and cytotoxicity studies revealed a favorable bio-safety profile. Finally, in vitro and in vivo studies showed the dACC/HA nanocomplex possess superior safety and antimalarial efficacy compared to ARS. Taken together, the dACC/HA nanocomplex is a promising injectable alternative to the traditional clinically used artesunate.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Malária Falciparum , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artesunato , Colina , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/uso terapêutico , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Micelas
9.
Int J Stroke ; : 17474930211040923, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427475

RESUMO

RATIONALE: There are no randomized trials examining the best treatment for acute basilar artery occlusion in the 6-24-hour time window. AIMS: To assess the safety and efficacy of thrombectomy for stroke due to basilar artery occlusion in patients randomized within 6-24 h from symptom onset or time last seen well. SAMPLE SIZE: For an estimated difference of 20% in proportions of the primary outcome between the two groups, 318 patients will be included for 5% significance and 90% power with a planned interim analysis after two-thirds of the sample size (212 patients) have achieved the 90 days follow-up. METHODS AND DESIGN: A prospective, multi-center, randomized, controlled, open-label and blinded-endpoint trial. The randomization employs a 1:1 ratio of mechanical thrombectomy with the detachable Solitaire thrombectomy device and best medical therapy (BMT) vs. BMT alone. STUDY OUTCOMES: The primary outcome will be the proportion of patients achieving modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0-3 at 90 days. Key secondary outcomes are: dramatic early favorable response, dichotomized mRS score (0-2 vs. 3-6 and 0-4 vs. 5-6) at 90 days, ordinal (shift) mRS analysis at 90 days, infarct volume at 24 h, vessel recanalization at 24 h in both treatment arms, and successful recanalization in the thrombectomy arm according to the modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (mTICI) classification defined as mTICI 2 b or 3. Safety variables are mortality at 90 days, symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage rates at 24 h, and procedure-related complications. DISCUSSION: Results from this trial will indicate whether mechanical thrombectomy is superior to medical management alone in achieving favorable outcomes in subjects with acute stroke caused by basilar artery occlusion presenting within 6-24 h from symptom onset.Trial registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02737189.

10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 9905067, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368357

RESUMO

Nonunion after diaphyseal fracture of the femur or the tibia is a common but difficult complication for treatment. Currently, the main treatment modalities include nail dynamization, exchange nailing, and bone transport, but revision with compression plating in these nonunions was rarely reported. To evaluate the outcomes of compression plating in the treatment of femur and tibia shaft nonunions, we retrospectively reviewed 54 patients with diaphyseal nonunion of the tibia or the femur treated with locking compression plate (LCP) by compression technique. There were 46 aseptic and 8 septic nonunions in the case series. Patient's history, fracture characteristics, previous interventions, and types of nonunion were recorded. The possible reason which might lead to nonunion was also analyzed for each case. Patients with aseptic nonunions were revised by hardware removal and compression plating with or without bone grafting. For septic nonunions, a two-stage surgery strategy was used. Compression plating with iliac crest bone grafting (ICBG) or free vascularized fibular grafting (FVFG) was used as the final treatment for septic nonunions. The compression technique and bone grafting method were individualized in each case according to the patient's history and architecture of the nonunion. Each patient finished at least a two-year follow-up, and all cases achieved healing uneventfully. Our study showed that compression plating with LCP was an effective method to treat diaphyseal nonunions of the tibia and the femur. It is compatible with different bone grafting methods for both infected and noninfected nonunions and is a good alternative to the current treatment methods for these nonunions.


Assuntos
Placas Ósseas , Diáfises/cirurgia , Fêmur/cirurgia , Fraturas não Consolidadas/cirurgia , Reoperação , Tíbia/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Parafusos Ósseos , Transplante Ósseo , Diáfises/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas não Consolidadas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(14): e020215, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219465

RESUMO

Background Obesity may be associated with a range of cardiometabolic manifestations. We hypothesized that proteomic profiling may provide insights into the biological pathways that contribute to various obesity-associated cardiometabolic traits. We sought to identify proteomic signatures of obesity and examine overlap with related cardiometabolic traits, including abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance, and adipose depots. Methods and Results We measured 71 circulating cardiovascular disease protein biomarkers in 6981 participants (54% women; mean age, 49 years). We examined the associations of obesity, computed tomography measures of adiposity, cardiometabolic traits, and incident metabolic syndrome with biomarkers using multivariable regression models. Of the 71 biomarkers examined, 45 were significantly associated with obesity, of which 32 were positively associated and 13 were negatively associated with obesity (false discovery rate q<0.05 for all). There was significant overlap of biomarker profiles of obesity and cardiometabolic traits, but 23 biomarkers, including melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM), growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF15), and lipoprotein(a) (LPA) were unique to metabolic traits only. Using hierarchical clustering, we found that the protein biomarkers clustered along 3 main trait axes: adipose, metabolic, and lipid traits. In longitudinal analyses, 6 biomarkers were significantly associated with incident metabolic syndrome: apolipoprotein B (apoB), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2), plasma kallikrein (KLKB1), complement C2 (C2), fibrinogen (FBN), and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP); false discovery rate q<0.05 for all. Conclusions We found that the proteomic architecture of obesity overlaps considerably with associated cardiometabolic traits, implying shared pathways. Despite overlap, hierarchical clustering of proteomic profiles identified 3 distinct clusters of cardiometabolic traits: adipose, metabolic, and lipid. Further exploration of these novel protein targets and associated pathways may provide insight into the mechanisms responsible for the progression from obesity to cardiometabolic disease.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Fenótipo , Proteômica , Adiposidade , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
12.
Respir Med ; 186: 106516, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218168

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is transmitted through respiratory droplets, aerosols and close contact. Cross infections occur because viruses spread rapidly among humans. Nineteen percent (19%) of the infected patients developed severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Hypoxemia usually occurs and patients may require oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation (MV) support. In this article, recently published clinical experience and observational studies were reviewed. Corresponding respiratory therapy regarding different stages of infection is proposed. Infection control principles and respiratory strategies including oxygen therapy, non-invasive respiratory support (NIRS), intubation evaluation, equipment preparation, ventilator settings, special maneuvers comprise of the prone position (PP), recruitment maneuver (RM), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), weaning and extubation are summarized. Respiratory equipment and device disinfection recommendations are worked up. We expect this review article could be used as a reference by healthcare workers in patient care while minimizing the risk of environmental contamination.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/transmissão , Cânula , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Humanos , Hipóxia/etiologia , Hipóxia/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia
13.
Open Med (Wars) ; 16(1): 322-331, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250249

RESUMO

Objectives: This multicenter retrospective study aimed to compare the effects of HES and gelatin (GEL) on the risk of post-OLT AKI. Method: A total of 1,672 patients undergoing OLT were enrolled from major transplant centers in China between 2005 and 2013. These patients were divided into three groups: GEL, hydroxyethyl starch (HES), and GEL + HES group. Results: There was no significant difference in the incidence of post-OLT AKI among the GEL, HES, and GEL + HES groups. The GEL + HES group had a lower incidence of stage II post-OLT AKI than the other two groups. Compared with patients receiving GEL, patients receiving HES did not harbor an increased risk of AKI. Our results showed that MELD score (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.579; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.123-2.219; P = 0.009) and preoperative anemia (adjusted OR, 1.533; 95% CI, 1.212-1.939; P < 0.001) were independent risk factors for post-OLT AKI, and normal preoperative Scr level (vs abnormal; adjusted OR, 0.402; 95% CI, 0.222-0.729; P = 0.003) was independent protective factors for post-OLT AKI. Conclusion: This large-scale multicenter retrospective study found that the intraoperative use of HES did not increase the overall incidence of post-OLT AKI in patients when compared with GEL, and whether to increase the risk of post-OLT AKI needs to be further explored.

14.
Chest ; 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are few clinically useful circulating biomarkers of lung function and lung disease. We hypothesized that genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of circulating proteins in conjunction with GWAS of pulmonary traits represents a clinically relevant approach to identifying causal proteins and therapeutically useful insights into mechanisms related to lung function and disease. STUDY QUESTION: Can an integrative genomic strategy using GWAS of plasma soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE) levels in conjunction with GWAS of lung function traits identify putatively causal relations of sRAGE to lung function? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Plasma sRAGE levels were measured in 6,861 Framingham Heart Study participants and GWAS of sRAGE was conducted to identify protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL), including cis-pQTL variants at the sRAGE protein-coding gene locus (AGER). We integrated sRAGE pQTL variants with variants from GWAS of lung traits. Colocalization of sRAGE pQTL variants with lung trait GWAS variants was conducted, and Mendelian randomization was performed using sRAGE cis-pQTL variants to infer causality of sRAGE for pulmonary traits. Cross-sectional and longitudinal protein-trait association analyses were conducted for sRAGE in relation to lung traits. RESULTS: Colocalization identified shared genetic signals for sRAGE with lung traits. Mendelian randomization analyses suggested protective causal relations of sRAGE to several pulmonary traits. Protein-trait association analyses demonstrated higher sRAGE levels to be cross-sectionally and longitudinally associated with preserved lung function. INTERPRETATION: sRAGE is produced by type I alveolar cells, and it acts as a decoy receptor to block the inflammatory cascade. Our integrative genomics approach provides evidence for sRAGE as a causal and protective biomarker of lung function, and the pattern of associations is suggestive of a protective role of sRAGE against restrictive lung physiology. We speculate that targeting the AGER/sRAGE axis may be therapeutically beneficial for the treatment and prevention of inflammation-related lung disease.

15.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(8): 1081-1092, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal perioperative chemotherapeutic regimen for locally advanced gastric cancer remains undefined. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of perioperative and postoperative S-1 and oxaliplatin (SOX) compared with postoperative capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CapOx) in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer undergoing D2 gastrectomy. METHODS: We did this open-label, phase 3, superiority and non-inferiority, randomised trial at 27 hospitals in China. We recruited antitumour treatment-naive patients aged 18 years or older with historically confirmed cT4a N+ M0 or cT4b Nany M0 gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma, with Karnofsky performance score of 70 or more. Patients undergoing D2 gastrectomy were randomly assigned (1:1:1) via an interactive web response system, stratified by participating centres and Lauren classification, to receive adjuvant CapOx (eight postoperative cycles of intravenous oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 on day one of each 21 day cycle plus oral capecitabine 1000 mg/m2 twice a day), adjuvant SOX (eight postoperative cycles of intravenous oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 on day one of each 21 day cycle plus oral S-1 40-60 mg twice a day), or perioperative SOX (intravenous oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 on day one of each 21 day plus oral S-1 40-60 mg twice a day for three cycles preoperatively and five cycles postoperatively followed by three cycles of S-1 monotherapy). The primary endpoint, assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population, 3-year disease-free survival to assess the superiority of perioperative-SOX compared with adjuvant-SOX and the non-inferiority (hazard ratio non-inferiority margin of 1·33) of adjuvant-SOX compared with adjuvant-CapOx. Safety analysis were done in patients who received at least one dose of the assigned treatment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01534546. FINDINGS: Between Aug 15, 2012, and Feb 28, 2017, 1094 patients were screened and 1022 (93%) were included in the modified intention-to-treat population, of whom 345 (34%) patients were assigned to the adjuvant-CapOx, 340 (33%) patients to the adjuvant-SOX group, and 337 (33%) patients to the perioperative-SOX group. 3-year disease-free survival was 51·1% (95% CI 45·5-56·3) in the adjuvant-CapOx group, 56·5% (51·0-61·7) in the adjuvant-SOX group, and 59·4% (53·8-64·6) in the perioperative-SOX group. The hazard ratio (HR) was 0·77 (95% CI 0·61-0·97; Wald p=0·028) for the perioperative-SOX group compared with the adjuvant-CapOx group and 0·86 (0·68-1·07; Wald p=0·17) for the adjuvant-SOX group compared with the adjuvant-CapOx group. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events was neutropenia (32 [12%] of 258 patients in the adjuvant-CapOx group, 21 [8%] of 249 patients in the adjuvant-SOX group, and 30 [10%] of 310 patients in the perioperative-SOX group). Serious adverse events were reported in seven (3%) of 258 patients in adjuvant-CapOx group, two of which were related to treatment; eight (3%) of 249 patients in adjuvant-SOX group, two of which were related to treatment; and seven (2%) of 310 patients in perioperative-SOX group, four of which were related to treatment. No treatment-related deaths were reported. INTERPRETATION: Perioperative-SOX showed a clinically meaningful improvement compared with adjuvant-CapOx in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer who had D2 gastrectomy; adjuvant-SOX was non-inferior to adjuvant-CapOx in these patients. Perioperative-SOX could be considered a new treatment option for patients with locally advanced gastric cancer. FUNDING: National Key Research and Development Program of China, Beijing Scholars Program 2018-2024, Peking University Clinical Scientist Program, Taiho, Sanofi-Aventis, and Hengrui Pharmaceutical. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Junção Esofagogástrica/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Capecitabina/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Feminino , Gastrectomia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxaliplatina/administração & dosagem , Ácido Oxônico/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Tegafur/administração & dosagem
17.
J Nutr ; 151(9): 2574-2582, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have a complex relation. OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations between alcohol consumption, fasting plasma proteins, and CVD risk. METHODS: We performed cross-sectional association analyses of alcohol consumption with 71 CVD-related plasma proteins, and also performed prospective association analyses of alcohol consumption and protein concentrations with 3 CVD risk factors (obesity, hypertension, and diabetes) in 6745 Framingham Heart Study (FHS) participants (mean age 49 y; 53% women). RESULTS: A unit increase in log10 transformed alcohol consumption (g/d) was associated with an increased risk of hypertension (HR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.26; P = 0.007), and decreased risks of obesity (HR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.91; P = 4.6 × 10-4) and diabetes (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.80; P = 5.1 × 10-6) in a median of 13-y (interquartile = 7, 14) of follow-up. We identified 43 alcohol-associated proteins in a discovery sample (n = 4348, false discovery rate <0.05) and 20 of them were significant (P <0.05/43) in an independent validation sample (n = 2397). Eighteen of the 20 proteins were inversely associated with alcohol consumption. Four of the 20 proteins demonstrated 3-way associations, as expected, with alcohol consumption and CVD risk factors. For example, a greater concentration of APOA1 was associated with higher alcohol consumption (P = 1.2 × 10-65), and it was also associated with a lower risk of diabetes (P = 8.5 × 10-6). However, several others showed unexpected 3-way associations. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 20 alcohol-associated proteins in 6745 FHS samples. These alcohol-associated proteins demonstrated complex relations with the 3 CVD risk factors. Future studies with integration of more proteomic markers and larger sample size are warranted to unravel the complex relation between alcohol consumption and CVD risk.

18.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; : 1-10, 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112035

RESUMO

Objective: To accurately evaluate the diagnostic value of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) for malignant pleural effusion associated with lung cancer in the Chinese population.Methods: Three English databases, PubMed, Embase and Web of Science, and two Chinese databases, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang Data, up to 5 November 2020, were searched. The literature on the diagnosis of lung cancer-related malignant pleural effusion by CEA in the Chinese population were collected. The data was analyzed by Stata15.0 software.Results: A total of 15 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The combined sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, diagnostic odds ratio were 0.80 (95% CI: 0.74-0.84), 0.92 (95% CI: 0.89-0.95), 10.46 (95% CI: 7.29-15.00), 0.22 (95% CI: 0.17-0.28), 47.26 (95% CI: 28.84-77.44), respectively . The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.91-0.95). No significant publication bias was found (P > 0.05)Conclusion: CEA has anexcellent diagnostic value for patients with lung cancer-related malignant pleural effusion in the Chinese population.

19.
Virol Sin ; 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191223

RESUMO

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a pathogenic virus known to cause central nervous system (CNS) diseases in humans, and has become an increasing public health threat nowadays. The rates of TBEV infection in the endemic countries are increasing. However, there is no effective antiviral against the disease. This underscores the urgent need for tools to study the emergence and pathogenesis of TBEV and to accelerate the development of vaccines and antivirals. In this study, we reported an infectious cDNA clone of TBEV that was isolated in China (the WH2012 strain). A beta-globin intron was inserted in the coding region of nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) gene to improve the stability of viral genome in bacteria. In mammalian cells, the inserted intron was excised and spliced precisely, which did not lead to the generation of inserted mutants. High titers of infectious progeny viruses were generated after the transfection of the infectious clone. The cDNA-derived TBEV replicated efficiently, and caused typical cytopathic effect (CPE) and plaques in BHK-21 cells. In addition, the CPE and growth curve of cDNA-derived virus were similar to that of its parental isolate in cells. Together, we have constructed the first infectious TBEV cDNA clone in China, and the clone can be used to investigate the genetic determinants of TBEV virulence and disease pathogenesis, and to develop countermeasures against the virus.

20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3987, 2021 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183656

RESUMO

Here we examine the association between DNA methylation in circulating leukocytes and blood lipids in a multi-ethnic sample of 16,265 subjects. We identify 148, 35, and 4 novel associations among Europeans, African Americans, and Hispanics, respectively, and an additional 186 novel associations through a trans-ethnic meta-analysis. We observe a high concordance in the direction of effects across racial/ethnic groups, a high correlation of effect sizes between high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides, a modest overlap of associations with epigenome-wide association studies of other cardio-metabolic traits, and a largely non-overlap with lipid loci identified to date through genome-wide association studies. Thirty CpGs reached significance in at least 2 racial/ethnic groups including 7 that showed association with the expression of an annotated gene. CpGs annotated to CPT1A showed evidence of being influenced by triglycerides levels. DNA methylation levels of circulating leukocytes show robust and consistent association with blood lipid levels across multiple racial/ethnic groups.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Leucócitos/citologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Epigênese Genética , Epigenoma/genética , Epigenômica , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
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