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1.
Arch Public Health ; 78: 86, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32983449

RESUMO

Background: The public health system has been developed in China for several years while no research explores its distribution. This research aims to describe the variation and equality of public health allocation from 2013 to 2018 and explore the source of inequality. Methods: Data in this research was obtained from the China Health Statistics Yearbook 2014 to 2019 and the China Statistical Yearbook 2019. Four indicators were chosen in describing the development and current situation of the public health system. Three of them were used to evaluate allocation equality. 31 provinces were categorized into western, middle, and eastern groups based on geographical and economic conditions. Total allocation equality, inter- and intra-difference were all measured by the Theil index. Results: All indicators showed a stably upwards trend except for the number of public health institutions. The allocation gap of the public health institution per km2 was larger than that per 10,000 capita. Theil index of three indicators continually rose from 2013 to 2018 and the inequality of public health institutions allocation was the highest one. The western region had the highest Theil index in technical personnel and beds allocation. Among the three regions, the western region contributed most to inequality. Conclusions: The public health workforces and institutions are still under the requirement of the National Medical and Health Service System Plan. From 2013 to 2018, the equality of public health resources stably decreases, which is mainly contributed by the internal difference within the western region. Further research should be done to explore the possible cause of the results. Problems founded in this research should be solved by multisectoral cooperation.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13807, 2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796876

RESUMO

We conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization study to determine the association of smoking initiation with seven psychiatric disorders. We used 353 independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with cigarette smoking initiation as instrumental variables at genome-wide significance threshold (p < 5 × 10-8) from a recent genome-wide association study in 1,232,091 European-origin participants. Summary-level data for seven psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, bipolar disorder, insomnia, major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, suicide attempts, and schizophrenia, was obtained from large genetic consortia and genome-wide association studies. The odds ratios of genetically predicted smoking initiation were 1.96 for suicide attempts (95% CI 1.70, 2.27; p = 4.5 × 10-20), 1.69 for post-traumatic stress disorder (95% CI 1.32, 2.16; p = 2.5 × 10-5), 1.54 for schizophrenia (95% CI 1.35, 1.75; p = 1.6 × 10-10), 1.41 for bipolar disorder (95% CI 1.25, 1.59; p = 1.8 × 10-8), 1.38 for major depressive disorder (95% CI 1.31, 1.45; p = 2.3 × 10-38), 1.20 for insomnia (95% CI 1.14, 1.25; p = 6.0 × 10-14) and 1.17 for anxiety (95% CI 0.98, 1.40; p = 0.086). Results of sensitivity analyses were consistent and no horizontal pleiotropy was detected in MR-Egger analysis. However, the associations with suicide attempts, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and anxiety might be related to possible reverse causality or weak instrument bias. This study found that cigarette smoking was causally associated with increased risks of a number of psychiatric disorders. The causal effects of smoking on suicide attempts, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and anxiety needs further research.

3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3815, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719450

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

4.
Materials (Basel) ; 12(22)2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752215

RESUMO

Precision glass molding is a revolutionary technology for achieving high precision and efficient manufacturing of glass aspheric lenses. The material properties of glass, including elastic modulus and viscosity, are highly dependent on temperature fluctuations. This paper aims to investigate the effect of elastic modulus on the high-temperature viscoelasticity of glass and the accuracy of the finite element simulation of the molding process for glass aspheric lenses. The high-temperature elastic modulus of D-ZK3L glass is experimentally measured and combined with the glass cylinder compression creep curve to calculate the high temperature viscoelasticity of D-ZK3L. Three groups of viscoelastic parameters are obtained. Based on this, the molding process of the molded aspheric lens is simulated by the nonlinear finite element method (FEM). The surface curves of lenses obtained by simulation and theoretical analyses are consistent. The simulation results obtained at different initial elastic modulus values indicate that the elastic modulus has a great influence on the precision of the FEM-based molding process of glass aspheric lenses.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1604, 2019 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962431

RESUMO

Self-assembling natural drug hydrogels formed without structural modification and able to act as carriers are of interest for biomedical applications. A lack of knowledge about natural drug gels limits there current application. Here, we report on rhein, a herbal natural product, which is directly self-assembled into hydrogels through noncovalent interactions. This hydrogel shows excellent stability, sustained release and reversible stimuli-responses. The hydrogel consists of a three-dimensional nanofiber network that prevents premature degradation. Moreover, it easily enters cells and binds to toll-like receptor 4. This enables rhein hydrogels to significantly dephosphorylate IκBα, inhibiting the nuclear translocation of p65 at the NFκB signalling pathway in lipopolysaccharide-induced BV2 microglia. Subsequently, rhein hydrogels alleviate neuroinflammation with a long-lasting effect and little cytotoxicity compared to the equivalent free-drug in vitro. This study highlights a direct self-assembly hydrogel from natural small molecule as a promising neuroinflammatory therapy.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antraquinonas/química , Antraquinonas/farmacocinética , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacocinética , Linhagem Celular , Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacocinética , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacocinética , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Hidrogéis/administração & dosagem , Hidrogéis/química , Hidrogéis/farmacocinética , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Camundongos , Microglia/imunologia , Microglia/patologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/imunologia , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/metabolismo , Nanofibras/administração & dosagem , Nanofibras/química , Nanofibras/ultraestrutura , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação/imunologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacocinética , Rheum/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição RelA/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo
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