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1.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 2021 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011450

RESUMO

Ultrasound mediated neuromodulation has been demonstrated to a safe treatment strategy in the field of neuroscience. In this study, low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) was used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) models induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) to explore the possibility of ultrasound neuroprotective effect on PD. The results demonstrated that LIPUS treatment can attenuate the central neurotoxicity of MPTP in mice, reduce the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and decrease the apoptosis in the section of substantia nigra. The movement and balance dysfunctions in PD mice were improved with LIPUS treatment. In addition, we demonstrated that LIPUS can inhibit the decreased activity and increased apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons induced by MPP+, restrain the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential caused by MPP+. Moreover, LIPUS stimulation alone did not cause any cytotoxicity and tissue damage in our study. Taken together, the protective and regulatory effects of LIPUS on dopaminergic neurons make it possible as a new, safe and noninvasive treatment for PD.

2.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(3): 3105-3114, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are associated with recurrent episodes of optic neuritis and transverse myelitis, often resulting in high attack-related disability. Therapeutic apheresis has been recommended as a second-line treatment for steroid-refractory NMOSD. To assess the efficacy and safety of two apheresis techniques, lymphoplasmapheresis (LPE) and therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), in refractory NMOSD and to provide a new treatment option for patients with refractory NMOSD. METHODS: This retrospective study examined NMOSD patients who had undergone either LPE or TPE treatment between January 2015 and January 2018. The patients were monitored for improvements in disabilities, incidences of adverse reactions, and safety of the procedure over a one-year follow-up period. The primary outcome measures included changes in the visual outcome scale (VOS) score, the expanded disability status scale (EDSS), and the annualized relapse rate (ARR). RESULTS: Neurological function and objective response rates were significantly improved in 76.5% of patients treated with LPE and 83.3% of patients treated with TPE. There were no significant differences in the two treatment groups (P=0.392). Similarly, there were no differences in the reduction in the relative relapse rate between the two groups (P=0.494). Adverse reactions, mostly of mild or moderate intensity, were recorded in 9.3% of procedures in 38% of patients. The most commonly observed adverse events (AEs) were similar between the two treatment cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Patients treated with LPE showed improved neurological function comparable to that reported with TPE treatment. No superiority was shown for either of the apheresis techniques.


Assuntos
Remoção de Componentes Sanguíneos , Neuromielite Óptica , Neurite Óptica , Humanos , Neuromielite Óptica/terapia , Neurite Óptica/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Anal Chem ; 93(13): 5521-5528, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779153

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) are universally present in the ecosystem and pose great threats to the environment and living organisms. Research studies have shown that small MPs (<50 µm in diameter) are especially toxic and account for more than half of all MPs collected in the Atlantic Ocean. Nevertheless, current methods for the detection and analysis of MPs are incapable of achieving rapid and in situ analysis of small MPs in the biota to ultimately enable the study of their biological effects. In this work, we report a method that allows rapid in situ identification and spatial mapping of small MPs directly from paramecia with high accuracy by acquiring chemical composition information using secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) imaging. Specifically, six types of common MPs (polymethyl methacrylate, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, polyglycidyl methacrylate, and polyamide 6) with a diameter of 1-50 µm were simultaneously imaged with high chemical specificity at a spatial resolution of 700 nm. In situ spatial mapping of a group of MPs ingested by paramecia was performed using SIMS fragments specific to the plastic composition with no sample pretreatment, revealing the aggregation of MPs in paramecia after ingestion. Compared with existing methods, one additional advantage of the developed method is that the MPs and the organism can be analyzed in the same experimental workflow to record their fingerprint spectra, acquiring biochemical information to evaluate MP fate, toxicity, and the MP-biota interaction.

4.
Immunotherapy ; 13(7): 571-585, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781095

RESUMO

Aim: This study explored new immunoadjuvants with stronger immune activity to enhance therapeutic effects against leukemia. Materials & methods: Whole blood and bone marrow of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and healthy volunteers were collected. Isolated mononuclear cells were treated with two newly designed CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, CpG sequence 13 and 19, and known CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and analyzed via flow cytometry. Results: CpG Seq 13 and 19 possess strong immune activation and enhance the proliferation, degranulation and cytotoxicity of T cells. They also inhibit AML cell proliferation. When CpG Seq 13/19 are combined with anti-OX40 antibodies, the cytotoxicity of T cells on AML cells are further enhanced. Conclusion: CpG Seq 13 and 19 are strong immune adjuvant candidates for AML treatment.

5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 101: 395-402, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002621

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether early worsening of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) predicts the later paradoxical tuberculomas and is a potential predictive biomarker. METHODS: Patients of HIV-negative tuberculous meningitis fulfilling the inclusion criteria(n = 98) underwent clinical and CSF evaluation, together with repeated neuroimaging. We compared the baseline clinical data and continuous CSF of patients who did (n = 36) and did not (n = 62) develop paradoxical tuberculomas, and reported the changes associated with symptomatic tuberculomas. A logistic regression analysis was developed to reveal predictors for paradoxical tuberculomas. RESULTS: The proportion of worsening CSF parameters (WBC count and percent neutrophils) in the paradoxical tuberculomas group (27/36, 75.0%) was significantly higher than the non-paradoxical tuberculomas group (15/62, 24.2%). The logistic regression analysis revealed that worsening CSF parameters was the highest risk predictor for paradoxical tuberculomas. Most worsening CSF parameters (81.0%) occurred within two weeks after treatment (2-24 days, median 7 days), and paradoxical tuberculomas commonly happened two weeks later (12 days to 13 months, median 22 days). The period between worsening CSF parameters and paradoxical tuberculomas ranged from 6 to 383 days (median 21days). There were no significant differences in mortality and prognosis between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Early worsening of CSF parameters predicts subsequent development or progression of tuberculomas.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16754, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028909

RESUMO

L-arginine/NOS/NO signaling pathway plays a critical role in controlling variety of vascular diseases. However, whether NOS inhibition by L-NAME suppresses late embryonic development is undefined. The aim of this study is to determine whether NOS inhibition by L-NAME is critical for late embryonic rat hind limb development. The pregnant rat at E13.5 administrated L-NAME by consecutive intraperitoneal injection. The embryos been harvested from E16.5 to E 20.5. Hematoxylin and Eosin Staining, Immunofluorescence and Immunohistochemistry performed to determine hind limb Vasculogenesis, HUVEC culture, Adenoviral PFKFB3 infection, Real time PCR and western blot were performed to determine whether L-arginine/NOS/NO pathway controlling late embryonic hind limb development through PFKFB3 mediated angiogenetic pathway. NOS inhibition by L-NAME resulting in late embryonic hind limb developmental defects characterized by severe hemorrhage. The in vivo studies showed that NOS inhibition strongly suppressed hind limb angiogenetic remodeling by impairing differentiation of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, and extracellular matrix synthesis. For underlie mechanism, our studies indicated that L-NAME treatment dramatically suppresses PFKFB3 expression in hematopoietic progenitor cells, tubulogenetic endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. Knockdown of PFKFB3 dramatically inhibits the expression of angiogenetic genes, as well as tubulogenesis and extracellular matrix related genes. Taken together, our data in this study demonstrated that L-arginine-eNOS-NO pathway is important for rat hind limb development during late embryonic stage. This could be both a useful animal model and a promising therapeutic treatment for defects of late embryonic developmental hind limbs.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089632

RESUMO

Buried salt bridges widely exist in protein structures but are rarely used in synthetic systems for molecular recognition in water. By mimicking the binding pocket of bioreceptors, we designed and synthesized a pair of endo-functionalized macrocyclic hosts with secondary ammonium groups in a hydrophobic cavity. We found that these macrocycles are able to selectively recognize carboxylic acids in water through salt bridges and the hydrophobic effect. Moreover, it was demonstrated that these macrocyclic receptors can be used in circular-dichroism-based optical chirality sensing of chiral carboxylic acids and fluorescent sensing of phenylpyruvic acid-a biomarker for phenylketonuria. This research showcases that buried salt bridges can be effectively used by endo-functionalized macrocyclic hosts for molecular recognition in water, where solvent screening on polar noncovalent interactions is high.

8.
Radiother Oncol ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Radiation pneumonitis (RP) can be a potential fatal toxicity of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for medically inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study aimed to examine the risk factors that predict RP and explore dosimetric tolerance for safe practice in a large institutional series of NSCLC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with early-stage and locally recurrent NSCLC who received lung SBRT between 2002 and 2015 formed the study population. The primary endpoint was grade 2 or above radiation pneumonitis (RP2). Lungs were re-contoured consistently by one radiation oncologist according to the RTOG atlas for organs at risk. Dosimetric factors were computed consistently with exclusion of gross tumor volume of either ipsilateral, contralateral, or total lungs. RESULTS: A total of 339 patients were eligible. With a median follow-up of 47 months, RP2 was recorded in 10% patients. History of respiratory comorbidity, previous thoracic radiation, right lung location, mean lung doses of total or ipsilateral lung, and total lung volume receiving 20 Gy were all significantly associated with the risk of RP2. The dosimetric parameters of contralateral lung, including mean dose and volume receiving more than 5, 10, and 20 Gy, were not significantly associated with RP2 (ps>0.05). A model of combining significant clinical and dosimetric factors had a predictive accuracy AUC of 0.76. According to this model, RP2 can be limited to <10% should the patient have no previous lung radiation and the mean dose of total and ipsilateral lungs be kept less than 6 Gy and 20 Gy, respectively. CONCLUSION: Dosimetric factors of total or ipsilateral lung together with important clinical factors were significant risk factors for symptomatic radiation pneumonitis after SBRT. Constraining mean lung dose can limit clinically significant lung toxicity.

9.
J Phys Chem B ; 124(41): 9175-9181, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955890

RESUMO

Host-guest interactions between naphthalene-based molecular tubes and small molecules have been studied to understand selective recognition. However, the volumetric properties of complexation remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the volumetric properties for the binding of 1,4-dioxane to a pair of naphthotubes (i.e., anti- and syn-isomers), each possessing two inwardly directed amide groups in the hydrophobic cavity, using nuclear magnetic resonance and fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with pressure perturbation. We found that the partial molar volume change for the association of 1,4-dioxane with the naphthotube was -6.3 ± 0.1 mL/mol for the anti-isomer and 3.2 ± 0.4 mL/mol for the syn-isomer. Moreover, the hydrogen bonds of the naphthotubes with 1,4-dioxane were less compressible than those with water molecules, indicating that more rigid hydrogen bonds existed in the complexes with 1,4-dioxane. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that one opening of the cavity in the syn-isomer was widened because of the repulsion between the four COO- charges, which allowed more water molecules to access the hydrophobic cavity than in the case of the anti-isomer. The difference in the partial molar volume change was explained by variations in the hydration of naphthotube hydrophobic cavities. The enhanced understanding of the molecular basis of volume changes during 1,4-dioxane-naphthotube complexation may provide insights into ligand binding to bioreceptors.

10.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 888: 173470, 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822641

RESUMO

Myopathy is a muscle disease in which muscle fibers do not function properly, and eventually cause severe diseases, such as muscular dystrophy. The properly regeneration of skeletal muscle plays a pivotal role to maintain the muscle function after muscle injury. The aim of this study is to determine whether andrographolide plays an effect role on regulating skeletal muscle regeneration. Mouse satellite cells, C2C12 cells and Cardiotoxin (CTX) intramuscular injection induced acute skeletal muscle injury model were used to evaluate whether andrographolide is essential for skeletal muscle regeneration. The underling mechanism detected using immunohistochemistry stain, western blot, real time PCR. Andrographolide promotes mouse skeletal muscle regeneration. In cardiotoxin induced skeletal muscle injury model, andrographolide treatment enhanced myotube generation and promoted myotube fusion. Andrographolide treatment dramatically increased expression of myotube differentiation related genes, including Desmin, MyoD, MyoG, Myomaker, Tnni2, Dmd, Myoz1 and Myoz3. For the mechanism studies, we observed that andrographolide treatment significantly promoted histone modification, such as H3K4Me2, H3K4Me3 and H3K36Me2, both in vivo and in vitro. Treatment with DZNep, a Lysine methyltransferase EZH2 inhibitor, significantly attenuated andrographolide-induced expression of Myf5, Myomaker, Skeletal muscle α-actin, MyoD and MyoG. Taken together, our data in this study demonstrate andrographolide epigenetically drives differentiation and fusion of myotube, eventually promotes skeletal muscle regeneration. This should be a therapeutic treatment for skeletal muscle regeneration after muscle damage.

11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13858, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807822

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to investigate the therapeutic role of Tanshinone II A, a key integrant from salvia miltiorrhiza, against pathological vascular remodeling. Completed ligation of mouse left common carotid arteries animal model and rat smooth muscle cells used to investigate the role of Tanshinone II A in regulating pathological vascular remodeling through hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry staining, immunofluorescence staining, adenovirus infection, real time PCR and western blotting. Our data demonstrated that Tanshinone II A treatment suppresses vascular injury-induced neointima formation. In vitro studies on rat smooth muscle cell indicated that Tanshinone II A treatment attenuates PDGF-BB induced cell growth, and promotes smooth muscle cell differentiated marker genes expression that induced by rapamycin treatment. Tanshinone II A treatment significant inhibits rat smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. Tanshinone II A promotes KLF4 expression during smooth muscle phenotypic switching. Overexpression of KLF4 exacerbates Tanshinone II A mediated smooth muscle cell growth inhibition. Tanshinone II A plays a pivotal role in regulating pathological vascular remodeling through KLF4 mediated smooth muscle cell phenotypic switching. This study demonstrated that Tanshinone II A is a potential therapeutic agent for vascular diseases.

12.
Int J Med Sci ; 17(12): 1692-1703, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714072

RESUMO

Reconstruction of bone defects is one of the most substantial and difficult clinical challenges in orthopedics. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFß1) might play an important role in stimulating osteogenic differentiation of bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9)-induced C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells. In our current study, we examined the potential synergy between TGFß1 and BMP9 in promoting the osteogenesis of C3H10T1/2 cells, and whether such effects could contribute to bone formation in vivo. Our experiment data indicated that TGFß1 could increase the expression of osteogenic markers and the formation of mineralized calcium nodules in, while suppressing the proliferation of, BMP9-induced C3H10T1/2 cells. Furthermore, mice intramuscularly injected with BMP9/TGFß1-transduced C3H10T1/2 cells into the gastrocnemius muscle on their tibiae developed ectopic bone masses with more mature osteoid structures, compared to those grafted with cells expressing BMP9/RFP. Subsequent mechanistic studies found that TGFß1-induced enhancement of osteogenesis in BMP9-overexpressing C3H10T1/2 cells was accompanied by augmented expression of heat shock protein 47 (HSP47), a collagen-specific molecular chaperone essential for collagen biosynthesis, and can be attenuated by pirfenidone, a known anti-fibrotic inhibitor. Interestingly, protein microarray analysis suggested that TGFß1/BMP9-dependent osteogenesis of C3H10T1/2 cells seemed to involve several non-canonical signaling pathways such as Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription, phosphoinositide-3-kinase-protein kinase B, and mitogen-activated protein kinase. These results provided further evidence that TGFß1 could promote bone formation from BMP9-induced C3H10T1/2 cells and shed important light on the underlying molecular mechanisms.

13.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(45): 19945-19950, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696557

RESUMO

Benzene hydrogenation is an important industrial process. The reaction is incomplete, resulting in a mixture of benzene, cyclohexane, and/or cyclohexene that have to be separated before any further reactions. The currently used extractive and azeotropic distillations are operationally complex and energy intensive. Adsorptive separation provides an alternative energy-efficient method. However, the separation of the ternary mixture by adsorptive separation has not yet been reported. In the present research, we report two macrocyclic hosts with hydrogen-bonding sites in their cavities that are able to separate the ternary mixture of benzene, cyclohexene, and cyclohexane. N-H⋅⋅⋅π interactions were found to play a key role in the selective separation. In addition, fast adsorption, high loading ratios, and easy recycling are achieved with the present system, which is promising for practical applications.

14.
Int J Biol Sci ; 16(12): 2063-2071, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549754

RESUMO

Krüppel-like factor 10 (KLF10) has been identified as an important regulator in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. However, the role of KLF10 in multiply myeloma (MM) development and progression remains unknown. In present study, we found that KLF10 mRNA and protein were down-regulated in MM tissues and cell lines. Notably, KLF10 inhibited cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and promoted apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we confirmed that KLF10 inhibited ß-catenin nuclear translocation and inhibited PTTG1 transcription. PTTG1 knockdown could mimic the biological effects of KLF10. Moreover, we demonstrated that KLF10 expression was regulated by miR-106b-5p. In MM tissues, miR-106b-5p has an inverse correlation with KLF10 expression. Conclusively, our results demonstrated that KLF10 functions as a tumor suppressor in regulating tumor growth of MM under regulation of miR-106b-5p, supporting its potential therapeutic target for MM.

15.
Technol Health Care ; 28(S1): 433-442, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A two-hospital patient referral problem intends to calculate an optimal value of referral patients between two hospitals and to evaluate whether or not the current number of referral patients is too low. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to develop a simulation-based optimization algorithm to find the optimal referral between two hospitals with the unfixed daily patient referral policy. METHODS: This study applied system simulation and a bat algorithm (BA) to build a simulation model in accordance with the status of the two hospitals case and to calculate an optimal value of daily referral patients. RESULTS: Based on the 20 test instances, we verified the stability of this algorithm. The results show that the average magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patient wait time reduced from 16 days to eight days. The hospital should increase the average total monthly MRI referral patients to 370 under the limitation of the daily referral patients to 25. CONCLUSIONS: This research investigated the two-hospital patient referral problems. We conducted and analyzed a simulation model and improved the case hospital's conditions, enhancing the quality of its medical care. The findings of this study can extend to other departments or hospitals.

16.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(2): 622-628, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319406

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the factors affecting counting and collection efficiency of the final product- mononuclear cells (MNCs) in the collection of mononuclear cells for tumor cell biotherapy. METHODS: The collected data of 142 tumor patients and healthy donors were analyzed, including age, sex, height, weight, BMI, the total blood volume, diagnostic category, vascular access, operator, final product volume, ACD anticoagulant usage, flow rate and circulation times, pre-apheresis Hb, RBC, Plt, WBC, lymphocyte count, monocyte count, neutrophil count, circulating blood volume without anticoagulant, final product MNC and collection efficiency of MNC. CE(collection efficiency)%= final product MNC×100/(pre-apheresis MNC×circulating blood volume without anticoagulant). The factors affecting final products MNC and CE of MNC were detected by T test and multiple linear regression analysis. RESULTS: The CE of tumor patients was higher than that of healthy donors (24.41±1.91,vs 20.01±0.99),(P=0.043), and CE of MNC was different among different operators (P=0.01, H=18.59). There was a positive correlation of the final MNC with the volume of final product, ACD anticoagulant usage and pre-apheresis lymphocyte count (P= 0.00, P= 0.01, P= 0.00, r=0.811); CE of MNC negatively correlated with flow rate and pre-apheresis RBC, but positively correlated with operator's working age and ACD anticoagulant usage (P=0.01, P=0.04, P=0.03, P= 0.00, r=0.495). CONCLUSION: more higher pre-apheresis lymphocyte , more amount of the final product and ACD anticoagulant usage, and more high the final MNC. During the collecting process, more ACD anticoagulant usage and more high operator's seniority, lead to the higher MNC'S CE; while more high pre-apheresis RBC and more fast flow rate, cause the lower the CE of MNC.


Assuntos
Terapia Biológica , Remoção de Componentes Sanguíneos , Humanos , Leucaférese , Contagem de Leucócitos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Linfócitos , Doadores de Tecidos
17.
Water Res ; 176: 115735, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224330

RESUMO

Graphene oxide (GO) sheets are unstable in aqueous environments, and the effect of photo-transformation on GO toxicity to freshwater algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) was investigated. Our results demonstrated that GO underwent photo-reduction under 25-day sunlight irradiation, and the transformation was generally completed at Day 8. The toxicological investigation showed that 8-day sunlight irradiation significantly increased growth inhibition of GO (25 mg/L) to algal cells by 11.2%, due to enhanced oxidative stress and stronger membrane damage. Low molecular weight (LMW) species were produced during the 8-day GO transformation, and they were identified as two types of aromatic compounds, which played a crucial role in increasing toxicity. The combined toxicity of GO and Cu2+ ions before and after light irradiation was further investigated. Antagonistic effect was observed between the toxicity of pristine GO and co-existing Cu2+ ions. After co-irradiation of GO and Cu2+ ions for 8 days, their combined toxicity was unexpectedly lower or insignificant in comparison with the treatments of pristine GO, or pristine GO in the presence of Cu2+ ions. Two mechanisms were revealed for this finding: (1) Cu2+ ions suppressed the photo-transformation of GO; (2) the toxicity of free Cu2+ ions was decreased through the adsorption/retention of Cu2+ ions and formation of Cu-based nanoparticles (e.g., Cu2O and Cu2S) on the photo-transformed GO. The provided data are helpful for better understanding the environmental process and risk of GO under natural conditions.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Grafite , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Água Doce , Íons , Metais
18.
Theriogenology ; 148: 103-111, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171969

RESUMO

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) has been newly demonstrated to play a great role in promoting fat accumulation, providing a potential to target FSH for controlling fat accumulation and treating obesity. A short, 13-amino acid of FSHß (FSHß13AA) was indentified to be the FSH receptor-binding epitope in both humans and mice. By conservation analysis, we found such FSHß13AA is highly conserved across species. Accordingly, we designed a new FSH antigen by synthesizing a tandem of FSHß13AA (LVYKDPARPNIQK) and then conjugating it to ovalbumin (FSHß13AA-T-OVA). Then, we tested its efficacy in suppressing fat accumulation in both ovariectomized and intact mouse models. Vaccination with this novel antigen emulsified in mild adjuvant, Specol, was highly effective in preventing ovariectomy-induced body weight gain and fat accumulation in mice (P < 0.01). Mechanistically, FSH vaccination treatment inhibited lipid biosynthesis by inactivating PPARγ adipogenic signaling pathway and simultaneously enhanced adipocyte themogenesis via upregulating UCP1 expression in both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues. Moreover, injection of this novel FSH vaccine also substantially reduced (P < 0.05) fat accumulation in both intact male and female mice. These actions result from the specific binding of the generated antibody to the ß-subunit to block its action, rather than lowering the circulating levels of FSH, as evidenced by nearly no alterations in serum FSH levels in mice following FSH vaccination. Overall, we developed a novel FSH antigen and vaccine, and demonstrated it is highly efficacious in suppressing fat accumulation.

19.
Org Biomol Chem ; 18(10): 1900-1909, 2020 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108203

RESUMO

Amide naphthotubes with four carboxylate sidechains have been reported by us for selectively recognizing hydrophilic molecules in water and they have found applications in sensing and self-assembly. Modification of these macrocycles on the sidechains would further expand their applicability. Herein, we report the synthesis of mono-functionalized amide naphthotubes with one alkyne and three carboxylate groups. These naphthotubes show rather different binding affinities from that of the amide naphthotubes with four carboxylate sidechains. The partial self-inclusion of the alkyne group in the cavity was invoked to explain these differences. In addition, the syn- and anti-configurational isomers of the naphthotubes with four carboxylate groups were found to be assigned incorrectly in our earlier publication. Further evidence is provided here for the new assignment. The implications of this new structural assignment for the conclusions drawn in the earlier works are discussed as well.

20.
Anal Chem ; 92(3): 2690-2696, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913607

RESUMO

Discrimination of cancer cells at the single-cell metabolic level is crucial for early diagnosis. However, some cancer cells share similar metabolic information with normal cells, making them difficult to be distinguished using mass spectrometry. Herein, we propose a method by treating osteosarcoma cells and normal human osteoblasts with mannose as a stimulant, which greatly promotes the metabolic discrimination of osteosarcoma cells at the single-cell level. The low PMI (mannose 6-phosphate isomerase) level of both osteosarcoma cell lines compared to normal human osteoblasts is the reason for the abnormal metabolic pathway of two osteosarcoma cell lines with mannose treatment. We also found that the level of hexoses-6P in osteosarcoma cells significantly increased after mannose treatment, while no such increase was found in normal human osteoblasts. The proposed method is very meaningful for early diagnosis of cancer.

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