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1.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 763652, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722636

RESUMO

Objective: 5-fluorouracil- and oxaliplatin-based FOLFOX regimens are mainstay chemotherapeutics for colorectal cancer (CRC) but drug resistance represents a major therapeutic challenge. To improve patient survival, there is a need to identify resistance genes to better understand the mechanisms underlying chemotherapy resistance. Methods: Transcriptomic datasets were retrieved from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases and combined with our own microarray data. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was used to dissect the functional networks and hub genes associated with FOLFOX resistance and cancer recurrence. We then conducted analysis of prognosis, profiling of tumor infiltrating immune cells, and pathway overrepresentation analysis to comprehensively elucidate the biological impact of the identified hub gene in CRC. Results: WGCNA analysis identified the complement component 3 (C3) gene as the only hub gene associated with both FOLFOX chemotherapy resistance and CRC recurrence after FOLFOX chemotherapy. Subsequent survival analysis confirmed that high C3 expression confers poor progression-free survival, disease-free survival, and recurrence-free survival. Further correlational analysis revealed significant negative association of C3 expression with sensitivity to oxaliplatin, but not 5-fluorouracil. Moreover, in silico analysis of tumor immune cell infiltration suggested the change of C3 expression could affect tumor microenvironment. Finally, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed a hyperactivation of pathways contributing to invasion, metastasis, lymph node spread, and oxaliplatin resistance in CRC samples with C3 overexpression. Conclusion: Our results suggest that high C3 expression is a debilitating factor for FOLFOX chemotherapy, especially for oxaliplatin sensitivity, and C3 may represent a novel biomarker for treatment decision of CRC.

2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(45): 54237-54245, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726374

RESUMO

Unraveling the relationship between nanoscale morphology of active layers and chemical structures of organic semiconductor photovoltaic materials is crucially important for further advancing the development of all-small-molecule organic solar cells (SM-OSCs). Here, in order to delve into the effect of flexible side chains of small molecule donors on the photovoltaic properties of SM-OSCs, we synthesized two new small molecule donors substituted by different flexible alkyl chains (iso-octyl chains for SM1-EH and n-octyl chains for SM1-Oct). As a result, the two small molecules present different absorption properties, energy levels, and stacking characteristics. When blending with Y6 as an acceptor, the SM1-Oct-based SM-OSC demonstrated a higher PCE value of 11.73%, while the SM1-EH-based device presents a relatively poorer PCE value of 8.42%. In addition, the morphology analysis demonstrated that, compared with the SM1-EH:Y6 blend, the SM1-Oct:Y6 blend film displayed better molecular stacking properties with stronger multilevel diffraction and preferable phase separation, resulting in the higher hole mobility, more efficient charge separation efficiency, and better device performance. These results underline that reasonably adjusting the flexible alkyl chains of small molecule donors can be an effective approach to further advance the development of the SM-OSCs field.

3.
Anal Chem ; 93(46): 15493-15500, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752060

RESUMO

Depending on the reaction between walkers and tracks, DNA walker is able to output signals continuously, which has attracted great attention from the bioanalytical community. Therefore, how to improve its reaction kinetics for efficient signal readout is of great significance. Herein, a quadrilateral DNAzyme walker was fabricated by colocalizing one walker and three DNA tracks in the quadrilateral nucleic acid frame to form a reaction unit (abbreviated as qDNA walker). Impressively, in contrast to the common free DNAzyme walker, the reaction kinetics of the qDNA walker was 2.3 times faster, which could achieve microRNA detection within 30 min. Meanwhile, an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) emitter of anthracene-cucurbituril supramolecular nanocrystals (Ant-CB SNCs) was obtained based on the self-assembly of cucurbituril (CB, host molecule) and anthracene (Ant, guest molecule). Benefiting from the host-guest recognition effect, the prepared Ant-CB SNCs exhibited enhanced ECL efficiency due to the supramolecular interaction between CB and Ant, which could inhibit vibration and rotation of the Ant molecules. We defined this new enhanced ECL phenomenon as "host-guest recognition-enhanced ECL." As a proof of concept, an ECL biosensor for microRNA-21 (miRNA-21) was constructed by combining the high-efficiency DNAzyme walker and the advanced ECL emitter of Ant-CB SNCs, which showed a linear range from 50 aM to 50 pM with a low limit of detection (11 aM), highlighting the great potential in clinical diagnosis.

4.
Plant Sci ; 313: 111084, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763869

RESUMO

The signaling pathways of both auxin and ethylene regulate peach fruit ripening via the Aux/IAA and ERF transcription factors, respectively. However, the molecular mechanisms that coordinate both auxin and ethylene signals during peach fruit ripening remain unclear. In this study, we show that PpIAA1 and PpERF4 act as key players in a positive feedback loop, and promote peach fruit ripening by directly binding to and enhancing the activity of target gene promoters. PpIAA1 increased the expression of the ethylene biosynthesis gene PpACS1. Furthermore, PpERF4 enhanced the transcription of PpACO1 and PpIAA1 genes by binding to their promoters. Additionally, PpIAA1 and PpERF4 bound to each other to form a complex, which then enhanced the transcription of abscisic acid biosynthesis genes (PpNCED2 and PpNCED3) and the fruit softening gene (PpPG1) to levels higher than those achieved by each transcription factor individually. Moreover, overexpression of PpIAA1 in tomato accelerated fruit ripening and shortened the fruit shelf-life by increasing the production of ethylene and the expression levels of ripening regulator genes. Collectively, these results advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying peach fruit ripening and softening via auxin and ethylene signaling pathways.

5.
Genome Biol ; 22(1): 313, 2021 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stone cells in fruits of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) negatively influence fruit quality because their lignified cell walls impart a coarse and granular texture to the fruit flesh. RESULTS: We generate RNA-seq data from the developing fruits of 206 pear cultivars with a wide range of stone cell contents and use a systems genetics approach to integrate co-expression networks and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) to characterize the regulatory mechanisms controlling lignocellulose formation in the stone cells of pear fruits. Our data with a total of 35,897 expressed genes and 974,404 SNPs support the identification of seven stone cell formation modules and the detection of 139,515 eQTLs for 3229 genes in these modules. Focusing on regulatory factors and using a co-expression network comprising 39 structural genes, we identify PbrNSC as a candidate regulator of stone cell formation. We then verify the function of PbrNSC in regulating lignocellulose formation using both pear fruit and Arabidopsis plants and further show that PbrNSC can transcriptionally activate multiple target genes involved in secondary cell wall formation. CONCLUSIONS: This study generates a large resource for studying stone cell formation and provides insights into gene regulatory networks controlling the formation of stone cell and lignocellulose.

6.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(3): 1912, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598641

RESUMO

A computational method to predict the aeroacoustic sound produced by the interaction between fluid and moving body is developed, then applied to the problem of aerodynamic noise radiation from an engine cooling fan. The flow field is computed using the viscous vortex method with a simplified diffusion algorithm, followed by a noise sources extraction within the turbulent region, based on the vortex sound model. Then, the sound field is determined using a Convolution Quadrature Boundary Element Method, accounting for the scattering effect from solid surface. With the help of Convolution Quadrature Method, time-stepping Boundary Element procedure can be established circumventing the requisite for time-dependent fundamental solution. Fast Multipole Method is also adopted to improve computational efficiency. It is found that the results of flow field calculation are close to those obtained from measurement. The predicted noise levels at the microphone position are in qualitative agreement with the measured. The comparison of computation time also shows that the proposed method can effectively predict the fluid-blade interaction noise.

7.
Bipolar Disord ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, functional homotopy (FH) architecture, defined as robust functional connectivity (FC) between homotopic regions, has been frequently reported to be altered in MDD patients (MDDs) but with divergent locations. METHODS: In this study, we obtained resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) data from 1004 MDDs (mean age, 33.88 years; age range, 18-60 years) and 898 matched healthy controls (HCs) from an aggregated dataset from 20 centers in China. We focused on interhemispheric function integration in MDDs and its correlation with clinical characteristics using voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) devised to inquire about FH patterns. RESULTS: As compared with HCs, MDDs showed decreased VMHC in visual, motor, somatosensory, limbic, angular gyrus, and cerebellum, particularly in posterior cingulate gyrus/precuneus (PCC/PCu) (false discovery rate [FDR] q < .002, z =-7.07). Further analysis observed that the reduction in SMG and insula was more prominent with age, of which SMG reflected such age-related change in males instead of females. Besides, the reduction of MTG was found to be a male-special abnormal pattern in MDDs. VMHC alterations were markedly related to episode type and illness severity. The higher Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score, the more apparent VMHC reduction in the primary visual cortex. First-episode MDDs revealed stronger VMHC reduction in PCu relative to recurrent MDDs. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed a significant VMHC reduction in MDDs in broad areas, especially in PCC/PCu. This reduction was affected by gender, age, episode type, and illness severity. These findings suggest that the depressive brain tends to disconnect information exchange across hemispheres.

8.
Hortic Res ; 8(1): 209, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593759

RESUMO

Peach is a typical climacteric fruit that releases ethylene during fruit ripening. Several studies have been conducted on the transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in peach fruit. Herein, an ethylene response factor, PpERF.A16, which was induced by exogenous ethylene, could enhance ethylene biosynthesis by directly inducing the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (PpACS1) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (PpACO1) genes. Moreover, the NAM/ATAF1/2/CUC2 (NAC) transcription factor (TF) PpNAC.A59 was coexpressed with PpERF.A16 in all tested peach cultivars. Interestingly, PpNAC.A59 can directly interact with the promoter of PpERF.A16 to induce its expression but not enhance LUC activity driven by any promoter of PpACS1 or PpACO1. Thus, PpNAC.A59 can indirectly mediate ethylene biosynthesis via the NAC-ERF signaling cascade to induce the expression of both PpACS1 and PpACO1. These results enrich the genetic network of fruit ripening in peach and provide new insight into the ripening mechanism of other perennial fruits.

9.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 380, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ustekinumab (UST), a newly-used biologic targeting p40 subunit of IL12 and IL23 in China, exerts a confirmed therapeutic effect on the induction and maintenance therapies for refractory Crohn's disease (CD). Therapeutic drug monitoring based on trough and antibody concentration is of core importance when treating patients who lose response to UST. We aimed to analyze the UST exposure-response relationship in CD treatment in the real-world setting. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled patients with CD who received UST between March 1, 2020 and May 31, 2021, at the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) center of the Sun Yat-Sun Affiliated Sixth Hospital. Baseline characteristic information, biomarker examination, clinical outcomes determined by the Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI), and endoscopic outcomes evaluated using a simple endoscopic score for Crohn's disease (SES-CD) at week 16/20 were collected. The optimal UST cut-off trough concentration was identified using receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis. RESULTS: Nineteen eligible patients were included in the study, the mean age was 29.1 ± 9.1 years and the mean disease duration was 5.5 ± 4.7 years. At the initiation of the study, 89.5% of the patients had been exposed to prior biologics, 42.1% had previous CD-related surgeries, and 52.6% had perianal diseases. At week 16/20 after the UST initiation, clinical response, clinical remission, endoscopic response, and endoscopic remission were 89.5%, 84.2%, 42.2%, and 73.7%, respectively. The cut-off optimal trough concentration for UST was 1.12 µg/mL, as determined by the ROC with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.78, sensitivity of 87.5%, and specificity of 72.7%. Patients with a UST trough concentration > 1.12 µg/mL had a significantly higher rate of endoscopic remission than those without (70.0% vs. 11.1%, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: UST is an effective therapeutic option for refractory CD treatment. A UST trough concentration above 1.12 µg/mL was associated with endoscopic remission at week 16/20 after UST initiation. Trial registration This study was approved and retrospectively registered by the Ethics Committee of Sun Yat-Sen University (2021ZSLYEC-066, March 29, 2021) and the Clinical Trial Registry (NCT04923100, June 10, 2021).


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn , Ustekinumab , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , China , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Endoscopia , Humanos , Ustekinumab/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
10.
Alcohol Treat Q ; 39(4): 430-445, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34712005

RESUMO

Few studies exist on the change over time in positive and negative emotions during treatment for alcoholism disorders. We aimed to evaluate relationship between alcohol reduction and change in positive and negative emotions. Chronic HCV patients (n=174) with alcohol use received brief alcohol counseling. Participants completed the PANAS-Short Form, MHC-Short Form, and the Alcohol Timeline Follow back at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months. Decreases in alcohol use were related to decreased negative emotions from baseline to 3 months, baseline to 6 months and baseline to 12 months. Decreases in alcohol use were associated with increased positive emotions from baseline to 12 months but not sooner.

12.
Opt Express ; 29(19): 30337-30347, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614759

RESUMO

A Mach-Zehnder interferometer system based on weak measurement was set up to determinate the concentration variation of molecule by measuring the phase difference change between the two optical paths. The spectrum of the light was recorded to monitor the concentration of trastuzumab (Herceptin), which is a humanised monoclonal antibody, targeted to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). The trastuzumab targeting to HER2 was real-time detected and continuously monitored, the HER2 numbers of COS7 cells on a coverslip was determined at pico-molar level. Our weak measurement enabled method proposes an alternative approach for the concentration detection of molecules, providing a promising functional tool for the quantification of HER2 in cancer cells, possibly promoting fields such as the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

13.
Cancer Med ; 10(22): 8222-8237, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer (OV) is deemed the most lethal gynecological cancer in women. The aim of this study was to construct an effective gene prognostic model for predicting overall survival (OS) in patients with OV. METHODS: The expression profiles of glycolysis-related genes (GRGs) and clinical data of patients with OV were extracted from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Univariate, multivariate, and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator Cox regression analyses were conducted, and a prognostic signature based on GRGs was constructed. The predictive ability of the signature was analyzed using training and test sets. RESULTS: A gene risk signature based on nine GRGs (ISG20, CITED2, PYGB, IRS2, ANGPTL4, TGFBI, LHX9, PC, and DDIT4) was identified to predict the survival outcome of patients with OV. The signature showed a good prognostic ability for OV, particularly high-grade OV, in the TCGA dataset, with areas under the curve (AUC) of 0.709 and 0.762 for 3- and 5-year survival, respectively. Similar results were found in the test sets, and the AUCs of 3-, 5-year OS were 0.714 and 0.772 in the combined test set. And our signature was an independent prognostic factor. Moreover, a nomogram combining the prediction model and clinical factors was developed. CONCLUSION: Our study established a nine-GRG risk model and nomogram to better predict OS in patients with OV. The risk model represents a promising and independent prognostic predictor for patients with OV. Moreover, our study on GRGs could offer guidance for the elucidation of underlying mechanisms in future studies.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497655

RESUMO

Peritoneal dialysis is one of the main renal replacement treatments. However, long-term peritoneal dialysis keeps the peritoneum in contact with the sugar-containing nonphysiological peritoneal fluid, which leads to recurrent peritonitis, peritoneal fibrosis, and failure of ultrafiltration. Transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1), related cytokines, and inflammatory factors are closely related to peritoneal fibrosis. Sulodexide (SLX) is a new type of glycosaminoglycan preparation, which is involved in the formation of an anionic charge barrier and can maintain the selective permeability of vascular endothelial cells. In this study, the innovative analysis of SLX specifically prevents the process of peritoneal dialysis peritoneal fibrosis by downregulating the expression of TGF-ß1 and its signaling pathway molecules. We randomly divided 30 rats into three groups. The blank control group received no treatment. The peritoneal dialysis model group was injected with 4.25% peritoneal dialysate (PDF) 20 ml daily, and the SLX group was injected with 4.25% PDF 20 ml + sulodexide (SLX) 20 mg/kg daily. After 8 weeks of dialysis, the rats were sacrificed, and the peritoneal function test was performed to determine the amount of glucose transport and ultrafiltration. The thickness of peritoneal per unit area was observed under high magnification. The level of inflammation in peritoneal tissue and the expression of TGF-ß1/Smad were detected. The results showed that SLX can significantly improve peritoneal tissue thickening and inflammation, can downregulate the expression of TGF-ß1, Smad2, Smad3, and Smad7 in peritoneal tissue, and improve the progression of peritoneal fibrosis.

15.
Front Nutr ; 8: 690663, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504859

RESUMO

Background: Colorectal cancer remains a public health problem worldwide. Dietary risk factors play a key role in the carcinogenesis and progression of colorectal cancer. This study aimed to explore the geographical and temporal trends in various dietary factor-related colorectal cancers. Methods: Data were extracted from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019 study, including the deaths, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), age-standardized rate (ASR), and summary exposure value (SEV) among 4 world regions, 11 age groups, 21 regions, and 204 countries and territories between 1990 and 2019. The estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) were calculated to evaluate the variation trend of ASR. Results: Dietary factors were the leading cause of colorectal cancer death and DALY rate, regardless of age. Dietary factor-related deaths and DALYs accounted for 32 and 34% of global colorectal cancer, respectively. Further analysis showed that low whole grain intake remained the leading cause of cancer death and DALY rate, followed by milk and calcium. Diets that were low in whole grains, milk, and calcium accounted for 81.61% of deaths and 81.64% of DALYs. Deaths and DALYs of dietary factors related to colorectal cancer grew by half from 1990 to 2019. All ASRs remained higher for men than women. Asia carried the highest colorectal cancer burden attributed to dietary risks, especially for East Asia [age-standardized death rate (ASDR): EAPC = 1.15, 95% CI:0.88-1.42; DALY: EAPC = 1.08, 95% CI:0.82-1.34]. The heavy burden also existed in high-middle and middle socio-demographic index (SDI) quintiles. China has always had the highest deaths and DALYs of colorectal cancer attributable to dietary risks, followed by the USA, India, and Japan. Conclusions: Large variations existed in the dietary risk-related colorectal cancer burdens among sexes, regions, and countries. More targeted interventions to address modifiable dietary risk factors would save 32% of deaths and 34% of DALYs for colorectal cancer.

16.
Environ Microbiol ; 23(10): 6210-6222, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347355

RESUMO

The foliar surface forms one of the largest aboveground habitats on Earth and maintains plant-fungus relationships that greatly affect ecosystem functioning. Despite many studies with particular plant species, the foliar epiphytic mycobiome has not been studied across a large number of plant species from different taxa. Using high-throughput sequencing, we assessed epiphytic mycobiomes on leaf surfaces of 592 plant species in a botanical garden. Plants of angiosperms, gymnosperms, and pteridophytes were involved. Plant taxonomy, leaf side, growing environment, and evolutionary relationships were considered. We found that pteridophytes showed the higher fungal species diversity, stronger mutualistic fungal interactions, and a greater percentage of putative pathogens than gymnosperms and angiosperms. Plant taxonomic group, leaf side, and growing environment were significantly associated with the foliar epiphytic mycobiome, but the similarity of the mycobiomes among plants was not directly related to the distance of the host evolutionary tree. Our results provide a general understanding of the foliar fungal mycobiomes from pteridophytes to angiosperms. These findings will facilitate our understanding of foliar fungal epiphytes and their roles in plant communities and ecosystems.

17.
Comput Biol Med ; 136: 104663, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375903

RESUMO

Surgical registration that maps surgical space onto image space plays an important role in surgical navigation. Accurate surgical registration can help surgeons efficiently locate surgical instruments. The complicated marker-based surgical registration method is highly accurate, but it is time-consuming. Therefore, a marker-less surgical registration method with high-precision and high-efficiency is proposed without human intervention. Firstly, the surgical navigation system based on the multi-vision system is calibrated by using a specially-designed calibration board. When extracting the abdominal point cloud acquired by the structured light vision system, the constraint is constructed by using Computed Tomography (CT) image to filter out the points in irrelevant areas to improve the computational efficiency. The Coherent Point Drift (CPD) algorithm based on Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) is applied in the registration of abdominal point cloud with lack of surface features. To enhance the efficiency of the CPD algorithm, firstly, the system calibration result is used in rough registration of the point cloud, and then the proper point cloud pretreatment method and its parameters are studied through experiments. Finally, the puncturing simulation experiments were carried out by using the abdominal phantom. The experimental results show that the proposed surgical registration method has high accuracy and efficiency, and has potential clinical application value.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Assistida por Computador , Humanos , Punções
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2120360, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379126

RESUMO

Importance: It is difficult for policy makers and clinicians to formulate targeted management strategies for mesothelioma because data on current epidemiological patterns worldwide are lacking. Objective: To evaluate the mesothelioma burden across the world and describe its epidemiological distribution over time and by sociodemographic index (SDI) level, geographic location, sex, and age. Design, Setting, and Participants: Annual case data and age-standardized rates of incidence, death, and disability-adjusted life-years associated with mesothelioma among different age groups were obtained from the Global Burden of Disease 2017 database. The estimated annual percentage changes in age-standardized rates were calculated to evaluate temporal trends in incidence and mortality. The study population comprised individuals from 21 regions in 195 countries and territories who were diagnosed with mesothelioma between 1990 and 2017. Data were collected from May 23, 2019, to January 18, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were incident cases, deaths, and their age-standardized rates and estimated annual percentage changes. Secondary outcomes were disability-adjusted life-years and relative temporal trends. Results: Overall, 34 615 new cases (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 33 530-35 697 cases) of mesothelioma and 29 909 deaths (95% UI, 29 134-30 613 deaths) associated with mesothelioma were identified in 2017, and more than 70% of these cases and deaths were among male individuals. In 1990, the number of incident cases was 21 224 (95% UI, 17 503-25 450), and the number of deaths associated with mesothelioma was 17 406 (95% UI, 14 495-20 660). These numbers increased worldwide from 1990 to 2017, with more than 50% of cases recorded in regions with high SDI levels, whereas the age-standardized incidence rate (from 0.52 [95% UI, 0.43-0.62] in 1990 to 0.44 [95% UI, 0.42-0.45] in 2017) and the age-standardized death rate (from 0.44 [95% UI, 0.37-0.52] in 1990 to 0.38 [95% UI, 0.37-0.39] in 2017) decreased, with estimated annual percentage changes of -0.61 (95% CI, -0.67 to -0.54) for age-standardized incidence rate and -0.44 (95% CI, -0.52 to -0.37) for age-standardized death rate. The proportion of incident cases among those 70 years or older continued to increase (from 36.49% in 1990 to 44.67% in 2017), but the proportion of patients younger than 50 years decreased (from 16.74% in 1990 to 13.75% in 2017) over time. In addition, mesothelioma incident cases and age-standardized incidence rates began to decrease after 20 years of a complete ban on asbestos use. For example, in Italy, a complete ban on asbestos went into effect in 1992; incident cases increased from 1409 individuals (95% UI, 1013-1733 individuals) in 1990, peaked in 2015 after 23 years of the asbestos ban, then decreased from 1820 individuals (95% UI, 1699-1981 individuals) in 2015 to 1746 individuals (95% UI, 1555-1955 individuals) in 2017. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found that incident cases of mesothelioma and deaths associated with mesothelioma continuously increased worldwide, especially in resource-limited regions with low SDI levels. Based on these findings, global governments and medical institutions may consider formulating optimal policies and strategies for the targeted prevention and management of mesothelioma.

19.
Crit Rev Microbiol ; : 1-13, 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403642

RESUMO

Membrane contact sites (MCSs) refer to the areas of close proximity between heterologous membranes. A growing body of evidence indicates that MCSs are involved in important cellular functions, such as cellular material transfer, organelle biogenesis, and cell growth. Importantly, the study of MCSs at the bacteria-host interface is an emerging popular research topic. Intracellular bacterial pathogens have evolved a variety of fascinating strategies to interfere with MCSs by injecting effectors into infected host cells. Bacteria-containing vacuoles establish direct physical contact with organelles within the host, ensuring vacuolar membrane integrity and energy supply from host organelles and protecting the vacuoles from the host endocytic pathway and lysosomal degradation. An increasing number of bacterial effectors from various bacterial pathogens hijack components of host MCSs to form the vacuole-organelle MCSs for material exchange. MCS-related events have been identified as new mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis to greatly improve bacterial survival and replication within host cells. In this review, we will discuss the recent advances in MCSs at the bacteria-host interface, focussing on the roles of MCSs mediated by bacterial effectors in microbial pathogenesis.

20.
Protoplasma ; 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338853

RESUMO

The secretory ducts of Ferula ferulaeoides (Steud.) Korov. are the main tissue of synthesis, secretion, and accumulation of resin. The formation of secretory ducts is closely related to the harvest and quality of resin, but the lumen formation mode and corresponding mechanism have not been thoroughly studied. This study of F. ferulaeoides investigated the microstructure and ultrastructure of the secretory ducts from a developmental point of view. Stem samples were analyzed by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. The data results showed (1) the walls of secretory cells were intact during the development of secretory ducts in F. ferulaeoides; (2) the plastids and endoplasmic reticulum of secretory cells participated in the synthesis of resin; (3) pectinase was involved in the degradation of the middle lamella; and (4) no features of programmed cell death during the formation of secretory ducts. The results suggested that the formation of F. ferulaeoides' secretory ducts was schizogenous, and pectinase was involved in its formation. These data may be beneficial to further explore the formation of secretory duct in other species of Ferula L. and the formation mechanism of schizogenous secretory structures.

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