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1.
Gene ; 808: 145973, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592350

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Abnormal expression of ionotropic glutamate receptor NMDA type subunit 1, the key subunit of the NMDA receptor, may be related to many neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, we explored the functional sequence of the 5' regulatory region of the human GRIN1 gene and discussed the transcription factors that may regulate gene expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve recombinant pGL3 vectors with gradually truncated fragment lengths were constructed, transfected into HEK-293, U87, and SK-N-SH cell lines, and analyzed through the luciferase reporter gene assay. JASPAR database is used to predict transcription factors. RESULTS: In SK-N-SH and U87 cell lines, regions from -337 to -159 bp, -704 to -556 bp inhibited gene expression, while -556 to -337 bp upregulated gene expression. In HEK-293 and U87 cell lines, the expression of fragment -1703 to + 188 bp was significantly increased compared to adjacent fragments -1539 to + 188 bp and -1843 to + 188 bp. The protein expressions of fragments -2162 to + 188 bp and -2025 to + 188 bp, -1539 to + 188 bp and -1215 to + 188 bp, -1215 to + 188 bp and -1066 to + 188 bp were significantly different in HEK-293 and SK-N-SH cells. According to the predictions of the JASPAR database, the transcription factors REST, EGR1, and CREB1/HIC2 may bind the DNA sequences of GRIN1 gene from the -337 to -159, -556 to -337, and -704 to -556, respectively. In addition, zinc finger transcription factors may regulate the expression of other differentially expressed fragments. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal transcription regulation in the proximal promoter region of GRIN1 (-704 to + 188 bp) may be involved in the course of neuropsychiatric diseases.

2.
Acta Trop ; 225: 106179, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627758

RESUMO

Babesiosis is an emerging zoonotic disease that is typically caused by Babesia microti infection. Clinical treatment of B. microti infection is challenging; hence, it is crucial to find new effective drugs. The current laboratory screening methods for anti-B. microti drugs are not optimized. We conducted drug-suppressive and drug-therapeutic tests to investigate whether use of an immunosuppressant and the target gene-based qPCR are helpful to reduce the number of animals affected and to improve parasite detection in an immunocompetent mouse model. These results were verified by subpassage test. In the drug-suppressive test, no B. microti were observed after immunosuppressant administration or in subpassage mice in the 100 mg/kg robenidine hydrochloride (ROBH) group. The opposite results were observed in the control, 50 mg/kg ROBH, atovaquone (ATO) + azithromycin (AZM), and proguanil hydrochloride (PGH) groups. Significant differences were observed in the EIR and target gene relative values (both P < 0.001) between the control group and any ROBH groups. In the drug-therapeutic test, recrudescence occurred in the 50 mg/kg ROBH, ATO+AZM, and control groups. This was not observed in the 100 mg/kg ROBH group after immunosuppressant administration. Similar findings were observed in the subpassage test. This suggests that a 4-day anti-B. microti drug-suppressive test can be used in preliminary drug screening. Potentially effective drugs can be verified by immunosuppressant test in subsequent drug-therapeutic tests. Thus, a laboratory evaluation method of anti-B. microti drug efficacy was optimized, which is highly accurate and requires a short drug screening time.


Assuntos
Babesia microti , Babesiose , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Animais , Babesiose/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Camundongos
3.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118322, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634411

RESUMO

Landfills are considered an anthropogenic source of arsenic (As). The As species mediated by microbes in landfills vary significantly in toxicity. Based on random matrix theory, 16S rRNA genes were used to construct four microbial networks associated with different stages over 12 years of landfill ages. The results indicated that network size and microbial structure varied with landfill age. According to the network scores, about 208 taxa were identified as putative keystones for the whole landfill; the majority of them were Firmicutes, which accounted for 66.8% of all specialists. Random Forest analysis was performed to predict the keystone taxa most responsible for As species distribution under different landfill conditions; 17, 10 and 14 keystone taxa were identified as drivers affecting As species distribution at early, middle, and later landfill stages, respectively.


Assuntos
Arsênio , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt B): 127164, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534803

RESUMO

Non-ferrous metal(loid)s in region with karst characteristic are highly diffusible, especially by runoff or atmospheric deposition. However, microbiota in response to the diffusing metal(loid)s is still to be understood. In this study, we focused on microbiota across metal(loid)s diffusion pathways around a non-ferrous smelting assembly. The microbial distribution and metal(loid)s-microbial interactions were analysed by 16S rRNA amplicon and multivariate statistical analysis. Although runoff and atmospheric deposition showed similar metal(loid)s diffusion contribution, different microbial compositions were revealed. The microbiota along the runoff transect (region3) was similar to those within the atmospheric deposition transect (region4), which significantly differed from those closer to the smelting assembly (region1 and region2; R2 = 0.3866, p = 0.001). Random forest model indicated the negative impacts of bioavailable metal(loid)s on microbial diversity. Proteobacteria was predominant in region1 while Actinobacteriota dominated in the other regions. Twenty abundant genera were identified in metal(loid)s rich area, such as sulfur metabolizer Sulfurifustis and metal resistant Acinetobacter. Interactions between the geochemical parameters and the dominant taxa indicated that the main drivers were Al, Sb, As and their bioavailable fractions and sulfate. This study provides understandings of microbiota patterns towards different metal(loid)s diffusion pathways around non-ferrous smelting assembly with karst characteristic.

5.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 131970, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450370

RESUMO

In this study, a polydopamine (PDA) modified attapulgite (ATP) supported nano sized zero-valent iron (nZVI) composite (PDA/ATP-nZVI) was rapidly synthesized under acidic conditions, and employed to alleviate Cr(VI) toxicity from an aqueous solution. Kinetic studies revealed that Cr(VI) adsorption process followed the pseudo-second order model, suggesting chemisorption was the dominant adsorption mechanism. Liu isotherm adsorption model was able to better describe the Cr(VI) adsorption isotherm with the maximum adsorption capacity of 134.05 mg/g. The thermodynamic study demonstrated that the adsorption process occurred spontaneously, accompanied by the increase in entropy and endothermic reaction. Low concentrations of coexisting ions had negligible effects on the removal of Cr(VI), while high concentrations of interfering ions were able to facilitate the removal of Cr(VI). Reactive species test revealed that Fe2+ played a key role in Cr(VI) reduction by PDA/ATP-nZVI. PDA enhanced the elimination of Cr(VI) via donation of electrons to Cr(VI) and acceleration of Fe3+ transformation to Fe2+. Furthermore, PDA was able to effectively inhibit the leaching of iron species and generation of ferric hydroxide sludge. Mechanistic study revealed that 72% of Cr(VI) elimination was attributed to reduction/precipitation, while 28% of Cr(VI) elimination was due to the surface adsorption.


Assuntos
Ferro , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Cromo , Indóis , Cinética , Compostos de Magnésio , Polímeros , Compostos de Silício , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Chemosphere ; : 132727, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743799

RESUMO

The presence of chlorophenols in water and wastewater is considered a serious environmental issue. To eliminate these micropollutants, biodegradation of chlorophenols using enzyme-nanoparticle conjugated biocatalyst, is proposed as an economical and eco-friendly method. Herein, amino-functionalized superparamagnetic Fe3O4@SiO2-NH2 nanoparticles with core-shell structure were constructed as a promising carrier for immobilization of laccase from Trametes versicolor. Compared with free laccase, Fe3O4@SiO2-NH2-Laccase displayed remarkable outcomes in all major areas such as temperature and storage stabilities, and tolerance to organic solvents and metal ions. The biocatalytic performance and reusability of Fe3O4@SiO2-NH2-Laccase were evaluated for the degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) in repeated cycles. Even after 10 successive reuses, the degradation rate of 2,4-DCP and 2,4,6-TCP were found to be 54.9% and 68.7%, respectively. The influences of solution pH, initial chlorophenol concentration, and temperature on the degradation rate of these two chlorophenols were evaluated. The degradation intermediate products including dimers, trimers, and tetramers of 2,4-DCP and 2,4,6-TCP were identified. Release of chloride ions was observed during the enzymatic degradation of these two chlorophenols. Based on the determination of intermediate products and released chloride ions, the degradation pathway that was involved in dehydrogenation, reactive radical intermediates formation, dechlorination, self-coupling and oligomers/polymers formation was proposed. The toxicity of these two chlorophenols and their intermediates was substantially reduced during the enzymatic degradation. The results of this study might present an alternative clean biotechnology for the remediation of 2,4-DCP and 2,4,6-TCP contaminated water matrices.

7.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2021: 4032285, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746040

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Simethicone (SIM), as an antifoaming agent, has been shown to improve bowel preparation during colonoscopy. However, the optimal timing of SIM addition remained undetermined. We aimed to investigate the optimal timing of SIM addition to polyethylene glycol (PEG) to improve bowel preparation. Methods: Eligible patients were randomly assigned to two groups: the SIM evening group (SIM addition to PEG in the evening of the day prior to colonoscopy) and the SIM morning group (SIM addition to PEG in the morning of colonoscopy). The primary outcome was Bubble Scale (BS). The secondary outcomes were Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS) and adenoma detection rate (ADR). Results: A total of 419 patients were enrolled in this study. The baseline characteristics of the patients were similar in both groups. No significant differences were observed in terms of BS (8.76 ± 0.90 vs. 8.65 ± 1.16, P = 0.81), ADR (34.1% vs. 30.8%, P = 0.47), Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS) (8.59 ± 0.94 vs. 8.45 ± 1.00, P = 0.15), and withdrawal time (8.22 ± 2.04 vs. 8.01 ± 2.51, P = 0.094) between the two groups. Moreover, safety and compliance were similar in both groups. However, the SIM evening group was associated with shorter cecal intubation time (3.80 ± 1.81 vs. 4.42 ± 2.03, P < 0.001), higher BS (2.95 ± 0.26 vs. 2.88 ± 0.38, P = 0.04) in the right colon, and diminutive ADR (62.5% vs. 38.6%, P = 0.022) in the right colon, when compared to the SIM evening group. Conclusions: The SIM addition to PEG in the evening of the day prior to colonoscopy can shorten cecal intubation time and improve BS scores and diminutive ADR of the right colon compared with the SIM addition to PEG in the morning of colonoscopy in bowel preparation.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750325

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal disease. This study was attempted to investigate the effects of long noncoding RNA KIF9-AS1 (KIF9-AS1) on the development of IBD and its underlying mechanism of action. METHODS: Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) was implemented to examine the expression of KIF9-AS1 and microRNA-148a-3p (miR-148a-3p). The IBD mouse model was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). The body weight, disease activity index (DAI) score, colon length and histological injury were used to evaluate the colon injury. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines were measured by ELISA. In vitro, IBD was simulated by DSS treatment in colonic cells. Then the apoptosis of colonic cells was detected by flow cytometry assay. Furthermore, a dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to demonstrate the interactions among KIF9-AS1, miR-148a-3p and suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS3). RESULTS: KIF9-AS1 expression was upregulated in IBD patients, DSS-induced IBD mice and DSS-induced colonic cells, whereas miR-148a-3p expression was downregulated. KIF9-AS1 silencing attenuated the apoptosis of DSS-induced colonic cells in vitro and alleviated colon injury and inflammation in DSS-induced IBD mice in vivo. Additionally, the mechanical experiment confirmed that KIF9-AS1 and SOCS3 were both targeted by miR-148a-3p with the complementary binding sites at 3'UTR. Moreover, miR-148a-3p inhibition or SOCS3 overexpression reversed the suppressive effect of KIF9-AS1 silencing on the apoptosis of DSS-induced colonic cells. CONCLUSION: KIF9-AS1 silencing hampered the colon injury and inflammation in DSS-induced IBD mice in vivo, and restrained the apoptosis of DSS-induced colonic cells by regulating the miR-148a-3p/SOCS3 axis in vitro, providing a new therapeutic target for IBD.

9.
Molecules ; 26(21)2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771083

RESUMO

Flotation collector O-isopropyl N-ethylthionocarbamate (IPETC) is widely used for separation of sulfide ores. Its removal from water by several oxidation processes was studied. Photocatalytic oxidation with air in the presence of iron salts, utilizing solar irradiation or artificial UV-A light is very efficient. Oxidation leads through the formation of O-isopropyl N-ethylcarbamate and several other reaction intermediates to total decomposition of organic compound in the final stage in 1 day. Similar results were obtained with a Fenton type oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and iron salts. Treatment with sodium hypochlorite yields mainly O-isopropyl N-ethylcarbamate. The formation of this compound in wastewaters can be of concern, since simple alkyl carbamates are cancer suspect agents.

10.
Neuroscience ; 480: 108-116, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762982

RESUMO

Morphine rewarding properties are the main reasons for drug-craving in behaviors occurring during morphine addiction. It has been suggested that morphine addiction relies on signals to the mesolimbic dopamine system, although the mechanisms outside the dopaminergic system are still unclear. Notably, the role of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) serotoninergic (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system remains unexplored. Using in vivo electrophysiological and optogenetic approaches, we found that morphine treatment increased DRN 5-TH neurons firing rate and optogenetic activation of DRN 5-HT neurons induced a rewarding effect, indicating that morphine reward is related to DRN 5-HT neurons. Accordingly, optogenetic inhibition of DRN 5-HT neurons following morphine injection reversed conditioned place preference (CPP) during chronic morphine treatment. These findings aid our understanding of the new functions of the DRN 5-HT neurons for morphine rewarding effect and provide a potential approach for the treatment of morphine addiction.

11.
Cancer Cell ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822775

RESUMO

Reinvigoration of antitumor immunity remains an unmet challenge. Our retrospective analyses revealed that cancer patients who took antihistamines during immunotherapy treatment had significantly improved survival. We uncovered that histamine and histamine receptor H1 (HRH1) are frequently increased in the tumor microenvironment and induce T cell dysfunction. Mechanistically, HRH1-activated macrophages polarize toward an M2-like immunosuppressive phenotype with increased expression of the immune checkpoint VISTA, rendering T cells dysfunctional. HRH1 knockout or antihistamine treatment reverted macrophage immunosuppression, revitalized T cell cytotoxic function, and restored immunotherapy response. Allergy, via the histamine-HRH1 axis, facilitated tumor growth and induced immunotherapy resistance in mice and humans. Importantly, cancer patients with low plasma histamine levels had a more than tripled objective response rate to anti-PD-1 treatment compared with patients with high plasma histamine. Altogether, pre-existing allergy or high histamine levels in cancer patients can dampen immunotherapy responses and warrant prospectively exploring antihistamines as adjuvant agents for combinatorial immunotherapy.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769083

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd2+) pollution occurring in salt-affected soils has become an increasing environmental concern in the world. Fast-growing poplars have been widely utilized for phytoremediation of soil contaminating heavy metals (HMs). However, the woody Cd2+-hyperaccumulator, Populus × canescens, is relatively salt-sensitive and therefore cannot be directly used to remediate HMs from salt-affected soils. The aim of the present study was to testify whether colonization of P. × canescens with ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, a strategy known to enhance salt tolerance, provides an opportunity for affordable remediation of Cd2+-polluted saline soils. Ectomycorrhization with Paxillus involutus strains facilitated Cd2+ enrichment in P. × canescens upon CdCl2 exposures (50 µM, 30 min to 24 h). The fungus-stimulated Cd2+ in roots was significantly restricted by inhibitors of plasmalemma H+-ATPases and Ca2+-permeable channels (CaPCs), but stimulated by an activator of plasmalemma H+-ATPases. NaCl (100 mM) lowered the transient and steady-state Cd2+ influx in roots and fungal mycelia. Noteworthy, P. involutus colonization partly reverted the salt suppression of Cd2+ uptake in poplar roots. EM fungus colonization upregulated transcription of plasmalemma H+-ATPases (PcHA4, 8, 11) and annexins (PcANN1, 2, 4), which might mediate Cd2+ conductance through CaPCs. EM roots retained relatively highly expressed PcHAs and PcANNs, thus facilitating Cd2+ enrichment under co-occurring stress of cadmium and salinity. We conclude that ectomycorrhization of woody hyperaccumulator species such as poplar could improve phytoremediation of Cd2+ in salt-affected areas.

13.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(21): 24379-24401, 2021 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753832

RESUMO

Tumor occurrence, infiltration, and metastasis are significantly affected by the tumor microenvironment (TME). Increasing evidence has elucidated TME's clinical significance in prognostic assessment and immunotherapy efficacy. Nonetheless, no studies have reported the potential pyroptosis-related genes (PRGs) function in TME immune cell infiltration. In this study, we systematically analyzed different PRG modification patterns in 685 cutaneous melanoma (CM) cases. We comprehensively explored the relationship between these PRG modification patterns and TME cell infiltration characteristics. Then, we used principal component analysis to construct a pyroptosis scoring system to quantify the PRG modification patterns in each CM patient. Three different PRG modification patterns were identified. Pyroptosis score was confirmed as an independent prognostic factor for CM patients. High pyroptosis score was characterized by high immunophenscore and more lymphocytes infiltration, such as T, B, and NK cells - indicating a strong ability to monitor and clear tumors, which may be responsible for the advantageous survival. Three independent cohorts that received immunotherapy confirmed the significant therapeutic efficacy and clinical benefit in high pyroptosis scores patients. This study revealed that the PRG modification patterns have a crucial effect on the CM complex and diverse microenvironment. Pyroptosis scores might serve as credible predictors of immunotherapy response and prognostic assessment. This provides a new direction for personalized immunotherapy strategies and appropriate immunotherapy candidates screening.

14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 11: CD010008, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Topiramate is a newer broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug (AED). Some studies have shown the benefits of topiramate in the treatment of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). However, there are no current systematic reviews to determine the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate in people with JME. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2015, and last updated in 2019. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate in the treatment of JME. SEARCH METHODS: For the latest update, we searched the Cochrane Register of Studies (CRS Web) on 26 August 2021, and MEDLINE (Ovid 1946 to 26 August 2021). CRS Web includes randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials from PubMed, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and the Specialized Registers of Cochrane Review Groups, including Cochrane Epilepsy. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating topiramate versus placebo or other AED treatment for people with JME, with the outcomes of proportion of responders and proportion of participants experiencing adverse events (AEs). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened the titles and abstracts of identified records, selected studies for inclusion, extracted data, cross-checked the data for accuracy and assessed the methodological quality of the studies. MAIN RESULTS: We included three studies with a total of 83 participants. For efficacy, a greater proportion of participants in the topiramate group had a 50% or greater reduction in primarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures (PGTCS), compared with participants in the placebo group (RR 4.00, 95% CI 1.08 to 14.75; 1 study, 22 participants; very low-certainty evidence). There were no significant differences between topiramate and valproate for participants responding with a 50% or greater reduction in myoclonic seizures (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.15; one study, 23 participants; very-low certainty evidence) or in PGTCS (RR 1.22, 95% CI 0.68 to 2.21; one study, 16 participants, very-low certainty evidence), or participants becoming seizure-free (RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.61 to 2.11; one study, 27 participants; very-low certainty evidence). Concerning tolerability, we ranked AEs associated with topiramate as moderate to severe, while we ranked 59% of AEs linked to valproate as severe complaints (2 studies, 61 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Moreover, systemic toxicity scores were higher in the valproate group than the topiramate group. Overall we judged all three studies to be at high risk of attrition bias and at unclear risk of reporting bias. We judged the studies to be at low to unclear risk of bias for the remaining domains (selection bias, performance bias, detection bias and other bias). We judged the overall certainty of the evidence for the outcomes as very low using the GRADE approach. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We have found no new studies since the last version of this review was published in 2019. This review does not provide sufficient evidence to support topiramate for the treatment of people with JME. Based on the current limited available data, topiramate seems to be better tolerated than valproate, but has no clear benefits over valproate in terms of efficacy. Well-designed, double-blind RCTs with large samples are required to test the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate in people with JME.

15.
J Integr Med ; 2021 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functional constipation (FC) is one of the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorders. Dissatisfaction with medications prescribed to treat FC may lead patients to seek alternative treatments. Numerous systematic reviews (SRs) examining the use of acupuncture to treat FC have reported inconsistent results, and the quality of these studies has not been fully evaluated. OBJECTIVE: In this overview, we evaluated and summarized clinical evidence on the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for treating FC and evaluated the quality and bias of the SRs we reviewed. SEARCH STRATEGY: The search strategy was structured by medical subject headings and search terms such as "acupuncture therapy" and "functional constipation." Electronic searches were conducted in eight databases from their inception to September 2020. INCLUSION CRITERIA: SRs that investigated the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for managing FC were included. DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently extracted information and appraised the methodology, reporting accuracy, quality of evidence, and risk of bias using the following critical appraisal tools: (1) A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews 2 (AMSTAR 2); (2) Risk of Bias in Systematic Reviews (ROBIS); (3) Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses for Acupuncture (PRISMA-A); and (4) the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE). A κ index was used to score the level of agreement between the 2 reviewers. RESULTS: Thirteen SRs that examined the clinical utility of acupuncture for treating FC were identified. Using the AMSTAR 2 tool, we rated 92.3% (12/13) of the SRs as "critically low" confidence and one study as "low" confidence. Using the ROBIS criteria, 38.5% (5/13) of the SRs were considered to have "low risk" of bias. Based on PRISMA-A, 76.9% (10/13) of the SRs had over 70% compliance with reporting standards. The inter-rater agreement was good for AMSTAR 2, ROBIS, and PRISMA-A. Using the GRADE tool, we classified 22.5% (9/40) of the measured outcomes as "moderate" quality, 57.5% (23/40) as "low" quality, and 20.0% (8/40) as "very low" quality. The inter-rater agreement was moderate when using GRADE. Descriptive analyses indicated that acupuncture was more efficacious than sham acupuncture for improving weekly complete spontaneous bowel movements (CSBMs) and for raising the Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS) score. Acupuncture appeared to be superior to anti-constipation drugs for improving weekly spontaneous bowel movements, the total effective rate, and the Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life score. Although ten SRs mentioned the occurrence of adverse events, serious adverse events were not associated with acupuncture treatment. CONCLUSION: Acupuncture may be more efficacious than sham acupuncture for improving CSBMs and BSFS scores and may be superior to anti-constipation drugs for improving bowel movement frequency, as well as quality of life. Limitations to current studies and inconsistent evidence suggest a need for more rigorous and methodologically sound SRs to draw definitive conclusions. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020189173.

16.
Arch Oral Biol ; 133: 105301, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781072

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate claudin-17 (CLDN17) expression in oral cancer and its effect on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), invasion and migration in oral cancer cells. METHODS: The GEO2R tool was used to analyze gene expression in two microarray datasets (GSE74530 and GSE146483) derived from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) verified CLDN17 expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC) patients. Moreover, oral cancer cells were transfected with CLDN17 overexpression plasmid or CLDN17 shRNA to evaluate cell invasion and migration. Gene and protein expression was detected by qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. RESULTS: CLDN17 was one of the top 200 differentially expressed genes in the GSE74530 and GSE146483 datasets and was downregulated in oral cancer. CLDN17 expression was higher in HNSC tissues, and it was related to TNM staging. In HNSC tumors, CLDN17 expression was positively correlated with CDH1 but negatively related to VIM, SNAIL1, SNAIL2, and TWIST1. Meanwhile, we found that CLDN17 expression was lower in oral cancer tissues; it declined with higher T status, N status, M status and staging, lower differentiation grade, and a worse prognosis. Upregulation of CLDN17 inhibited the invasion and migration of oral cancer cells, with elevated CDH1 and reduced VIM, SNAIL1, SNAIL2, and TWIST1, while CLDN17 downregulation had the opposite effects. CONCLUSION: CLDN17 may serve as a tumor suppressor in oral cancer since it could reduce the invasion and migration of cells by inhibiting the EMT process, thus becoming a potential therapeutic target in oral cancer.

17.
Z Gastroenterol ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A disposable upper gastrointestinal endoscope can effectively decrease infectious outbreaks associated with endoscope reuse. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a disposable endoscope for upper gastrointestinal examination. METHODS: In a prospective, randomized trial, 144 upper endoscopic procedures were allocated to either the disposable endoscope group or the conventional endoscope group. The primary outcomes were rates of excellent and good image qualities and maneuverability satisfaction. The second outcome included procedure duration, endoscopic diagnosis, and adverse events. RESULTS: A total of 144 subjects were enrolled in the present analysis and prospectively randomized to 2 study groups. Finally, 70 and 69 subjects were enrolled in the novel disposable endoscope group and the conventional endoscope group, respectively, due to the schedule cancellation of 5 subjects. The baseline characteristics of the patients were similar in both groups. The excellent and good image quality rates and maneuverability satisfaction of the novel disposable endoscope were not inferior to the conventional endoscope (p = 0.99 and p = 0.99, respectively). Moreover, no significant between-group difference was observed in the endoscopic results and adverse events (p = 0.30 and p = 1, respectively). However, the procedure duration in the novel disposable endoscope was longer compared with the conventional endoscope (8.40 ± 4.28 min vs. 5.12 ± 2.65 min, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The novel disposable endoscope was as safe, effective, and maneuverable as a conventional endoscope. However, the novel disposable endoscope was associated with a longer procedure duration.

18.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2100608, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648352

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In a previous phase II trial, hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) with infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) yielded higher treatment responses than transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in large unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. We aimed to compare the overall survival of patients treated with FOLFOX-HAIC versus TACE as first-line treatment in this population. METHODS: In this randomized, multicenter, open-label trial, adults with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (largest diameter ≥ 7 cm) without macrovascular invasion or extrahepatic spread were randomly assigned 1:1 to FOLFOX-HAIC (oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2, leucovorin 400 mg/m2, fluorouracil bolus 400 mg/m2 on day 1, and fluorouracil infusion 2,400 mg/m2 for 24 hours, once every 3 weeks) or TACE (epirubicin 50 mg, lobaplatin 50 mg, and lipiodol and polyvinyl alcohol particles). The primary end point was overall survival by intention-to-treat analysis. Safety was assessed in patients who received ≥ 1 cycle of study treatment. RESULTS: Between October 1, 2016, and November 23, 2018, 315 patients were randomly assigned to FOLFOX-HAIC (n = 159) or TACE (n = 156). The median overall survival in the FOLFOX-HAIC group was 23.1 months (95% CI, 18.5 to 27.7) versus 16.1 months (95% CI, 14.3 to 17.9) in the TACE group (hazard ratio, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.75; P < .001). The FOLFOX-HAIC group showed a higher response rate than the TACE group (73 [46%] v 28 [18%]; P < .001) and a longer median progression-free survival (9.6 [95% CI, 7.4 to 11.9] v 5.4 months [95% CI, 3.8 to 7.0], P < .001). The incidence of serious adverse events was higher in the TACE group than in the FOLFOX-HAIC group (30% v 19%, P = .03). Two deaths in the FOLFOX-HAIC group and two in the TACE group were deemed to be treatment-related. CONCLUSION: FOLFOX-HAIC significantly improved overall survival over TACE in patients with unresectable large hepatocellular carcinoma.

19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(42): e27318, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is a common complication after stroke and is closely related to the poor prognosis of stroke. Antidepressants are the priority drug in the treatment of post-stroke depression (PSD), but there are dependence and adverse reactions. Danzhi Xiaoyao Powder has a good effect on depression without obvious adverse reactions. At present, there is a lack of rigorous randomized controlled trials to evaluate the clinical efficacy of Danzhi Xiaoyao Powder in the treatment of PSD. METHODS: This is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel controlled trial to explore the efficacy and safety of Danzhi Xiaoyao Powder in the treatment of PSD. The participants were randomly divided into treatment group and control group. The treatment group used Danzhi Xiaoyao Powder combined with escitalopram oxalate, and the control group used Danzhi Xiaoyao Powder simulant combined with citalopram oxalate. The two groups were both treated for 8 weeks and followed up for 3 months. Observational index includes: Total response rate, Hamilton depression scale, Barthel index, national institutes of health stroke scale, the modified Edinburgh-Scandinavian stroke scale, Incidence of adverse reactions. Finally, SPASS 22.0 software was used for statistical analysis of the data. DISCUSSION: This study will evaluate the clinical efficacy of Danzhi Xiaoyao Powder in the treatment of PSD. The results of this study will provide reliable evidence for the clinical use of Xiaoyao Powder in the treatment of PSD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework Registration number: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/5V926.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/etiologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem , Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Citalopram/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto Jovem
20.
Front Chem ; 9: 736271, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34532312

RESUMO

Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors, and early diagnosis will be of great significance to improve the survival quality and overall treatment outcome evaluation of patients. Nanoelectrochemical immunosensor is an emerging biosensor combining nanotechnology, electrochemical analysis method and immunological technology, which has simple operation, fast analysis speed, high sensitivity, and good selectivity. This mini-review summarized immunoassay techniques, nanotechnology and electrochemical sensing for the early detection of gastric cancer. In particular, we focus on the tension of carbon nanomaterials in this field, including the functionalized preparation of materials, signal enhancement and the construction of novel sensing interfaces. Currently, various tumor markers are being developed, but the more recognized gastric cancer tumor markers are carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen (CA), CD44V9, miRNAs, and programmed death ligand 1. Among them, the electrochemical immunosensor allows the detection of CEA, CA, and miRNAs. The mini-review focused on the development of using carbon based materials, especially carbon nanotubes and graphene for immunosensor fabrication and gastric cancer markers detection.

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