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1.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 722459, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721454

RESUMO

The efficient utilization of irrigation water and nitrogen is of great importance for sustainable agricultural production. Alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation (APRD) is an innovative water-saving drip irrigation technology. However, the coupling effects of water and nitrogen (N) supply under APRD on crop growth, water and N use efficiency, as well as the utilization and fate of residual nitrates accumulated in the soil profile are not clear. A simulated soil column experiment where 30-40 cm soil layer was 15NO3-labeled as residual nitrate was conducted to investigate the coupling effects of different water [sufficient irrigation (W1), two-thirds of the W1(W2)] and N [high level (N1), 50% of N1 (N2)] supplies under different irrigation modes [conventional irrigation (C), APRD (A)] on tomato growth, irrigation water (IWUE) and N use efficiencies (NUE), and the fate of residual N. The results showed that, compared with CW1N1, AW1N1 promoted root growth and nitrogen absorption, and increased tomato yield, while the N absorption and yield did not vary significantly in AW2N1. The N absorption in AW2N2 decreased by 16.1%, while the tomato yield decreased by only 8.8% compared with CW1N1. The highest IWUE appeared in AW2N1, whereas the highest NUE was observed in AW2N2, with no significant difference in NUE between AW2N1 and CW1N1 at the same N supply level. The 15N accumulation peak layer was almost the same as the originally labeled layer under APRD, whereas it moved 10-20 cm downwards under CW1N1. The amount of 15N accumulated in the 0-40 cm layer increased with the decreasing irrigation water and nitrogen supply, with an increase of 82.9-141.1% in APRD compared with that in CW1N1. The utilization of the 15N labeled soil profile by the tomato plants increased by 9-20.5%, whereas the loss rate of 15N from the plant-soil column system decreased by 21.3-50.1% in APRD compared with the CW1N1 treatment. Thus, APRD has great potential in saving irrigation water, facilitating water use while reducing the loss of residual nitrate accumulated in the soil profile, but has no significant effect on the NUE absorbed.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813573

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) for patients implanted with new-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) in East Asians is currently still controversial. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate the efficacy and safety of short-term DAPT in patients with those. In this study, randomized controlled trials from PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched to compare the efficacy and safety of short-term DAPT (6- month or less) with long-term DAPT (12- month or more) in patients implanted with new-generation DES in East Asian from inception to September 2020. The primary efficacy outcome was all-cause death, the primary safety outcome was major bleeding, and the secondary outcomes included cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, definite or possible stent thrombosis, and stroke.A total of six randomized controlled trials with 15688 patients met inclusion criteria, there were no significant differences in the incidence of all-cause death (RR 1.03, 0.76-1.39, P=0.856), cardiovascular death (RR 0.83, 0.55-1.24, P=0.361), myocardial infarction (RR 0.97, 0.72-1.31, P=0.853), definite or possible stent thrombosis (RR 1.52, 0.83-2.78, P=0.170) and stroke (RR 0.90, 0.61-1.31, P=0.574) between short- term and long- term DAPTs. However, there was a significant difference in the risk of major bleeding (RR 0.64, 0.49-0.85, P=0.002) between the two groups. Compared with long-term DAPT, the short-term DAPT can reduce the risk of major bleeding without increasing the risk of death or ischemia for East Asians (Registered by PROSPERO, CRD42020213266).

3.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 101(Pt A): 108307, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735918

RESUMO

Interleukin-21 (IL-21) has exhibited anti-tumor activity in preclinical and clinical studies; however, its modest efficacy and short half-time has limited its therapeutic utility as a monotherapy. Therefore, we engineered a fusion protein (IL-21-αHSA) in which a nanobody targeting human serum albumin (HSA) was fused to the C-terminus of rhIL-21. The αHSA nanobody displayed broad species cross-reactivity and bound to a HSA epitope that does not overlap with the FcRn binding site, thus providing a strategic design for half-life extension. The IL-21-αHSA fusion protein showed increased stability compared to rhIL-21, while retaining its bioactivity in a liquid solution for at least 6 months. Moreover, IL-21-αHSA showed a dramatically extended half-life and prolonged exposure in cynomolgus monkeys, with the t1/2 and AUC nearly 10 and 50 times greater than that of rhIL-21, respectively. Furthermore, IL-21-αHSA displayed enhanced anti-tumor efficacy in two syngeneic mouse models. Notably, IL-21-αHSA increased the anti-tumor effect of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and T cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT) blockades when used in combination, with a protection against tumor rechallenge, suggesting the formation of long-term anti-tumor memory response. KEGG analysis identified significantly enriched pathways associated with anti-tumor immune response, with increased expression of genes associated with CD8+ T and NK cell cytotoxicity. Overall, these data support further clinical evaluation of IL-21-αHSA as a monotherapy or in combination with immune checkpoint blockades.

4.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740921

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Immunotherapy offers a second-line option for patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) who failed standard therapy, but the biomarkers for predicting response remain to be explored. This study aims to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and correlative biomarker of toripalimab in patients with previously treated mUC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients with mUC received toripalimab 3 mg/kg Q2W. Clinical response was assessed every 8 weeks by an independent review committee per RECIST v1.1. Tumor PD-L1 expression, tumor mutational burden (TMB), and other biomarkers were evaluated. RESULTS: Among the intention-to-treat population (n = 151), 85% of the patients experienced treatment-related adverse event (TRAE) and 20% experienced grade 3 and above TRAE. The objective response rate (ORR) was 26% with a disease control rate (DCR) of 45%. The median duration of response, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 19.7 months (95% CI: 13.9 to NE), 2.3 months (95% CI: 1.8 to 3.6) and 14.4 months (95% CI: 9.3 to 23.1), respectively. Both PD-L1+ and TMB-high (10 mutations/Mb as the cut off) patients had better ORR than PD-L1- patients (42% versus 17%, p = 0.002) and TMB low patients (48% versus 22%, p = 0.014), respectively. The TMB-high group also showed better PFS (12.9 versus 1.8 months, p < 0.001) and OS (not reached versus 10.0 months, p = 0.018) than the TMB-low group. CONCLUSIONS: Toripalimab has demonstrated encouraging clinical activity in the second-line treatment of mUC with a manageable safety profile. PD-L1 expression and TMB were two independent biomarkers in the study.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preliminary studies have suggested that soluble programmed death-1 (sPD-1) and soluble programmed cell death ligand-1 (sPD-L1) have prognostic implications in many malignant tumors. However, the correlation between sPD-1/sPD-L1 level and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still unclear. METHODS: We searched several electronic databases from database inception to October 7, 2021. Meta-analyses were performed separately for overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), time to progression (TTP), and tumor-free survival (TFS). Random effects were introduced to this meta-analysis. The correlation between sPD-1/sPD-L1 level and prognosis was evaluated using hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs). RESULTS: A total of 11 studies (1291 patients) were incorporated into this meta-analysis, including seven on sPD-L1, two on sPD-1, and two about both factors. The pooled results showed that high sPD-L1 level was associated with worse OS (HR = 2.46, 95%CI 1.74-3.49, P < 0.001; I2 = 31.4, P = 0.177) and poorer DFS/RFS/TTP/TFS of patients with HCC (HR = 2.22, 95%CI 1.47-3.35, P < 0.001; I2 = 66.1, P = 0.011), irrespective of method of detection, study type, treatment, cut-off value and follow-up time. In contrast, the level of sPD-1 was not correlated to the OS (HR = 1.19, 95%CI 0.55-2.56, P = 0.657) and DFS/TFS of patients with HCC (HR = 0.94, 95%CI 0.36-2.49, P = 0.906). CONCLUSION: sPD-L1 rather than sPD-1 could be a good predictor for recurrence and survival after treatment for HCC. More high-quality prospective studies are warranted to assess the prognostic value of sPD-1 or sPD-L1 for HCC.

6.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 4562618, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630987

RESUMO

Background: The treatment of C1-C2 fractures mainly depends on fracture type and the stability of the atlantoaxial joint. Disruption of the C1-C2 combination is a big challenge, especially in avoiding vertebral artery, nerve, and vein sinus injury during the operation. Purpose: This study aims to show the benefit of using the posterior approach and pedicle screw insertion by nailing technique and direct visualization to treat unstable C1-C2 and, moreover, to determine the advantages of performing early MRI in patients with limited neck movement after trauma. Method: Between Jan 2017-Feb 2019, we present 21 trauma patients who suffered from C1, C2, or unstable atlantoaxial joint. X-ray, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance image (MRI) were performed preoperatively. All the patients underwent our surgical procedure (posterior approach and pedicle screw placement by direct visualization and nailing technique). Result: The mean age was 41.1 years old, 8 females and 14 males. The average follow-up time was 2.6 years. Four patients were with C1 fracture, seven with C2 fracture, six with atlantoaxial dislocation, and four with C1 and C2 fractures. The time of MRI was between 12 hours and 48 hours; neck movement symptoms appeared between 2 days and 2 weeks. Conclusion: The posterior approach to treat the C1 and C2 fractures or dislocation by direct visualization and nailing technique can reduce the risk of the vertebral artery, vein sinus, and nerve root injuries with significant improvement. It can show a better angle view while inserting the pedicle screws. An early MRI (12-48 hours) is essential even if no symptoms appear at the time of admission, and if it is normal, it is necessary to repeat it. The presence of skull bleeding can be associated with upper neck instability.

7.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 355, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650034

RESUMO

This multicenter phase-II trial aimed to investigate the efficacy, safety, and predictive biomarkers of toripalimab plus chemotherapy as second-line treatment in patients with EGFR-mutant-advanced NSCLC. Patients who failed from first-line EGFR-TKIs and did not harbor T790M mutation were enrolled. Toripalimab plus carboplatin and pemetrexed were administrated every three weeks for up to six cycles, followed by the maintenance of toripalimab and pemetrexed. The primary endpoint was objective-response rate (ORR). Integrated biomarker analysis of PD-L1 expression, tumor mutational burden (TMB), CD8 + tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) density, whole-exome, and transcriptome sequencing on tumor biopsies were also conducted. Forty patients were enrolled with an overall ORR of 50.0% and disease-control rate (DCR) of 87.5%. The median progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival were 7.0 and 23.5 months, respectively. The most common treatment-related adverse effects were leukopenia, neutropenia, anemia, ALT/AST elevation, and nausea. Biomarker analysis showed that none of PD-L1 expression, TMB level, and CD8 + TIL density could serve as a predictive biomarker. Integrated analysis of whole-exome and transcriptome sequencing data revealed that patients with DSPP mutation had a decreased M2 macrophage infiltration and associated with longer PFS than those of wild type. Toripalimab plus chemotherapy showed a promising anti-tumor activity with acceptable safety profiles as the second-line setting in patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC. DSPP mutation might serve as a potential biomarker for this combination. A phase-III trial to compare toripalimab versus placebo in combination with chemotherapy in this setting is ongoing (NCT03924050).

8.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 660360, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557526

RESUMO

Background and Objective: Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is the basis for preventing ischemic events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and DAPT for 12 months has been the standard strategy recommended by the guidelines. However, patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have a higher risk of thrombosis, and the application of very short-term DAPT (1-3 months) in patients with ACS is consistently controversial. The purpose of this study is to explore the efficacy and safety of DAPT for 1-3 months in patients with ACS who were implanted with drug-eluting stents (DES). Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that compared the very short-term (3 months or less) with long-term (12 months or more) DAPT in patients with ACS after PCI. The randomized controlled trials were included by searching PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library database. The relative risk (RR) and 95% CIs for endpoint events were calculated by the fixed effects model, and trial sequential analysis was applied to calculate the anticipated sample size and assess the results. Result: A total of eight randomized controlled trials with 16,492 patients who met the inclusion criteria were conducted. There were no significant statistic differences in myocardial infarction (RR 1.05, 0.82-1.35, P = 0.68), stents thrombosis (RR 1.32, 0.85-2.07, P = 0.22), all-cause death (RR 0.87, 0.66-1.13, P = 0.29), and target vessel revascularization (RR 0.93, 0.76-1.13, P = 0.47). However, there were significant differences in major bleeding (RR 0.60, 0.50-0.73, P < 0.00001) and the net adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (RR 0.84, 0.74-0.95, P = 0.007). Conclusions: The strategy of DAPT for 1-3 months not only has a significant effect in patients with ACS who were implanted with DES but also reduces the risk of major bleeding. The scheme of short-term DAPT followed by P2Y12 receptor inhibitor monotherapy is especially beneficial for patients with ACS. The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis are based on the application of new generation DES and new oral antiplatelet drugs in patients with ACS, which are difficult to use in the general population (Registered by PROSPERO, CRD 42020210520). Systematic Review Registration:https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/, identifier: CRD 42020210520.

9.
Hepatol Int ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have identified an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Sex and regional disparities in incidence of HCC in AIH continue to be reported worldwide. Nevertheless, the magnitude of this gap remains unknown. METHOD: We searched several databases including PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Wanfang Data, CNKI and SinoMed. Incidence rates of HCC in AIH were combined and analyzed following the EBayes method. Incidence rate ratios were pooled to assess the sex differences. The impact of population difference, sex, age, cirrhotic condition was further analyzed with subgroup analysis and linear regression analysis. RESULT: 39 studies meeting our eligibility criteria were chosen for the analysis. The pooled incidence rate of HCC in AIH was 3.54 per 1000 person years (95% CI 2.76-4.55). Pooled IRR for the risk of HCC in male AIH patients compared to female was 2.16 (95% CI 1.25-3.75), with mild heterogeneity among studies. The pooled HCC incidence rate in AIH by continents was as follows: Europe 2.37 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 1.45-3.88), Asia 6.18 per 1000 person-years (95%CI 5.51-6.93), North America 2.97 per 1000 person-years (95%CI 2.40-3.68), Oceania 2.60 (95%CI 0.54-7.58). The pooled HCC incidence rate in AIH-related cirrhosis by continent was as follows: Europe 6.35 per 1000 person-years (95%CI 3.94-10.22), Asia 17.02 per 1000 person-years (95%CI 11.18-25.91), North America 10.89 per 1000 person-years (95%CI 6.69-17.74). CONCLUSION: A higher HCC incidence in AIH was observed among male and in Asian populations. Cirrhosis status at AIH diagnosis is significantly associated with an increased incidence rate for HCC, and routine HCC surveillance is recommended for patients with AIH cirrhosis, especially for those in Asia.

10.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 4798927, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512936

RESUMO

It is difficult to assess and monitor the spinal cord injury (SCI) because of its pathophysiology after injury, with different degrees of prognosis and various treatment methods, including laminectomy, durotomy, and myelotomy. Medical communication services with different factors such as time of surgical intervention, procedure choice, spinal cord perfusion pressure (SCPP), and intraspinal pressure (ISP) contribute a significant role in improving neurological outcomes. This review aims to show the benefits of communication services and factors such as ISP, SCPP, and surgical intervention time in order to achieve positive long-term outcomes after an appropriate treatment method in SCI patients. The SCPP was found between 90 and 100 mmHg for the best outcome, MAP was found between 110 and 130 mmHg, and mean ISP is ≤20 mmHg after injury. Laminectomy alone cannot reduce the pressure between the dura and swollen cord. Durotomy and duroplasty considered as treatment choices after severe traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI).

12.
Phytochemistry ; 192: 112955, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555775

RESUMO

Sesquiterpene lactones supply a variety of scaffolds for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs. In this study, eight undescribed guaianolides, i.e., lavandolides A‒H, were isolated from the whole plants of Artemisia codonocephala, together with five known analogues. Their planar structures and relative configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic measurements, and their absolute configurations were determined by electronic circulardichroism spectra and single crystal X-ray diffraction experiments. The nitric oxide inhibitory effect of all the isolates was assessed on lipopolysaccharide stimulated THP-1 macrophages. Lavandolide D showed a potent inhibitory effect on NO production, with IC50 values of 3.31 ± 0.74 µM. Furthermore, lavandolide D inhibited NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 inflammasome-mediated interleukin-1ß production through activating autophagy.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Interleucina-1beta/biossíntese , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sesquiterpenos de Guaiano/farmacologia , Artemisia/química , Humanos , Inflamassomos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Células THP-1
13.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349236

RESUMO

An epidemic of pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spreading worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 relies on its spike protein to invade host cells by interacting with the human receptor protein Angiotensin-Converting Enzymes 2 (ACE2). Therefore, designing an antibody or small-molecular entry blockers is of great significance for virus prevention and treatment. This study identified five potential small molecular anti-virus blockers via targeting SARS-CoV-2 spike protein by combining in silico technologies with in vitro experimental methods. The five molecules were natural products that binding to the RBD domain of SARS-CoV-2 was qualitatively and quantitively validated by both native Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). Anti-viral activity assays showed that the optimal molecule, H69C2, had a strong binding affinity (dissociation constant KD) of 0.0947 µM and anti-virus IC50 of 85.75 µM.

14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(35): 10069-10081, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410120

RESUMO

Many studies have shown that phenolic compounds such as lignin and flavonoids enhance plant resistance. Tea plants are rich in flavonoid compounds. Whether these compounds are related to tea plant resistance is unclear. In this study, an interesting conclusion was drawn on the basis of experimental results: in response to abiotic stress (except for sucrose treatment), gene expression was increased in the phenylpropanoid and lignin pathways and was reduced in the flavonoid pathway in tea plants. CsHCTs, the genes located at the branch point of the lignin and flavonoid pathways, are most suitable for regulating the ratio of carbon flow in the lignin pathway and flavonoid synthesis. Enzymatic and genetic modification experiments proved that CsHCTs encode hydroxycinnamoyl-coenzyme A:shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the genetic modification results showed that the contents of phenolic acids and lignin were increased in tobacco and Arabidopsis plants overexpressing CsHCTs, whereas the content of flavonol glycosides was decreased. Both types of transgenic plants showed resistance to many abiotic stresses and bacterial infections. We speculate that CsHCTs participate in regulation of the metabolic flow of carbon from the flavonoid pathway to the chlorogenic acid, caffeoylshikimic acid, and lignin pathways to increase resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Camellia sinensis , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lignina/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Chá
15.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 11(7): 1885-1902, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386326

RESUMO

Multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) is significantly hindering effective cancer chemotherapy. However, currently, no ABCB1-inhibitory drugs have been approved to treat MDR cancer clinically, mainly due to the inhibitor specificity, toxicity, and drug interactions. Here, we reported that three polyoxypregnanes (POPs) as the most abundant constituents of Marsdenia tenacissima (M. tenacissima) were novel ABCB1-modulatory pro-drugs, which underwent intestinal microbiota-mediated biotransformation in vivo to generate active metabolites. The metabolites at non-toxic concentrations restored chemosensitivity in ABCB1-overexpressing cancer cells via inhibiting ABCB1 efflux activity without changing ABCB1 protein expression, which were further identified as specific non-competitive inhibitors of ABCB1 showing multiple binding sites within ABCB1 drug cavity. These POPs did not exhibit ABCB1/drug metabolizing enzymes interplay, and their repeated administration generated predictable pharmacokinetic interaction with paclitaxel without obvious toxicity in vivo. We further showed that these POPs enhanced the accumulation of paclitaxel in tumors and overcame ABCB1-mediated chemoresistance. The results suggested that these POPs had the potential to be developed as safe, potent, and specific pro-drugs to reverse ABCB1-mediated MDR. Our work also provided scientific evidence for the use of M. tenacissima in combinational chemotherapy.

16.
Nat Med ; 27(9): 1536-1543, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341578

RESUMO

Gemcitabine-cisplatin (GP) chemotherapy is the standard first-line systemic treatment for recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (RM-NPC). In this international, double-blind, phase 3 trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03581786), 289 patients with RM-NPC and no previous chemotherapy for recurrent or metastatic disease were randomized (1/1) to receive either toripalimab, a monoclonal antibody against human programmed death-1 (PD-1), or placebo in combination with GP every 3 weeks for up to six cycles, followed by monotherapy with toripalimab or placebo. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) as assessed by a blinded independent review committee according to RECIST v.1.1. At the prespecified interim PFS analysis, a significant improvement in PFS was detected in the toripalimab arm compared to the placebo arm: median PFS of 11.7 versus 8.0 months, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.52 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36-0.74), P = 0.0003. An improvement in PFS was observed across key subgroups, including PD-L1 expression. As of 18 February 2021, a 40% reduction in risk of death was observed in the toripalimab arm compared to the placebo arm (HR = 0.603 (95% CI: 0.364-0.997)). The incidence of grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs) (89.0 versus 89.5%), AEs leading to discontinuation of toripalimab/placebo (7.5 versus 4.9%) and fatal AEs (2.7 versus 2.8%) was similar between the two arms; however, immune-related AEs (39.7 versus 18.9%) and grade ≥3 infusion reactions (7.5 versus 0.7%) were more frequent in the toripalimab arm. In conclusion, the addition of toripalimab to GP chemotherapy as a first-line treatment for patients with RM-NPC provided superior PFS compared to GP alone, and with a manageable safety profile.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/imunologia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão
17.
Clin Transl Med ; 11(8): e503, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459131

RESUMO

Intrinsic resistance to CDK4/6 inhibitors hinders their clinical utility in cancer treatment. Furthermore, the predictive markers of CDK4/6 inhibitors in gastric cancer (GC) remain incompletely described. Here, we found that PAX6 expression was negatively correlated with the response to palbociclib in vitro and in vivo in GC. We observed that the PAX6 expression level was negatively correlated with the overall survival of GC patients and further showed that PAX6 can promote GC cell proliferation and the cell cycle. The cell cycle is regulated by the interaction of cyclins with their partner serine/threonine cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and the G1/S-phase transition is the main target of CDK4/6 inhibitors. Therefore, we tested whether PAX6 expression was correlated with the GC response to palbociclib. We found that PAX6 hypermethylates the promoter of LATS2 and inactivates the Hippo pathway, which upregulates cyclin D1 (CCND1) expression. This results in a suppressed response to palbociclib in GC. Furthermore, we found that the induction of the Hippo signaling pathway or treatment with a DNA methylation inhibitor could overcome PAX6-induced palbociclib resistance in GC. These findings uncover a tumor promoter function of PAX6 in GC and establish overexpressed PAX6 as a mechanism of resistance to palbociclib.

18.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(604)2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321321

RESUMO

The immature and dysfunctional vascular network within solid tumors poses a substantial obstacle to immunotherapy because it creates a hypoxic tumor microenvironment that actively limits immune cell infiltration. The molecular basis underpinning this vascular dysfunction is not fully understood. Using genome-scale receptor array technology, we showed here that insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) interacts with its receptor CD93, and we subsequently demonstrated that this interaction contributes to abnormal tumor vasculature. Both CD93 and IGFBP7 were up-regulated in tumor-associated endothelial cells. IGFBP7 interacted with CD93 via a domain different from multimerin-2, the known ligand for CD93. In two mouse tumor models, blockade of the CD93/IGFBP7 interaction by monoclonal antibodies promoted vascular maturation to reduce leakage, leading to reduced tumor hypoxia and increased tumor perfusion. CD93 blockade in mice increased drug delivery, resulting in an improved antitumor response to gemcitabine or fluorouracil. Blockade of the CD93 pathway triggered a substantial increase in intratumoral effector T cells, thereby sensitizing mouse tumors to immune checkpoint therapy. Last, analysis of samples from patients with cancer under anti-programmed death 1/programmed death-ligand 1 treatment revealed that overexpression of the IGFBP7/CD93 pathway was associated with poor response to therapy. Thus, our study identified a molecular interaction involved in tumor vascular dysfunction and revealed an approach to promote a favorable tumor microenvironment for therapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Animais , Células Endoteliais , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Camundongos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Microambiente Tumoral
19.
Fitoterapia ; 153: 104961, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129923

RESUMO

Ten undescribed noreudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids, including eight 12,13-dinoreudesmanes and a pair of 11,12,13-trinoreudesmane epimers were isolated from the whole plant of Artemisia hedinii. Their structures were elucidated by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data, including MS, 1D and 2D NMR, and their absolute configurations were confirmed by X-ray diffraction experiments and DFT calculations. Compounds 1-5, 7-10 were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activities in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophages RAW264.7 cells, and all of them could significantly inhibit the LPS induced CCL2 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Artemisia/química , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Quimiocina CCL2 , China , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação
20.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 126: 112182, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082982

RESUMO

Ideal bone tissue engineering scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) require excellent osteoconductive ability to imitate the bone environment. We developed a mineralised tissue-derived ECM-modified true bone ceramic (TBC) scaffold for the delivery of aspartic acid-modified bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) peptide (P28) and assessed its osteogenic capacity. Decellularized ECM from porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) was coated onto the surface of TBC, followed by mineralisation modification (mSIS/TBC). P28 was subsequently immobilised onto the scaffolds in the absence of a crosslinker. The alkaline phosphatase activity and other osteogenic differentiation marker results showed that osteogenesis of the P28/mSIS/TBC scaffolds was significantly greater than that of the TBC and mSIS/TBC groups. In addition, to examine the osteoconductive capability of this system in vivo, we established a rat calvarial bone defect model and evaluated the new bone area and new blood vessel density. Histological observation showed that P28/mSIS/TBC exhibited favourable bone regeneration efficacy. This study proposes the use of mSIS/TBC loaded with P28 as a promising osteogenic scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea , Osteogênese , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Matriz Extracelular , Peptídeos , Ratos , Suínos , Tecidos Suporte
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