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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 733225, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721396

RESUMO

Background: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) usually occurs in the third trimester and is associated with increased risks in fetal complications. Currently, the exact mechanism of this disease is unknown. The purpose of this study was to develop potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and prediction of ICP. Methods: We enrolled 40 pregnant women diagnosed with ICP and 40 healthy pregnant controls. The number of placental samples and serum samples between the two groups was 10 and 40 respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to analyze placental metabolomics. Then, we verified the differentially expressed proteins and metabolites, both placental and blood serum, in the first, second, and third trimesters. Results: Metabolomic analysis of placental tissue revealed that fatty acid metabolism and primary bile acid biosynthesis were enriched. In the integrated proteomic and metabolomic analysis of placental tissue, peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1), L-palmitoylcarnitine, and glycocholic acid were found to be three potential biomarkers. In a follow-up analysis, expression levels of both placental and serum ACOX1, L-palmitoylcarnitine, and glycocholic acid in both placenta and serum were found to be significantly higher in third-trimester ICP patients; the areas under the ROC curves were 0.823, 0.896, and 0.985, respectively. Expression levels of serum ACOX1, L-palmitoylcarnitine, and glycocholic acid were also significantly higher in first- and second-trimester ICP patients; the areas under the ROC curves were 0.726, 0.657, and 0.686 in the first trimester and 0.718, 0.727, and 0.670 in the second trimester, respectively. Together, levels of the three aforementioned biomarkers increased the value for diagnosing and predicting ICP (AUC: 0.993 for the third, 0.891 for the second, and 0.932 for the first trimesters). Conclusions: L-palmitoylcarnitine, ACOX1, and glycocholic acid levels taken together may serve as a new biomarker set for the diagnosis and prediction of ICP.

2.
Elife ; 102021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761751

RESUMO

UCH37, also known as UCHL5, is a highly conserved deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) that associates with the 26S proteasome. Recently, it was reported that UCH37 activity is stimulated by branched ubiquitin (Ub) chain architectures. To understand how UCH37 achieves its unique debranching specificity, we performed biochemical and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) structural analyses and found that UCH37 is activated by contacts with the hydrophobic patches of both distal Ubs that emanate from a branched Ub. In addition, RPN13, which recruits UCH37 to the proteasome, further enhances branched-chain specificity by restricting linear Ub chains from having access to the UCH37 active site. In cultured human cells under conditions of proteolytic stress, we show that substrate clearance by the proteasome is promoted by both binding and deubiquitination of branched polyubiquitin by UCH37. Proteasomes containing UCH37(C88A), which is catalytically inactive, aberrantly retain polyubiquitinated species as well as the RAD23B substrate shuttle factor, suggesting a defect in recycling of the proteasome for the next round of substrate processing. These findings provide a foundation to understand how proteasome degradation of substrates modified by a unique Ub chain architecture is aided by a DUB.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the past two decades, human antibiotic consumption has increased globally, contributing to the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance and calling for urgent effective actions. OBJECTIVES: To systematically identify and collate studies exploring non-biomedical factors influencing healthcare consumers' antibiotic use globally, in order to inform future interventions to improve antibiotic use practices. METHODS: Data sources: PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Original and empirical studies that identified factors for healthcare consumers' antibiotic use. PARTICIPANTS: Healthcare consumers. Assessment of risk of bias: Adapted BMJ survey appraisal tools, the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist, and the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool were utilised for quality assessment. Methods of data synthesis: The Social Ecological Framework and Health Belief Model were employed for data synthesis. We did random-effects meta-analyses to pool the odds ratios of risk factors for antibiotic use. RESULTS: We included 71 articles for systematic review and analysis: 54 quantitative, nine qualitative, and eight mixed-methods studies. Prevalent non-prescription antibiotic uses and irresponsible prescriptions were reported globally, especially in low-to-middle income countries. Barriers to healthcare - wait time, transportation, stigmatization - influenced people's antibiotic use practices. Further, lack of oversight and regulation in the drug manufacturing and weak supply chain have led to the use of substandard or falsified antibiotics. Knowledge had mixed effects on antibiotic use behaviours. Meta-analyses identified pro-attitudes towards self-medication with antibiotics, relatives having medical backgrounds, older age, living in rural areas, and storing antibiotics at home to be risk factors for self-medication with antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: Non-prescription antibiotic use and irresponsible prescriptions in the community are prevalent in all WHO regions and largely driven by a mixed collection of non-biomedical factors specific to the respective setting. Future AMR strategies should incorporate implementation science approach for community-based complex interventions that addresses drivers of the target behaviours tailored to local contexts.

4.
Subst Use Misuse ; : 1-9, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In November 2016, California voters passed the Adult Use of Marijuana Act making recreational cannabis sales legal to adults aged 21and older starting January 1st, 2018. This study aims to understand the relationship of cannabis use and cigarette smoking with serious psychological distress (SPD) in California in light of the legalization of recreational cannabis sales. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 42,313 adult participants from the 2017 to 2018 California Health Interview Surveys. We used the Kessler-6 (K6) scale to measure psychological distress in the past 30 days. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the association between cannabis/cigarette use and SPD. RESULTS: Cannabis use was positively associated with SPD (AOR = 2.48, 95% CI = 1.57, 3.91), but this association was not significantly different before and after recreational cannabis sales legalization in California (AOR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.72, 2.05). Cigarette smoking was also positively associated with SPD (AOR = 2.76, 95% CI = 2.05, 3.71). Compared to those who used neither cannabis nor cigarettes, sole cannabis users (AOR = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.75, 3.60), sole cigarette smokers (AOR = 3.23, 95% CI = 2.28, 4.60), and dual users of cannabis and cigarettes (AOR = 5.65, 95% CI = 4.04, 7.89) were more likely to report SPD. Dual users were also more likely to report SPD than sole cannabis users (AOR = 2.25; 95% CI = 1.48, 3.43) and sole cigarette smokers (AOR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.18, 2.59). CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide evidence for the need to develop effective cessation intervention strategies targeting individuals with SPD to reduce their cannabis use and dual-use of cannabis and cigarettes.

5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1900, 2021 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, HIV testing has become one of the effective strategies to reduce the risk of the infection. Frequent quarterly HIV testing can be cost effective. Therefore, an in-depth study of factors related to the testing behavior of men who have sex with men (MSM) were analyzed to optimize intervention strategies. METHODS: From March 2011 to October 2018, the project was implemented in a Tianjin (China) bathhouse, and 5165 MSM were surveyed using snowball sampling. Factors related to HIV testing behavior were analyzed by ordinal logistic regression analysis after grouping according to testing frequency, and comprehensive analysis was performed. RESULTS: The multivariate logistic analysis showed that 6 variables including young MSM (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.49-0.92, p = 0.01), low-educated MSM (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.48-0.77, p < 0.0001), low HIV/AIDS knowledge (95% CI: 0.57-0.83, p < 0.0001), marital status (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.07-1.57, p = 0.007), acceptance of condom promotion and distribution (OR = 14.52, 95% CI: 12.04-17.51, p < 0.0001), and frequency of condom use (p < 0.05) could link to HIV testing behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: In order to achieve the 95-95-95 goal, target publicity, HIV/AIDS education and promotion of HIV self-testing kits should be carried out to encourage frequent HIV testing among MSM who are young (especially students), married to women, poorly educated and who are reluctant to always use condoms.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , China/epidemiologia , Preservativos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Teste de HIV , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Comportamento Sexual , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Chin Med ; 16(1): 109, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is distinguished by Syndrome differentiation, which prescribes various formulae for different Syndromes of same disease. This study aims to investigate the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Using a strategy which integrated proteomics, metabolomics study for clinic samples and network pharmacology for six classic TCM formulae, we systemically explored the biological basis of TCM Syndrome differentiation for two typical Syndromes of CHD: Cold Congealing and Qi Stagnation (CCQS), and Qi Stagnation and Blood Stasis (QSBS). RESULTS: Our study revealed that CHD patients with CCQS Syndrome were characterized with alteration in pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, while more extensively altered pathways including D-glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism; alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, and glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, were present in QSBS patients. Furthermore, our results suggested that the down-expressed PON1 and ADIPOQ might be potential biomarkers for CCQS Syndrome, while the down-expressed APOE and APOA1 for QSBS Syndrome in CHD patients. In addition, network pharmacology and integrated analysis indicated possible comorbidity differences between the two Syndromes, that is, CCQS or QSBS Syndrome was strongly linked to diabetes or ischemic stroke, respectively, which is consistent with the complication disparity between the enrolled patients with two different Syndromes. These results confirmed our assumption that the molecules and biological processes regulated by the Syndrome-specific formulae could be associated with dysfunctional objects caused by the Syndrome of the disease. CONCLUSION: This study provided evidence-based strategy for exploring the biological basis of Syndrome differentiation in TCM, which sheds light on the translation of TCM theory in the practice of precision medicine.

7.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 687827, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557424

RESUMO

Background: Gut microbiota dysbiosis can contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis. We investigated the association of the gut microbiota and the severity of coronary artery lesions and prognosis of patients with ACS. Methods: In this case-control study, 402 ACS patients and 100 controls were enrolled from June 2017 to December 2018. The number of bacterial species was determined by real-time PCR. A SYNTAX score was calculated for all ACS patients based on their coronary angiography results. Results: Compared with the healthy controls, the gut microbial levels in Escherichia coli, Streptococcus, and Enterobacteriaceae were significantly increased in ACS patients, while the Lactobacillus level was significantly decreased. Lactobacillus level was as an independent predictor of disease severity on the coronary angiography [high vs. low SYNTAX score: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.024, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.004-0.155] and myocardial necrosis [high vs. low cardiac troponin T (cTNT): aOR = 0.317, 95% CI: 0.099-0.914]. Subsequently, a higher Lactobacillus level was associated with a lower risk of an all-cause death [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 0.239; 95% CI: 0.093-0.617] and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in ACS patients (aHR = 0.208; 95% CI: 0.081-0.531). After stratifying by the type of ACS, a higher Lactobacillus level was significantly associated with the decreased risks of high SYNTAX score, all-cause death, and MACE in the STEMI subgroup but not in the NSTEMI and UAP subgroups. Conclusions: Lower Lactobacillus levels may indicate a higher risk of a more severe coronary atherosclerotic lesions and myocardial necrosis and worse prognosis for patients with ACS, particularly in the STEMI subgroup.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Aterosclerose , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Angiografia Coronária , Humanos , Lactobacillus
8.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; : 1-5, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565271

RESUMO

An early screening of HPV and the Thinprep Cytology Test (TCT) can effectively prevent cervical cancer. However, patients with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia usually escape current screening methods and commonly develop cervical cancer. Hence, to identify effective and specific screening methods for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is of vital necessity. In this study, 541 patients collected in Sun Yat-Sen hospital from January 2007 to December 2016 were selected. HPV genotype detection and SCC-ag detection were done in these patients. It was found that when serum SCC-ag level exceeded over 0.39 ng/ml in HPV-16 positive patients, the sensitivity and specificity of this novel approach to predict high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia could reach to 83.1% and 62.1%, respectively. The result suggested that the combination of serum SCC-ag level and HPV-16 infection could be used as a novel approach for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia screening.Impact statementWhat is already known on this subject? Patients with a high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia usually escape current screening methods.What do the results of this study add? When serum SCC-ag level exceeded over 0.39 ng/ml in HPV-16 positive patients, the sensitivity and specificity to predict high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia could reach to 83.1 and 62.1%, respectively.What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? Combination of serum SCC-ag level and HPV-16 infection could be used to screen high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

9.
Anim Biosci ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530505

RESUMO

Objective: Inosine monophosphate (IMP) is a key factor that imparts of meat flavor. Differences in the IMP content in the muscles were evaluated to improve chicken meat quality. Methods: For this study, the IMP content was detected by high performance liquid chromatography. The gene expression profiles of Jingyuan chickens with different feeding patterns and different sexes were analyzed by RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). Results: Breast muscle IMP content in free-range chickens was extremely significantly higher than that of caged chickens (p < 0.01). Breast muscle IMP content in hens was also higher than that of cocks, but the difference was not significant. Correlation analysis showed that the breast muscle IMP content in caged hens and cocks was negatively correlated with the shear force, and the breast muscle IMP content in free-range hens was significantly negatively correlated with the shear force (p < 0.05). The two key genes associated with IMP synthesis in chickens with different feeding patterns were glutamate-ammonia ligase (GLUL) and phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A). Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the GLUL and PDE10A genes are involved in glutamine biosynthesis and purine salvage pathways respectively. In addition, GLUL expression was positively correlated with the IMP content in caged and free-range chickens, and PDE10A expression was significantly positively correlated with the IMP content in caged and free-range chickens (p < 0.05). Conclusion: These findings will facilitate the comprehension of the deposition of IMP in the muscles and thereby aid the process of selection and breeding of good quality local chickens.

10.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500797

RESUMO

Despite significant advances in biological and analytical approaches, a comprehensive portrait of the proteome and its dynamic interactions and modifications remains a challenging goal. Chemical proteomics is a growing area of chemical biology that seeks to design small molecule probes to elucidate protein composition, distribution, and relevant physiological and pharmacological functions. Click chemistry focuses on the development of new combinatorial chemical methods for carbon heteroatom bond (C-X-C) synthesis, which have been utilized extensively in the field of chemical proteomics. Click reactions have various advantages including high yield, harmless by-products, and simple reaction conditions, upon which the molecular diversity can be easily and effectively obtained. This paper reviews the application of click chemistry in proteomics from four aspects: (1) activity-based protein profiling, (2) enzyme-inhibitors screening, (3) protein labeling and modifications, and (4) hybrid monolithic column in proteomic analysis.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Proteoma/análise , Proteômica , Química Click , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Estrutura Molecular , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
11.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 949, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytology and HPV genotype screening play an important role in cervical cancer detection. Whether multiple HPV genotyping can predict cytological lesions remains to be further studied. METHODS: Two thousand two hundred twenty-four females were analyzed for cytology and HPV genotypes test. The possibility of predicting cytological lesions by HPV genotypes test was evaluated by multivariate logistic regression and area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC). RESULT: Abnormal cytological results were found in 479 participants. A total of 688 patients were detected with HPV infection, 619 with HR-HPV infection and 112 with LR-HRV infection. HPV-52 was found to be the most common type among these patients, and a relatively higher risk of cervical lesions was found in HPV positive females. HPV-16, 31, 33 and 58 were found to have significantly higher infection rates in patients with HSIL and higher lesions. The prediction model was developed based on age and HPV-specific genotypes, with the AUC of 0.73 for cytological abnormalities and 0.82 for HSIL and higher lesions. CONCLUSION: HPV-16, 31, 33 and 58 infection are significant risk factors for cervical lesions. Combined HPV genotypes test can effectively predict cytological abnormalities.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Citodiagnóstico/métodos , Técnicas Citológicas/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Medição de Risco/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
12.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(6): 2026-2038, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227292

RESUMO

Podophyllotoxin (PTOX) is an aryl-tetralin lignan of plant origin found in some species of Podophyllum such as Dysosma versipellis, Diphylleia sinensis, and Sinopodophyllum hexandrum. Etoposide and teniposide are produced semisynthetically from PTOX and used clinically to treat several forms of cancer. As a typical representative of new drug discovery from natural products, the production of PTOX solely depends on extraction from plants, resulting in severe contradiction between supply and demand. With the advantages of unconstrained resources and eco-friendly reaction conditions, biosynthesis method has become a trend in the production of PTOX and its derivatives. In this review, we summarize the research progress of PTOX biosynthesis in plants and expound the functions of the key enzymes as well as their subcellular location. The synthetic biology for production of PTOX intermediates in a tobacco chassis is also introduced. Finally, the heterologous expression and biotransformation of PTOX in microorganisms is summarized, which sets the foundation for the efficient microbial production of PTOX using cell factories.


Assuntos
Podofilotoxina/biossíntese , Podophyllum , Genes de Plantas , Podophyllum/genética
13.
Front Oncol ; 11: 598594, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34123775

RESUMO

Background: Vulvar cancer is the fourth most common gynecologic cancer, and prognosis is poor in advanced vulvar cancer patients. Treatment for advanced vulvar cancer has not been satisfactory. In this report, we firstly report a FIGO IVB vulva verrucous carcinoma patient who obtained good prognosis after systemic treatment. Case Presentation: A patient was admitted to hospital due to her vulvar lesion persistent for past 14 years. The vulvar mass has widely invaded urethra, part of anus, the lower third of the vagina, bilateral superior and inferior branches of pubis, and bilateral internal and external muscles of obturator. Multiple metastatic lymph nodes were also found in the pelvic cavity. The histopathological studies confirmed vulvar verrucous carcinoma with a PD-L1 overexpression. After six courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and pembrolizumab, the patient underwent radical vulvectomy and achieved optimal cytoreduction. Postoperative pathology found no residual tumor. The patient then received one course of postoperative chemotherapy and pembrolizumab, underwent radiation therapy, and was disease free after 6 months follow-up. Conclusion: Our individualized treatment strategy is successful. Pembrolizumab is safe and effective in the treatment of advanced vulvar verrucous carcinoma with PD-L1 overexpression.

14.
Front Oncol ; 11: 666597, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34178650

RESUMO

Objective: Cervical cancer is a frequently encountered gynecological malignancy as a major contributor to cancer-related deaths in women. This study focuses on how miR-193b promotes cervical cancer aggressiveness as well as the role of m6A in miR-193b silencing. Methods: Cervical cancer samples and the matching adjacent normal cervical tissues were used to determine the significance of miR-193b in cervical cancer. The CCK-8 assay, cell cycle analysis, qRT-PCR, Western blot assay, IHC, RIP, and xenograft models were utilized to explore the impact of miR-193b in cervical cancer and how m6A regulates miR-193b expression. Luciferase reporter assays, qRT-PCR, and Western blotting were enlisted to study the interaction between miR-193b and CCND1. Results: Our study suggested that lower miR-193b expressions were strongly linked to more advanced cervical cancer stages and the presence of deeper stromal invasion. miR-193b functions as a tumor suppressor that is regulated by m6A methylation in cervical tumors. METTL3 modulates miR-193b mature process in an m6A-dependent manner. Reintroduction of miR-193b profoundly inhibits tumorigenesis of cervical cancer cells both in vivo and in vitro through CCND1 targeting. Conclusions: m6A associated downregulation of miR-193b promotes cervical cancer aggressiveness by targeting CCND1.

15.
Nano Lett ; 21(13): 5586-5592, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138575

RESUMO

Dislocations often exhibit unique physical properties distinct from those of the bulk material. However, functional applications of dislocations are challenging due to difficulties in the construction of high-performance devices of dislocations. Here we demonstrate unidirectional single-dislocation Schottky diode arrays in a Fe2O3 thin film on Nb-doped SrTiO3 substrates. Conductivity measurements using conductive atomic force microscopy indicate that a net current will flow through individual dislocation Schottky diodes under forward bias and disappear under reverse bias. Under cyclic bias voltages, the single-dislocation Schottky diodes exhibit a distinct resistive switching behavior containing low-resistance and high-resistance states with a high resistance ratio of ∼103. A combined study of transmission electron microscopy and first-principles calculations reveals that the Fe2O3 dislocations comprise mixed Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions due to O deficiency and exhibit a one-dimensional electrical conductivity. The single-dislocation Schottky diodes may find applications for developing ultrahigh-density electronic and memory devices.

16.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 23(12): 2091-2101, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137859

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: On April 1, 2017, California Proposition 56 (Prop 56) was implemented, increasing the excise tax on cigarettes by $2/pack. This study compares the association of Prop 56 with smoking prevalence and smoking intensity across racial/ethnic groups, further examining distinctions across income subgroups within each racial/ethnic group. AIMS AND METHODS: The study used pooled cross-sectional data from the 2012-2018 California Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We examined two outcomes: current smoking prevalence and smoking intensity conditional on current smoking. A two-part econometric model was used to estimate the association of Prop 56 with smoking prevalence and intensity using multiple logistic regression and multiple linear regression, respectively. The two-part model was run separately for all adults (full sample) and each racial/ethnic group. Within each racial/ethnic group, we ran stratified analyses by income subgroups. RESULTS: The results indicated that Prop 56 was negatively associated with smoking prevalence among full sample, Hispanic, White, and African American adults and negatively associated with smoking intensity among full sample and White smokers. Stratified analyses by race/ethnicity and income showed that Prop 56 was negatively associated with smoking prevalence among low-income full sample and White adults and among middle-income smokers in the full, Hispanic, White, African American, and Asian samples. Prop 56 was negatively associated with smoking intensity among middle-income Hispanic and high-income White smokers. The association between Prop 56 and smoking intensity was positive among high-income African American smokers. CONCLUSION: Prop 56 was associated with a reduction in smoking prevalence across multiple racial/ethnic groups, particularly within the low- and middle-income subgroups. IMPLICATIONS: Our findings indicate that the reduction in smoking prevalence immediately following the implementation of Prop 56 tobacco tax increase was significant across a variety racial/ethnic groups, particularly low- and middle-income subgroups. We found differential responses in smoking prevalence across income groups among Whites but not among racial/ethnic minorities. We found no evidence of any significance association between Proposition 56 and smoking intensity among minorities and economically vulnerable populations, except for middle-income Hispanics. Researchers, policy makers, and advocates should consider the additional merits of targeted, community-based, noneconomic tobacco control interventions in reaching low- and middle-income groups within racial/ethnic minorities.

17.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 644886, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33995055

RESUMO

Myocardial fibrosis is closely related to high morbidity and mortality. In Inner Mongolia, Gentianella amarella subsp. acuta (Michx.) J.M.Gillett (G. acuta) is a kind of tea used to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Bellidifolin (BEL) is an active xanthone molecule from G. acuta that protects against myocardial damage. However, the effects and mechanisms of BEL on myocardial fibrosis have not been reported. In vivo, BEL dampened isoprenaline (ISO)-induced cardiac structure disturbance and collagen deposition. In vitro, BEL inhibited transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1-induced cardiac fibroblast (CF) proliferation. In vivo and in vitro, BEL decreased the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen Ⅰ and Ⅲ, and inhibited TGF-ß1/Smads signaling. Additionally, BEL impeded p38 activation and NR4A1 (an endogenous inhibitor for pro-fibrogenic activities of TGF-ß1) phosphorylation and inactivation in vitro. In CFs, inhibition of p38 by SB203580 inhibited the phosphorylation of NR4A1 and did not limit Smad3 phosphorylation, and blocking TGF-ß signaling by LY2157299 and SB203580 could decrease the expression of α-SMA, collagen I and III. Overall, both cell and animal studies provide a potential role for BEL against myocardial fibrosis by inhibiting the proliferation and phenotypic transformation of CFs. These inhibitory effects might be related to regulating TGF-ß1/Smads pathway and p38 signaling and preventing NR4A1 cytoplasmic localization.

18.
Hellenic J Cardiol ; 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) in predicting major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients is still an open question, and the PCSK9 concentration of clinical usefulness remains unknown in guiding treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 272 patients with NSTEMI were included in our prospective observational cohort study. Patients were followed up for 1 year. Their baseline plasma PCSK9 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients were divided into high, medium, and low PCSK9 groups. All patients followed up for the occurrence of MACEs and received PCI therapy after admission. The associations of PCSK9 with MACEs were evaluated. The results showed that the incidence of composite MACEs was greater at higher concentrations of PCSK9. PCSK9 level was related to the level of lipoproteins, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), platelet volume distribution width, and D-Dimer. There was also a statistically significant correlation between PCSK9 concentrations and the GRACE score. The Kaplan-Meier curves showed that patients with high PCSK9 level had lower event-free survival rate. The survival analysis indicated high level of PCSK9-predicted MACEs independently. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that the prognostic value of high PCSK9 level was greater for patients classified by the GRACE score as high risk. CONCLUSION: In an NSTEMI setting, the concentration of PCSK9 is associated with hypercoagulability and hyperinflammation. High levels of PCSK9 independently predict future MACEs in patients with NSTEMI, particularly those classified by the GRACE score as high risk.

19.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(5): 5231-5243, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, the hospital admission rate of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients has exhibited an increasing trend, and a forthcoming transition from ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) to NSTEMI has been observed in China. The association between serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) within 12 months after discharge among patients with NSTEMI remains unclear. METHODS: A total of 1,357 consecutively admitted NSTEMI patients were from the TAMI cohort. The patients' baseline demographic and clinical information were collected, and follow-up was carried out for 12 months. The primary outcome was composite MACEs consisting of all-cause death, hospital admission for unstable angina, hospital admission for heart failure, non fatal recurrent myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization (TLR). We adopted a Cox proportional hazard model to analyze the effect of NT-proBNP on MACEs and quantified the added prognostic value of NT-proBNP on the Global Registry of Acute CoronaryEvents (GRACE) risk score using the Harrell C-index, NRI, and IDI. RESULTS: The overall average follow-up period was 313 days. In total, 211 (15.55%) patients suffered from at least one MACE, and 97 patients were lost to follow-up, with a median follow-up time of 147 days. As the NT-proBNP level increased, a significant uptrend in the incidence of composite MACEs, all-cause death, and heart failure was observed. The multivariable Cox model revealed that NT-proBNP was an independent risk factor for composite MACEs [medium- vs. low-, HR: 2.19 (1.45-3.32), P=0.0002]; [high- vs. low-, HR: 3.07 (1.78-5.29), P<0.0001], as well as for all-cause death and heart failure. Subgroup analysis indicated that NT-proBNP was a robust prognostic biomarker, and the prognostic value was more evident for patients older than 60 years and whose LVEF was less than 40%. NT-proBNP (log-scale) was moderately correlated with the GRACE score (r=0.58, P<0.0001). The Harrell C-index of NT-proBNP combined with the GRACE score was 0.7715, which was higher than that of the GRACE score alone (0.7149) for predicting composite MACEs, and this improvement was verified by significant IDI (0.064, 95% CI: 0.027-0.106). CONCLUSIONS: NT-proBNP is a robust long-term prognostic biomarker for patients diagnosed with NSTEMI, especially for older patients and those with impaired cardiac ejection function. Combined usage of NT-proBNP levels with the GRACE score might help identify a subset of NSTEMI patients at a particularly high risk of MACEs 12 months after discharge.


Assuntos
Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Biomarcadores , China , Humanos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco
20.
Semin Oncol Nurs ; 37(3): 151148, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011460

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the impacts of team health education on radiodermatitis in patients undergoing head and neck radiotherapy. DATA SOURCES: A total of 118 patients undergoing radiotherapy at the Oncology Department of Qingdao Municipal Hospital under the Joint Committee International (JCI) accreditation standards of medical and health institutions were divided into two groups according to the order of the admission: the intervention group (n = 66) and the control group (n = 52). The patients in the control group were given routine nursing, while those in the intervention group received team health education based on the control group. The incidence and satisfaction of radiodermatitis were observed and compared between the groups, and the EORTC QLQ-C30 and General Quality of Life Inventory-74 were used to evaluate the patients' quality of life when after radiotherapy and when after 6 months post the radiotherapy, respectively. CONCLUSION: The incidence of radiodermatitis was 100% in both groups, and the difference in the grade of radiodermatitis and quality of life was significant (P < .05) between them. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE: Team health education under the JCI standards team can reduce the degree of skin injury due to radiodermatitis and improve the quality of life.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Radiodermatite , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Radiodermatite/etiologia , Radiodermatite/prevenção & controle
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