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1.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 195: 113828, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349474

RESUMO

The dried roots of Euphorbia kansui (EK) are especially beneficial for the treatment of edema, but the severe toxicity limits their clinical applications. Euphorbia kansui stir-fried with vinegar (VEK) is traditionally employed to reduce the toxicity of EK. However, the material basis for the toxicity reduction with effectivity conservation is still unclear. Therefore, in this study, a rapid, sensitive, and reliable ultra-fast liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method was firstly established to simultaneously determine six ingenane-type diterpenoids, i.e. kansuiphorin C (1), 5-O-benzoyl-20-deoxyingenol (2), 20-deoxyingenol (3), 3-O-(2'E,4'E-decadienoyl)-20-O-acetylingenol (4), 20-O-(2'E,4'Z-decadienoyl)ingenol (5), and ingenol (6), in EK and VEK based on the processing conversion. Then, the toxicity evaluation on zebrafish embryos and modulation of the expression of aquaporin-3 (AQP3) proteins in HT-29 cells were employed to investigate the toxicity-activity of six compounds. Chromatographic separation was obtained on Waters BEH RP18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 2.5 µm) with the mobile phase composed of 0.1 % formic acid in acetonitrile and water, respectively. The column temperature was 35 ℃ at a flow rate of 0.4 mL min-1. Multiple reaction monitoring was conducted in both positive and negative modes for quantitative analysis. The method was then successfully used for the determination of six compounds in EK and VEK. In addition, 1, 2, 4, and 5 had evident cardiotoxicity, intestinal irritation and nutrient absorption disorders on zebrafish larvae, while no in-vivo toxicity was seen for groups given 3 and 6 (LC50 > 200 µM). Meanwhile, 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 significantly increased the expression of AQP3 protein (p < 0.05) to promote the excretion of water in the colon. This study demonstrated that toxic ingenane-type diterpenoids converted into the less toxic compounds with the same core structure through the breakage of multiple ester bonds in the side chain. At the same time, the laxative effect was retained, providing useful information for the optimization of the process of EK and quality evaluation of other similar toxic Chinese herbal medicines.

2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 113583, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189845

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Shizaotang (SZT), consisted of Euphorbia kansui S.L.Liou ex S.B.Ho (EK), Euphorbia pekinensis Rupr. (EP), Daphne genkwa Sieb. et Zucc. (DG,fried) and Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (ZJ), is usually used for treating malignant pleural effusions (MPE), but the toxicity of EK and EP limits its clinical safe application. It was reported that vinegar processing can reduce the toxicity of EK and EP. Whether EK and EP processing with vinegar can cause the reduced toxicity and retained pharmacological effects of SZT, it still remains unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: We aimed to evaluate whether using vinegar processed EK and EP would reduce toxicity and preserve water expelling effect of SZT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Network pharmacology and qualitative analysis of SZT/VSZT were used to construct compound-target-pathway network of their effects and toxicity. Pleural fluid weight, urine volume, uric electrolyte, pH, pro-inflammatory cytokines in pleural fluid, serum Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS), anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) and intestinal aquaporin 8 (AQP8) protein were used to evaluate the effect mechanisms involved in rats experiments. And liver damage, oxidative damage and HE staining (liver, stomach, and intestine) were used to determine the toxicity. RESULTS: Network pharmacology analysis reviewed inflammation-related pathways of the effect and toxicity of SZT/VSZT: VEGF-PI3K-AKT pathway inhibited MPE by changing the vasopermeability; PI3K-Akt/Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/TNF-NF-κB signaling pathway inhibited MPE by up-regulating expression of AQP8 protein. In vivo experiments displayed that SZT/VSZT could reduce pleural fluid, increase urine volume, lower pro-inflammatory cytokines levels and up-regulate AQP8 protein expression significantly (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). In addition, disorders on electrolyte (Na+, K+ and Cl-) and pH were ameliorated (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The levels of RAAS and ADH were significantly dose-dependently called back (P < 0.01). These findings were partly consistent with the results of network pharmacology analysis. Results of toxicity experiments demonstrated that SZT and VSZT exhibited certain toxicity on normal rats, and VSZT had lower toxicity than that of SZT. Interestingly, SZT and VSZT exerted alleviation effect to the liver damage and oxidative damage on model rats. CONCLUSION: SZT/VSZT improved MPE by regulating associated inflammation pathways. Besides, compared to SZT, VSZT showed lower toxicity and equivalent expelling MPE effect. This study may provide scientific basis for guiding the clinical application of SZT.

3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 113507, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098970

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Malignant ascites (MA) effusion is mainly caused by hepatocellular, ovarian, and breast cancer etc. It has been reported that Euphorbia kansui (EK), the root of Euphorbia kansui S.L.Liou ex S.B.Ho, possessing a therapeutic effect on MA. However, the clinical applications of EK are seriously restricted for its severe toxicity. Although studies demonstrated that vinegar-processing can reduce the toxicity and retain the water expelling effect of EK, its specific mechanism remains unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aims to explore the underlying mechanisms of toxicity reduction without compromising the pharmacological effects of EK stir-fried with vinegar (VEK). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 3-O-(2'E,4'Z-decadienoyl)-20-O-acetylingenol (3-O-EZ), a major diterpenoid of EK, could convert into ingenol after processing EK with vinegar. The H22 mouse hepatoma ascites model was replicated, and were given 3-O-EZ and ingenol seven days (110.14, 50.07 and 27.54 mg/kg). The histopathological observation, serum liver enzymes, serum Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS) levels, ascites volumes, pro-inflammatory cytokines levels and H22 cells apoptosis in ascites were examined. Then the intestine (Aquaporin 8, AQP8) and kidney (Aquaporin 2, AQP2; Vasopressin type 2 receptor, V2R) protein expression were detected, as well as the metabolomics of serum were analyzed. Finally, the content of 3-O-EZ and ingenol in EK and VEK were investigated. RESULTS: 3-O-EZ and ingenol can relieve hepatic and gastrointestinal injuries, reduce ascites volumes, enhance the H22 cells apoptosis, ameliorate abnormal pro-inflammatory cytokines and RAAS levels, and down-regulate the expression of AQP8, AQP2, V2R. The involved metabolic pathways mainly included glycerophospholipid metabolism and arachidonic acid metabolism. And the decreasing rate of 3-O-EZ in VEK was 19.14%, the increasing rate of ingenol in VEK was 92.31%. CONCLUSION: 3-O-EZ and ingenol possess significant effect in treating MA effusion, while ingenol has lower toxicity compared with 3-O-EZ. And provide evidence for the mechanism of attenuation in toxicity without compromising the pharmacological effects of VEK.

4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(10): 2360-2367, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495593

RESUMO

Traditional Chinese medicine boasts aunique theoretical system and rich practical experience. However, traditional Chinese medicine has an unclear material basis, vague pharmacological mechanism, and potential toxicity, which is the key factor to hinder its modernization and wide application. Therefore, when the physico-chemical analysis of chemical components of traditional Chinese medicine is insufficient to reflect the characteristics and mechanisms, the multi-target biological system correlation analysis in conformity to the holistic view of the basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine has gradually attracted wide attention. Specifically, bile acids, as an important endogenous metabolite in the body, play an important role in regulating digestion, absorption and metabolism of nutrients, and greatly impact the health. In recent years, a number of studies have been made on the metabolism pathway of bile acids and their important regulatory effects in body metabolism, making bile acids as a significant target of traditional Chinese medicine on the body. In view of this, based on bile acid metabolism, the paper reviewed the biological functions of bile acids in regulating body metabolism and its interaction with intestinal microbiota, providing a basis for exploring the connotation of bile acid metabolism changes under physiological/pathological conditions of the body. The study progress of bile acid metabolism in traditional Chinese medicine efficacy/toxic mechanism is further reviewed, which provides a basis for exploring the efficacy and hepatotoxicity mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine with bile acid as a biomarker, thereby laying a foundation for the clinical safety of traditional Chinese medicine.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
5.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 71, 2020 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postprandial hyperglycemia was reported to play a key role in established risk factors of coronary artery diseases (CAD) and cardiovascular events. Serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) levels are known to be a clinical marker of short-term postprandial glucose (PPG) excursions. Low serum 1,5-AG levels have been associated with occurrence of CAD. However, the relationship between 1,5-AG levels and coronary plaque rupture has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate 1,5-AG as a predictor of coronary plaque rupture in diabetic patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: A total of 144 diabetic patients with ACS were included in this study. All patients underwent intravascular ultrasound examination, which revealed 49 patients with plaque rupture and 95 patients without plaque rupture in the culprit lesion. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and 1,5-AG levels were measured before coronary angiography. Fasting urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) level was measured and corrected by creatinine clearance. RESULTS: Patients with ruptured plaque had significantly lower serum 1,5-AG levels, longer duration of diabetes, higher HbA1c and FBG levels than patients without ruptured plaque in our study population. In multivariate analysis, low 1,5-AG levels were an independent predictor of plaque rupture (odds ratio 3.421; P = 0.005) in diabetic patients with ACS. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for 1,5-AG (0.658, P = 0.002) to predict plaque rupture was superior to that for HbA1c (0.587, P = 0.087). Levels of 1,5-AG were significantly correlated with urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α levels (r = - 0.234, P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Serum 1,5-AG may identify high risk for coronary plaque rupture in diabetic patients with ACS, which suggests PPG excursions are related to the pathogenesis of plaque rupture in diabetes.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Desoxiglucose/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Placa Aterosclerótica , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/urina , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Glicemia/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/urina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/urina , Dinoprosta/análogos & derivados , Dinoprosta/urina , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Ruptura Espontânea
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 252: 112557, 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931159

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) the root of Euphorbia kansui S.L.Liou ex S.B.Ho (EK), is used for treating edema and ascites but is also of toxicological concerns. And the clinical applications of EK have been seriously restricted for its severe toxicity. To reduce its toxicity, a commonly used clinical practice is processing it with vinegar. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review aimed to summarize and discuss updated information on biological activities and phytochemistry of EK before and after vinegar-processing, and provide feasible insights for further research on the chemical composition, toxicity and pharmacological effects of EK before and after vinegar-processing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relevant information on chemical compositions and biological activities of EK before and after vinegar-processing was collected from scientific databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, CNKI, SpringerLink, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library and SciFinder). Additionally, published and unpublished Ph.D. and MSc. dissertations were also obtained from online databases. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS: Diuretic and purgative effect of EK are well documented pharmacologically as are acute, irritant and organic toxic effects. Some of about terpenoids reported have antiproliferative effects on cancer cells and potential antiviral effect. After processing with vinegar, the contents of terpenoids mostly were reduced (ingenane and jatrophane type) with some new compounds being generated (unclear). Also, the toxicity of EK was decreased (using mice, rats and zebrafish embryos model), while the diuretic and purgative effects were retained (using cancerous ascites model rats and mice). CONCLUSIONS: While some evidence exists for the reduction of toxicity without compromising the pharmacological effects of EK after vinegar processing, the specific mechanism of action remains unknown. Consequently, further research is necessary to investigate the mechanisms and the relationship between vinegar processing and changes in the chemical composition as well as pharmacological effects/toxicity. This is essential before a safe clinical use can be endorsed.


Assuntos
Euphorbia , Ácido Acético/química , Animais , Euphorbia/química , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 249: 112423, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765764

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Euphorbia kansui is a toxic Chinese herbal medicine and exhibits promising treatment to the malignant ascites (MA) in its traditional use. Ingenane-type and jastrophane-type diterpenes are demonstrated to be responsible for the toxicity and efficacy of kansui. Two representative compounds, kansuiphorin C (KPC) and kansuinin A (KA) in each type were proved to effectively reduce the ascites. The biological and toxicological effects are closely associated with the gastrointestinal tract, but the possible mechanism and related metabolic functions of KPC and KA treating MA through modulating the gut microbiota remain unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the possible mechanism and related metabolism of KPC and KA ameliorating malignant ascites through modulating gut microbiota. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MA rats and normal rats were divided into different groups and administrated with KPC, KA, and positive drug, respectively. 16S rDNA gene sequencing and metagenomes analysis combined with the quantification of short-chain fatty acids of feces were performed to reflect the modulation of gut microbiota. Then, the metabolites of KPC and KA in rat feces under the normal and pathological circumstances were detected by ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with MS/MS detector (UFLC-MS/MS) to explore the in-vivo bacterial biotransformation. RESULTS: KPC and KA were modulatory compounds for gut microbiota. The richness of Lactobacillus and the decreased abundance of Helicobacter involved in the carbohydrate metabolism and amino acid metabolism could be responsible for their prohibitory effects on malignant ascites. KPC exhibited stronger modulation of gut microbiota through making the abundance of Helicobacter about 3.5 times lower than KA. Besides, in-vivo microbial biotransformation of KPC and KA contained oxidation, hydrolysis, dehydration, and methylation to form metabolites of lower polarity. Besides, at the dosage of 10 mg kg-1, the toxicity of both compounds had weaker influences on the gut microbiota of normal rats. CONCLUSION: KPC and KA could ameliorate malignant ascites by modulating gut microbiota mainly containing the increase of Lactobacillus and the decrease of Helicobacter and related carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, providing a basis for their promising clinical usage.


Assuntos
Ascite/tratamento farmacológico , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Peritoneais/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Ascite/etiologia , Ascite/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Diterpenos/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Euphorbia/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Helicobacter/genética , Helicobacter/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lactobacillus/genética , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Metagenoma/genética , Neoplasias Peritoneais/complicações , Neoplasias Peritoneais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ratos , Testes de Toxicidade
8.
Molecules ; 24(20)2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652602

RESUMO

The dried roots of Euphorbia kansui S.L.Liou ex S.B.Ho have long been used to treat edema in China. However, the severe toxicity caused by Euphorbia kansui (EK) has seriously restricted its clinical application. Although EK was processed with vinegar to reduce its toxicity, the detailed mechanisms of attenuation in toxicity of EK stir-fried with vinegar (VEK) have not been well delineated. Diterpenoids are the main toxic ingredients of EK, and changes in these after processing may be the underlying mechanism of toxicity attenuation of VEK. 3-O-(2'E,4'Z-decadienoyl)-20-O-acetylingenol (3-O-EZ) is one of the diterpenoids derived from EK, and the content of 3-O-EZ was significantly reduced after processing. This study aims to explore the underlying mechanisms of toxicity reduction of VEK based on the change of 3-O-EZ after processing with vinegar. Based on the chemical structure of 3-O-EZ and the method of processing with vinegar, simulation experiments were carried out to confirm the presence of the product both in EK and VEK and to enrich the product. Then, the difference of peak area of 3-O-EZ and its hydrolysate in EK and VEK were detected by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Furthermore, the toxicity effect of 3-O-EZ and its hydrolysate, as well as the underlying mechanism, on zebrafish embryos were investigated. The findings showed that the diterpenoids (3-O-EZ) in EK can convert into less toxic ingenol in VEK after processing with vinegar; meanwhile, the content of ingenol in VEK was higher than that of EK. More interestingly, the ingenol exhibited less toxicity (acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and organic toxicity) than that of 3-O-EZ, and 3-O-EZ could increase malondialdehyde (MDA) content and reduce glutathione (GSH) content; cause embryo oxidative damage by inhibition of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity; and induce inflammation and apoptosis by elevation of IL-2 and IL-8 contents and activation of the caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity. Thus, this study contributes to our understanding of the mechanism of attenuation in toxicity of VEK, and provides the possibility of safe and rational use of EK in clinics.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/química , Diterpenos/metabolismo , Euphorbia/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 9/metabolismo , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Diterpenos/toxicidade , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Euphorbia/química , Glutationa/química , Glutationa/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/química , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Raízes de Plantas/química , Succinato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Peixe-Zebra/imunologia , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 245: 112109, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395303

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Eclipta prostrata, a traditional herbal medicine, has long been used in Asia and South America for the therapy of hemorrhagic diseases (e.g. hemoptysis, hematemesis, hematuria, epistaxis and uterine bleeding), skin diseases, respiratory disorders, coronary heart disease, hair loss, vitiligo, snake bite and those caused by the deficiency of liver and kidney. AIM OF THE REVIEW: In this review, we highlight relatively comprehensive and up-to-date information of E. prostrata on traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicity, along with featuring the gaps in current knowledge, aiming to provide references for future research and possible opportunities for well applications of this medicinal plant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Information on E. prostrata was gathered from scientific databases (Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scifinder, Baidu Scholar, PubMed and CNKI). Information was also obtained from local books, Ph.D. theses and M.Sc. dissertations and Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The plant taxonomy was validated by the database "The Plant List". RESULTS: Various phytochemical classes has been identified and isolated from the plant covering triterpenes, flavonoids, thiopenes, coumestans, steroids and others. Among these, coumestans are reported as the most common ingredients. The isolated crude extracts and individual compounds have been reported to exhibit promising pharmacological properties, such as hepatoprotective, osteoprotective, cytotoxic, hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, hypolipidemic, promoting hair growth, rejuvenative and neuroprotective effects. CONCLUSIONS: Until now, significant progress has been witnessed in phytochemistry and pharmacology of E. prostrata. Thus, some traditional uses has been well supported and clarified by modern pharmacological studies. Moreover, E. prostrata also showed therapeutic potential in some refractory diseases such as cancer, dementia and diabetes. But, present findings are still insufficient that cannot satisfactorily explain some mechanisms of action. More well-designed studies in vitro especially in vivo are required to establish links between the traditional uses and bioactivities, discover new skeletons and activity molecules, as well as ensure safety before clinical use.


Assuntos
Eclipta , Animais , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade
10.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers ; 23(7): 480-486, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157986

RESUMO

Background: The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has been identified as inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and suppressing inflammation. Objective: This study was conducted to examine serum VIP levels in postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) patients and explore the correlation of serum VIP levels with disease severity of PMOP. Methods: A total of 106 postmenopausal women diagnosed as osteoporotic were enrolled in the study and 102 postmenopausal women with normal bone mineral density (BMD) were enrolled as controls. BMD at the femoral neck (FN), lumbar spine 1-4, and total hip were examined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Genant semiquantitative grading was used for vertebral morphometry and fracture. Serum VIP levels were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum inflammatory factor interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), osteoclastic activity marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b), and estrogen-2 (E2) were also examined. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses was performed to determine the diagnostic values of serum VIP, IL-1ß, TRCAP-5, and E2 with regard to Genant grade. Results: Our findings demonstrated a reduction in the serum level of VIP expressed in PMOP patients compared with controls. In the PMOP group, patients with lumbar fracture had significantly lower serum VIP concentrations in comparison with healthy controls. Serum VIP concentrations were positively associated with BMD at the FN, lumbar spine 1-4, and total hip. We also observed that serum VIP levels were positively correlated with E2 levels but negatively correlated with IL-1ß and TRCAP-5 levels. In addition, ROC analysis found that reduction of serum VIP in combination with elevation of TRACP-5b may serve as an indicator of a severe Genant grade. Conclusions: Attenuated serum VIP levels were linked to disease severity of PMOP and may act as a protective marker for PMOP.


Assuntos
Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Peptídeo Intestinal Vasoativo/sangue , Idoso , Densidade Óssea , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/fisiopatologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/sangue
11.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065990

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanism of Radix Kansui (RK) stir-fried with vinegar (VRK) decreased hepatotoxicity in mice. METHODS: According to a random number table, 40 mice were randomly divided into negative control group (0.5% carboxymethylcellulose sodium, 20 mL/kg), positive control group (0.1% mixture of carbon tetrachloride in soybean oil, 20 mL/kg), RK group (the ethyl acetate extracts of RK, 250 g crude drug/kg) and VRK group (the ethyl acetate extracts of VRK, 250 g crude drug/kg) with 10 mice per group. All mice were administered orally by gavage daily for 7 continuous days. The morphology of liver tissues was examined to assess the liver injury by a transmission electron microscope. Hepatocyte apoptosis in vivo was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nickend labeling (TUNEL) assay. Immunohistochemical technique was adopted to detect the expression of particular antiapoptotic and proapoptotic proteins in the mitochondrial pathways, including B-cell lymphoma (Bcl-2) and caspase-3, as well as the expression of inflammatory mediators, including nuclear factor kappa B (NF- κ B) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). RESULTS: Liver injury and hepatocyte apoptosis were observed in RK mice, and the liver injury were significantly reduced in VRK-treated mice. In immunohistochemistry study, compared with the negative control group, RK inhibited dramatically the Bcl-2 protein expression and significantly increased the expression of caspase-3, NF- κ B and ICAM-1 (all P<0.01). Compared with the RK group, VRK group induced significant increase on Bcl-2 protein expression, and decreased the caspase-3, NF- κ B and ICAM-1 protein expression (P<0.05 or P<0.01). CONCLUSION: The mechanism of reduced hepatotoxicity of VRK may be associated with the reduced inflammation, regulation of antiapoptotic and proapoptotic mediators in the mitochondrial pathway.

12.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 170: 254-263, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947126

RESUMO

Malignant ascites (MA) is one of the severe complications of gastrointestinal tumors, affecting the patients' survival time and quality of life. Euphorbia kansui is a commonly used toxic Chinese herbal medicine for malignant ascites. Our previous study showed that the biological and toxicological effects of kansui were closely related to the gastrointestinal tract. The ingenane-type and jastrophane-type diterpenoids are both toxic and active components of kansui. The contents of kansuiphorin C (KPC) and kansuinin A (KA) take highest accounts in each type of diterpene. Hence, in this study, the efficacy and toxicity of KPC and KA on normal rats and MA rats were firstly evaluated by serum liver enzymes (ALT and AST), oxidative damage indicators (GSH, SOD, MDA and LDH), inflammatory indexes (TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-2) and the volume of ascites. Changes in the levels of these indices showed that although the toxicity of KPC on normal rats was stronger than KA, KPC exhibited better efficacy to the malignant ascites with no obvious side effects at the dose of 10 mg·kg-1. Then, accurate and reliable methods for the determination of KPC and KA in the rat feces by ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with MS/MS detector (UFLC-MS/MS) were established, detected by the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The chromatographic separation was conducted on an XBbridge C18 column (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 2.5 µm) using gradient elution composed of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile. The flow rate was 0.5 mL·min-1 and column temperature was 30 °C. The method was finally applied to the comparative study on normal and malignant ascites rats given KPC and KA, respectively. Interestingly, the results showed that KPC's accumulative fecal excretion rate (normal, 19.22%±5.36%; model, 15.96%±3.47%) were much higher than that of KA (normal, 2.928%±0.741%; model, 2.835%±0.873%) at the same dose within 48 h. This suggested KPC had higher in-vivo transformations in comparison with KA, providing guidance for the further preclinical research of KPC and KA as promising compounds treating MA.


Assuntos
Ascite/tratamento farmacológico , Diterpenos/química , Fezes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Euphorbia/química , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
13.
Am J Transl Res ; 10(4): 1117-1130, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29736205

RESUMO

The primary objective of this study was to investigate the role of miR-200a in cell proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through regulating targeting aspartate-ß-hydroxylase (ASPH), which may further affect the activation of ERK/PI3K/Akt pathway. Liver cancer and adjacent tissues were collected from 72 cases of liver cancer patients with surgery in our hospital. In this study, the mRNA expression level of miR-200a was significantly decreased by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) detection. ASPH expressions, however, had an opposite tendency compared to that of miR-200a. We found a significantly negative correlation between miR-200a expressions and ASPH expressions. The survival rate of liver cancer patients with the low expressed ASPH was significantly higher than those with the high expressed ASPH. RT-PCR and Western blot results showed that low expressed miR-200a and highexpressed ASPH were found in liver cancer cell lines. Further research discovered that miR-200a transfection could significantly decrease the relative luciferase activity when it was integrated with ASPH 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) in HepG2 cells. Cell Counting Kit (CCK-8) detection showed that treatment with miR-200a mimics reduced cell viability, while the over-expressed ASPH increased cell viability by regulating the c-mycmrna (c-Myc) and Cyclin-D1 expressions. The EMT-related genes including E-Cadherin, N-Cadherin and Vimentin expressions were significantly increased, whereas the over-expressed ASPH exerted the opposite effects. In addition, extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and serine threonine kinase (AKT) were suppressed by miR-200a mimics. In conclusion, miR-200a inhibits cell proliferation and EMT in human hepatoma cells by targeting ASPH and affecting ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways.

14.
Balkan Med J ; 35(4): 320-325, 2018 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29666038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pro-inflammatory protein chemokine cytokine ligand 3 is well established as a vital regulator of bone resorption and osteoclast stimulation. AIMS: To investigate if serum cytokine ligand 3 levels correlated with disease severity in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Eighty-two postmenopausal osteoporotic women, 76 postmenopausal non-osteoporotic women, and 80 healthy women of childbearing age were recruited. The total hip, femoral neck, and L1-L4 spine bone mineral density were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum cytokine ligand 3 concentrations were examined using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Serum inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and the bone metabolic markers, carboxy-terminal crosslinked and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b were also examined. Scores on both the visual analogue scale and the Oswestry Disability Index were utilized to assess clinical severity. RESULTS: Patients in the postmenopausal osteoporotic group had significantly increased serum cytokine ligand 3 levels compared with those in both the postmenopausal non-osteoporotic group (40.9±15.1 pg/mL vs 24.2±8.7 pg/mL, p<0.001) and control group (40.9±15.1 pg/mL vs 23.9±9.1 pg/mL, p<0.001). Serum cytokine ligand 3 levels negatively correlated with bone mineral density at the total hip (r=-0.345, p=0.002), femoral neck (r=-0.329, p=0.003), and L1-L4 lumbar spine (r=-0.354, p=0.001) and positively correlated with visual analogue scale scores (r=0.413, p<0.001) and the Oswestry Disability Index (r=0.360, p<0.001). Moreover, serum cytokine ligand 3 levels were correlated with increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha (r=0.305, p=0.005), interleukin-6 (r=0.288, p=0.008), terminal crosslinked and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (r=0.371, p<0.001), and carboxy-terminal crosslinked (r=0.317, p=0.004) levels. All correlations were still significant after adjusting for both body mass index and age. CONCLUSION: Chemokine cytokine ligand 3 may be a useful biomarker that can be used to predict disease severity of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Therapies targeting cytokine ligand 3 and its related signaling pathways to inhibit and delay the osteoclastogenesis process deserve further investigation.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Quimiocina CCL3/sangue , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
15.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 155: 169-176, 2018 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29631077

RESUMO

The dried roots of Euphorbia kansui T.N. Liou ex T.P. Wang have been traditionally used for edema in China. However, the severe toxicity caused by Euphorbia kansui has seriously restricted its clinical application. Therefore, in order to study the material basis of the toxicity attenuation effect of processing with vinegar, a rapid, sensitive, validated and reliable UPLC-MS/MS method was developed to determine twelve compounds in ethyl acetate extracts of Euphorbia kansui before and after fry-baked with vinegar simultaneously. Meanwhile, the study of their toxic effect on zebrafish was conducted. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on Waters BEH C18 UPLC column. 0.3% formic acid in water and acetonitrile were used as mobile phase with a flow rate of 0.40 mL/min and a temperature at 30 °C. The analysis was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using positive electrospray ionization (ESI). Furthermore, the toxic research results indicated that the toxicity of Euphorbia kansui was decreased after vinegar-processed, which might because of the increase in the content of 5-O-benzoyl-20-deoxyingenol and the decrease in the contents of the remaining terpenoids in ethyl acetate extracts of Euphorbia kansui fry-baked with vinegar. This study demonstrated that the method used is a powerful approach to determine the content of twelve compounds that responsible for the toxic effect of Euphorbia kansui at the same instant. And provided the experimental evidence for the rationale behind the reduction of toxicity.


Assuntos
Acetatos/química , Ácido Acético/química , Euphorbia/química , Euphorbia/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Animais , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/toxicidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 219: 257-268, 2018 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29559373

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Kansui, the root of Euphorbia kansui S.L.Liou ex S.B.Ho (E.kansui), is a classical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with certain toxicity. According to the theory of TCM, kansui fry-baked wtith vinegar (VEK) possesses low toxicity and mild diuretic and purgative efficacy. In clinical practice, it is commonly used for the treatmtablent of ascites and oliguria. The present study aimed to evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of different fractions of VEK and reveal the underlying material basis by employing an animal model of malignant ascites effusion (MAE) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODSTA: The MAE rats as the model were constructed in SPF male wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of Walker-256 tumor cells. The MAE rats were used and randomly divided into the control group (normal rats), control groups with different fractions (VEKA, VEKB, VEKC and VEKD), model group (MAE rats), positive control group (model group with furosemide), model groups with different fractions (VEKA, VEKB, VEKC and VEKD). Histopathological observation was used to confirm Walker-256 tumor-bearing organ injuries in rats. For the efficacy evaluation, the ascites and urine volumes, the urinary electrolyte concentrations (Na+, K+ and Cl-) and pH, the ascites levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ and VEGF), PRA, the serum levels of Ang II, ALD and ADH, as well as AQP8 protein expression in the gastrointestinal tract were detected. Furthermore, different levels of indicators were measured in the toxicity evaluation of different fractions both on normal and model rats, including serum liver enzymes (AST and ALT), serum oxidative damage parameters (GSH, MDA, LDH and SOD), expressions of inflammatory parameters (NF-κB, ICAM-1 and E-cadherin) and apoptosis signals (caspase-3, -8, -9, Bcl-2 and Bax) in the liver and gastrointestinal tract. RESULTS: Walker-256 tumor-bearing malignant ascites effusion rats showed obvious hepatic and gastrointestinal injuries by histopathological observation. In the efficacy evaluation, model rats treated with VEKB and VEKC showed significant urine increase (VEKB, P < 0.01; VEKC, P < 0.01) and ascites reduction (VEKB, P < 0.01; VEKC, P < 0.01). These two fractions also balanced the concentrations of Na+, K+ and Cl- in urine (VEKB, all P < 0.05; VEKC, all P < 0.05), remarkably decreased urinary pH (VEKB, P < 0.01; VEKC, P < 0.01), and reduced the ascites levels of IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ and VEGF (VEKB, all P < 0.01; VEKC, all P < 0.01) in the model rats. Moreover, levels of PRA, the serum Ang II, ALD and ADH of model rats were decreased after treated by VEKB and VEKC (VEKB, all P < 0.05; VEKC, all P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the expression of gastrointestinal AQP8 of the model rats was also enhanced after treated by VEKB and VEKC (VEKB, P < 0.01; VEKC, P < 0.01). In the toxicity evaluation, although VEKB and VEKC caused toxic indexes moved to the worse aspects in normal rats, nearly all of these indicators notably improved in the model rats. Additionally, VEKA showed no effect on the indicators, either in the efficacy evaluation or in the toxicity evaluation. And VEKD could significantly improve some indicators (urine volume, concentration of K+ in urine, serum MDA, AI and caspase-9) in MAE rats. CONCLUSIONS: VEKB and VEKC were demonstrated a significant efficacy in treating malignant ascites effusion, which could reduce hepatic and gastrointestinal damage on the model rats but cause the same damage to the normal. These data embody the traditional Chinese medicine application principle: You Gu Wu Yun. And these results will provide reference for the safer and better clinical utilization of kansui.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/uso terapêutico , Ascite/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Euphorbia , Raízes de Plantas , Animais , Ascite/metabolismo , Ascite/patologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Lipids Health Dis ; 17(1): 11, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29334966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The correlation between the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and waist circumference (WC) remains unknown. METHODS: A total of 5351 middle-aged men living in Southeastern China were surveyed using the random stratified cluster sampling method. A WC of 90 cm or greater was indicative of abdominal obesity, and AIP was calculated as follows: log [triglyceride (TG)/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C)]. RESULTS: (1) A significantly higher AIP was observed in subjects with abdominal obesity than in those without abdominal obesity (P < 0·001). (2) Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed an odds ratio of 1·93, 2·59 and 2·76 for abnormal AIP levels for the second, third and fourth WC quartiles, respectively (all P < 0·001) compared to the first WC quartile as a reference. (3) There was a linear correlation between WC and AIP, and a 1·0 cm increase in WC resulted in a 0·0175 rise in AIP. For AIP corresponding to moderate risk (0·12-0·21), WC was 85-90 cm; for AIP corresponding to high risk (> 0·21), WC was >90 cm. CONCLUSIONS: AIP of 0·12-0·21 or >0·21 indicates a likelihood of borderline abdominal obesity or abdominal obesity, respectively, and the combination of WC and AIP may increase the specificity and sensitivity for detection of abdominal obesity in clinical practice. The results suggest that AIP may be used as a reference to estimate abdominal obesity.


Assuntos
HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Obesidade Abdominal/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Aterosclerose , China , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Circunferência da Cintura
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671128

RESUMO

The traditional processing method for the slices preparation of Rehmanniae roots is time- and energy-consuming and is prone to result in loss of active components during twice water-treatment (once for wash and the other for softening) and drying steps. In this study, we firstly explored an integrative processing technique for Rehmanniae Radix by 2x3 factorial experiment based on the contents of catalpol and verbascoside as measured by HPLC. The potential differences between the traditional stepwise processing technique and the integrative processing technique for catalpol and verbascoside in the prepared slices were investigated. To further confirm the effectiveness of drugs using the integrative processing technique, some pharmacological variables, such as rectal temperature, hematologic parameters (RBC, HGB, HCT, and blood viscosity), and coagulation parameters (TT, APTT, PT and FIB), were detected in a blood-heat and hemorrhage syndrome rat model. Two-way ANOVA analysis showed that drying for 18 h at 50°C was considered as the best combination of process conditions. The mean catalpol and verbascoside contents in the integrative method-processed samples (4.30% and 0.33%, respectively) were higher than those in the traditional method-processed samples (2.61% and 0.21%, respectively). Significant increases in rectal temperature, and hematologic parameters, TT, APTT, and FIB, were observed in the model group rats, compared to the blank group animals (P<0.01). Both in the integrative groups and traditional groups, the extracts caused significant decreases in rectal temperature, RBC, HGB, and HCT with increased concentration compared to the model group animals. All coagulation parameters tested were shortened in model rats received two kind prepared slices. There were no significant therapeutic differences between the integrative and the traditional method-processed slices on the hemostasis and hemorheological parameters in this blood-heat and hemorrhage syndrome rat model, indicating that our integrative method may be a feasible technique for processing Rehmanniae Radix slices.

19.
Surg Endosc ; 32(3): 1581-1582, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28779241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pure laparoscopic radical resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma is still a challenging procedure, in which laparoscopic lymphadenectomy, hemihepatectomy with caudate lobectomy, and hepaticojejunostomy were included [1-4]. Relative report is rare in the world up to now. Hilar cholangiocarcinoma has a poor prognosis, especially when it occurs with lymph node metastasis or vessel invasion [5, 6]. We recently had a patient who underwent a pure laparoscopic extended right hepatectomy and lymph node dissection and hepaticojejunostomy for a type IIIa hilar cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS: The tumor was 20 × 15 × 12 mm in diameter and located in the right bile duct and common hepatic duct. Radiological examination showed that hepatic artery and portal vein was not invaded. After the division and mutilation of the right hepatic artery and the right portal vein, short hepatic veins were divided and cut off with clip and ultrasound knife from the anterior face of the vena cava. Mobilization was performed after the devascularization of the right liver, followed by the transection of liver parenchymal with CUSA and ultrasound knife. Finally, left hepatic bile duct jejunum Roux-en-Y reconstruction was performed. RESULTS: This patient underwent successfully with a totally laparoscopic procedure. An extended right hepatectomy (right hemihepatectomy combined with caudate lobectomy) and complete lymph node dissection and hepaticojejunostomy were performed in this operation. The operation time was nearly 590 min, and the intraoperative blood loss was about 300 ml. No obvious complication was observed and the postoperative hospital stay was 11 days. The final diagnosis of the hilar cholangiocarcinoma with no lymph node metastasis was pT2bN0M0 stage II (American Joint Committee on Cancer, AJCC). CONCLUSIONS: Pure laparoscopic resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma was proved safe and feasible, which enabled the patient to recover early and have an opportunity to receive chemotherapy as soon as possible. We present a video of the described procedure.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/cirurgia , Hepatectomia/métodos , Tumor de Klatskin/cirurgia , Laparoscopia/métodos , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/patologia , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/cirurgia , Artéria Hepática/cirurgia , Ducto Hepático Comum/cirurgia , Veias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Humanos , Jejunostomia , Tumor de Klatskin/patologia , Fígado/cirurgia , Excisão de Linfonodo , Metástase Linfática , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Veia Porta/cirurgia
20.
J Pain Res ; 10: 2665-2674, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29180893

RESUMO

Purpose: Neuropathic pain is a complex chronic condition occurring post-nervous system damage. The transcriptional reprogramming of injured dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) drives neuropathic pain. However, few comparative analyses using high-throughput platforms have investigated uninjured DRG in neuropathic pain, and potential interactions among differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and pathways were not taken into consideration. The aim of this study was to identify changes in genes and pathways associated with neuropathic pain in uninjured L4 DRG after L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) by using bioinformatic analysis. Materials and methods: The microarray profile GSE24982 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database to identify DEGs between DRGs in SNL and sham rats. The prioritization for these DEGs was performed using the Toppgene database followed by gene ontology and pathway enrichment analyses. The relationships among DEGs from the protein interactive perspective were analyzed using protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and module analysis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting were used to confirm the expression of DEGs in the rodent neuropathic pain model. Results: A total of 206 DEGs that might play a role in neuropathic pain were identified in L4 DRG, of which 75 were upregulated and 131 were downregulated. The upregulated DEGs were enriched in biological processes related to transcription regulation and molecular functions such as DNA binding, cell cycle, and the FoxO signaling pathway. Ctnnb1 protein had the highest connectivity degrees in the PPI network. The in vivo studies also validated that mRNA and protein levels of Ctnnb1 were upregulated in both L4 and L5 DRGs. Conclusion: This study provides insight into the functional gene sets and pathways associated with neuropathic pain in L4 uninjured DRG after L5 SNL, which might promote our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of neuropathic pain.

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