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1.
Haematologica ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567811

RESUMO

Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) and peripheral T-cell lymphoma with T follicular helper phenotype (PTCL-TFH) are a group of complex clinicopathological entities that originate from TFH cells and share a similar mutation profile. Their diagnosis is often a challenge, particularly at an early stage, due to a lack of specific histological and immunophenotypic features, paucity of neoplastic T cells and prominent polymorphous infiltrate. We investigated whether the lymphoma associated RHOA Gly17Val (c.50G>T) mutation, occurring in 60% of cases, is present in the early 'reactive' lesions, and whether mutation analysis can help advance early lymphoma diagnosis. The RHOA mutation was detected by quantitative PCR with a locked nucleic acid (LNA) probe specific to the mutation, and a further PNA clamp oligonucleotide to suppress the amplification of the wild-type allele. The qPCR assay was highly sensitive and specific, detecting RHOA Gly17Val at an allele frequency of 0.03%, but not other changes in Gly17, nor in 61 controls. Among the 37 cases of AITL and PTCL-TFH investigated, RHOA Gly17Val was detected in 62.2% (23/37) of which 19 had multiple biopsies including preceding biopsies in 10 and follow up biopsies in 11 cases. RHOA Gly17Val was present in each of these preceding or follow up biopsies including 18 specimens that showed no evidence of lymphoma by combined histological, immunophenotypic and clonality analyses. The mutation was seen in biopsies 0-26.5 months (mean=7.87 months) prior to lymphoma diagnosis. Our results show that RHOA Gly17Val mutation analysis is valuable in the early detection of AITL and PTCL-TFH.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(5): e24386, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592886

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are rare sarcomas arising from peripheral nerves. MPNSTs are uncommon in the head and neck, and various clinical manifestation often make the diagnosis challenging. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 67-year-old female was referred for evaluation of repetitive syncope with a massive mass in the neck. Preoperative evaluation revealed potential neuroendocrine activity of the mass and enhanced computed tomography showed carotid artery was involved. DIAGNOSIS: According to the preoperative imaging, intraoperative finding and postoperative pathological examination, the diagnosis of left neck MPNST involving left carotid arteries was made. INTERVENTIONS: Volume expansion therapy with phenoxybenzamine started one week before surgery. Complete surgical resection of the mass was performed and pathological analysis suggested the diagnosis of MPNST. The postoperative radiotherapy was not given due to her poor nutrition. OUTCOMES: This patient recovered well after surgery and no sign of recurrence was noted at 2-year follow-up. LESSONS: Though the involvement of carotid artery with neuroendocrine activity is rare in sporadic MPNST, preoperative scanning of blood and urine catecholamine is crucial for intraoperative hemodynamic stability, especially when carotid artery is involved.


Assuntos
Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Neoplasias da Bainha Neural/patologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/patologia , Sarcoma/patologia , Síncope/etiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias da Bainha Neural/complicações , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/complicações , Sarcoma/complicações
3.
Ann Hematol ; 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389024

RESUMO

Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) account for a large proportion of tumour microenvironment (TME) in angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma (AITL), and at present the significance of TIL in TME of AITL remains unclear. Overall, 50 de novo AITL patients undergoing lymph node flow cytometry from 2014 to 2019 were retrospectively analysed to assess the relationship between TILs and AITL prognosis. We found that high TIL-Bs (≥ 42.4%, p = 0.004) and high CD4:CD8 (≥ 0.85, p = 0.024) were independent favourable prognostic factors for de novo AITL in univariate or multivariate analyses. New TIL-related risk stratification was established based on TIL-Bs and CD4:CD8 factors. Patients in the low-risk group (TIL-Bs ≥ 42.4% and CD4:CD8 ≥ 0.85) had significantly better overall survival than the high-risk (TIL-Bs < 42.4% and CD4:CD8 < 0.85) (p < 0.001) or intermediate-risk group (TIL-Bs ≥ 42.4% and CD4:CD8 < 0.85 or TIL-Bs < 42.4% and CD4:CD8 ≥ 0.85) (p = 0.011). To our knowledge, our cohort is the largest one focusing on the TILs in de novo cases of AITL by analysing lymph node samples using flow cytometry, which is the first time to comprehensively consider humoral immunity and cellular immunity influence on AITL. Our new risk stratification was valuable and useful in evaluating prognosis of AITL and guiding immunotherapy strategies.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(46): e22291, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181635

RESUMO

Histologically, the World Health Organization has classified pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (p-NENs) into well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (G1/G2 p-NETs) and poorly-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma (G3 p-NECs) based on tumor mitotic counts and Ki-67 index. Recently, the 8th edition of American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging manual has incorporated some major changes in 2017 that the TNM staging system for p-NENs should only be applied to well-differentiated G1/G2 p-NETs, while poorly-differentiated G3 p-NECs be classified according to the new system for pancreatic exocrine adenocarcinomas. However, this new manual for p-NENs has seldom been evaluated.Data of patients with both G1/G2 and G3 non-functional p-NENs (NF-p-NENs) from our institution was retrospectively collected and analyzed using 2 new AJCC 8th staging systems. We also made survival comparisons between the 8th and 7th edition system separately for different subgroups.For G1/G2 NF-p-NETs, there were 52 patients classified in AJCC 8th edition stage I, 40 in stage II, 41 in stage III and 19 in stage IV. As for G3 NF-p-NECs, 17, 19, 24, and 18 patients were respectively defined from AJCC 8th edition stage I to stage IV. In terms of the AJCC 7th staging system, the 230 patients with NF-p-NENs were totally distributed from stage I to stage IV (94, 63, 36, 37, respectively). For the survival analysis of both G1/G2 NF-p-NETs and G3 NF-p-NECs, the AJCC 7th edition system failed to discriminate the survival differences when compared stage III with stage II or stage IV (P > .05), while the 8th edition ones could perfectly allocate patients into 4 statistically different groups (P < .05). The HCIs of AJCC 8th stage for G1/G2 NF-p-NETs [HCI=0.658, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.602-0.741] and stage for G3 NF-p-NECs (HCI=0.704, 95% CI=0.595-0.813) was both statistically larger than those of AJCC 7th stage for different grading NF-p-NENs [(HCI=0.578, 95% CI=0.557-0.649; P=.031), (HCI=0.546, 95% CI=0.531-0.636; P = .019); respectively], indicating a more accurate predictive ability for the survivals of NF-p-NENs.Our data suggested the 2 new AJCC 8th staging systems were superior to its 7th edition for patients with both G1/G2 NF-p-NETs and G3 NF-p-NECs.


Assuntos
Oncologia/métodos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/classificação , Livros de Texto como Assunto/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Oncologia/instrumentação , Oncologia/organização & administração , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Neuroendócrinas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
5.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 885: 173505, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861662

RESUMO

Pharmacological modulation of the Janus kinase (JAK) family has achieved clinically meaningful therapeutic outcomes for the treatment of inflammatory and hematopoietic diseases. Several JAK1 selective compounds are being investigated clinically to determine their anti-inflammatory potential. We used recombinant enzymes and primary human lymphocytes to assess the JAK1 specificity of itacitinib (INCB039110) and study inhibition of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signaling. Rodent models of arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease were subsequently explored to elucidate the efficacy of orally administered itacitinib on inflammatory pathogenesis. Itacitinib is a potent and selective JAK1 inhibitor when profiled against the other JAK family members. Upon oral administration in rodents, itacitinib achieved dose-dependent pharmacokinetic exposures that highly correlated with STAT3 pharmacodynamic pathway inhibition. Itacitinib ameliorated symptoms and pathology of established experimentally-induced arthritis in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, itacitinib effectively delayed disease onset, reduced symptom severity, and accelerated recovery in three distinct mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease. Low dose itacitinib administered via cannula directly into the colon was highly efficacious in TNBS-induced colitis but with minimal systemic drug exposure, suggesting localized JAK1 inhibition is sufficient for disease amelioration. Itacitinib treatment in an acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) model rapidly reduced inflammatory markers within lymphocytes and target tissue, resulting in a marked improvement in disease symptoms. This is the first manuscript describing itacitinib as a potent and selective JAK1 inhibitor with anti-inflammatory activity across multiple preclinical disease models. These data support the scientific rationale for ongoing clinical trials studying itacitinib in select GvHD patient populations.

6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 346, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To analyze and discuss the transmission route of a cluster of cases of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus (SFTSV). METHOD: We performed an epidemiological investigation and a genetic analysis of patients with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) caused by SFTSV, their close contacts and the surrounding population. RESULTS: We found that all patients had contact with the blood of the first patient. The comparison of gene sequences in the three isolated SFTSV strains showed that the strains were closely related. Six close contacts and nine individuals in the surrounding population were positive for SFTSV IgM antibody. CONCLUSION: We suspect that the cluster outbreak was transmitted via blood and that the natural reservoir host of SFTSV exists in the patients' environment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bunyaviridae/epidemiologia , Phlebovirus/genética , Idoso , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Leucopenia/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Phlebovirus/isolamento & purificação , Trombocitopenia/virologia
7.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 374(1): 211-222, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345620

RESUMO

The clinical use of first-generation phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)δ inhibitors in B-cell malignancies is hampered by hepatotoxicity, requiring dose reduction, treatment interruption, and/or discontinuation of therapy. In addition, potential molecular mechanisms by which resistance to this class of drugs occurs have not been investigated. Parsaclisib (INCB050465) is a potent and selective next-generation PI3Kδ inhibitor that differs in structure from first-generation PI3Kδ inhibitors and has shown encouraging anti-B-cell tumor activity and reduced hepatotoxicity in phase 1/2 clinical studies. Here, we present preclinical data demonstrating parsaclisib as a potent inhibitor of PI3Kδ with over 1000-fold selectivity against other class 1 PI3K isozymes. Parsaclisib directly blocks PI3K signaling-mediated cell proliferation in B-cell lines in vitro and in vivo and indirectly controls tumor growth by lessening immunosuppression through regulatory T-cell inhibition in a syngeneic lymphoma model. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell lines overexpressing MYC were insensitive to proliferation blockade via PI3Kδ signaling inhibition by parsaclisib, but their proliferative activities were reduced by suppression of MYC gene transcription. Molecular structure analysis of the first- and next-generation PI3Kδ inhibitors combined with clinical observation suggests that hepatotoxicity seen with the first-generation inhibitors could result from a structure-related off-target effect. Parsaclisib is currently being evaluated in multiple phase 2 clinical trials as a therapy against various hematologic malignancies of B-cell origin (NCT03126019, NCT02998476, NCT03235544, NCT03144674, and NCT02018861). SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The preclinical properties described here provide the mechanism of action and support clinical investigations of parsaclisib as a therapy for B-cell malignancies. MYC overexpression was identified as a resistance mechanism to parsaclisib in DLBCL cells, which may be useful in guiding further translational studies for the selection of patients with DLBCL who might benefit from PI3Kδ inhibitor treatment in future trials. Hepatotoxicity associated with first-generation PI3Kδ inhibitors may be an off-target effect of that class of compounds.


Assuntos
Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfoma/patologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Fosfoinositídeo-3 Quinase/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Fosfoinositídeo-3 Quinase/farmacologia , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirrolidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
8.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231877, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315352

RESUMO

Alterations in fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) genes have been identified as potential driver oncogenes. Pharmacological targeting of FGFRs may therefore provide therapeutic benefit to selected cancer patients, and proof-of-concept has been established in early clinical trials of FGFR inhibitors. Here, we present the molecular structure and preclinical characterization of INCB054828 (pemigatinib), a novel, selective inhibitor of FGFR 1, 2, and 3, currently in phase 2 clinical trials. INCB054828 pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were investigated using cell lines and tumor models, and the antitumor effect of oral INCB054828 was investigated using xenograft tumor models with genetic alterations in FGFR1, 2, or 3. Enzymatic assays with recombinant human FGFR kinases showed potent inhibition of FGFR1, 2, and 3 by INCB054828 (half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] 0.4, 0.5, and 1.0 nM, respectively) with weaker activity against FGFR4 (IC50 30 nM). INCB054828 selectively inhibited growth of tumor cell lines with activation of FGFR signaling compared with cell lines lacking FGFR aberrations. The preclinical pharmacokinetic profile suggests target inhibition is achievable by INCB054828 in vivo with low oral doses. INCB054828 suppressed the growth of xenografted tumor models with FGFR1, 2, or 3 alterations as monotherapy, and the combination of INCB054828 with cisplatin provided significant benefit over either single agent, with an acceptable tolerability. The preclinical data presented for INCB054828, together with preliminary clinical observations, support continued investigation in patients with FGFR alterations, such as fusions and activating mutations.


Assuntos
Morfolinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor Tipo 2 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor Tipo 3 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Nus , Camundongos SCID , Morfolinas/química , Morfolinas/farmacocinética , Neoplasias/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/química , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Pirróis/química , Pirróis/farmacocinética , Ratos , Ratos Nus , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 2 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 3 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
9.
Biomark Res ; 8: 4, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042425

RESUMO

Background: The MER signaling pathway represents an attractive therapeutic target for human cancers. Growth arrest-specific protein 6 (GAS6)-induced MER phosphorylation is often unstable and difficult to detect without pervanadate pretreatment in human cancer cells, posing a challenge for the development of selective MER kinase inhibitors. Here, we identified phosphorylated AKT (pAKT) as a specific pharmacodynamic marker for MER kinase inhibitors in human melanoma G361 cells. Methods: The expression of MER, TYRO3, and AXL were profiled among multiple human cancer cells. To determine whether they play a role in the activation of pAKT, MER and TYRO3 were selectively depleted by small, interfering RNA knockdown. In addition, using AKT phosphorylation as a readout, a high-throughput cell-based assay was established in G361 cells for evaluation of the potency of potential inhibitors of MER pathway activation. Results: We demonstrated that high levels of MER and TYRO3, but not AXL, were expressed in G361 cells. In these cells, pAKT was induced by GAS6 treatment, which could be reversed by AXL/MER inhibitors. We showed that GAS6-induced pAKT is only dependent on MER kinase, but not TYRO3, in G361 cells. Furthermore, we observed a correlation in potency between inhibition of pAKT in G361 cells and pMER in MER-overexpressing Ba/F3 cells by these inhibitors. Conclusions: In summary, we have demonstrated that GAS6-induced pAKT is a possible pharmacodynamic marker for the inhibition of MER kinase, and we have successfully developed a cell-based functional assay for screening small-molecule inhibitors of MER kinase for potential therapeutic utility in treating GAS6/MER-deregulated human cancers.

10.
Environ Pollut ; 257: 113577, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761595

RESUMO

A self-assembly method was adopted to synthesize loading architecture of ZnO/g-C3N4 heterojunction composites by hybridization of g-C3N4 nanosheets and ZnO nanoparticles utilizing a refluxing method at a low temperature. More importantly, we provided a novel route to regulate the π-π restacking thickness of the g-C3N4 nanosheets among ZnO/g-C3N4 composites by the controlling the refluxing time in the ethanol solution, which can optimize the surface hybrid structure, optical response and photocatalytic activity. Among all of samples, ZnO/g-C3N4 composites with a refluxing 12 h showed the enhancement of photocatalytic activity. The enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of ZCN-12 composites can be ascribed to the synergistic effects of the construction of hybrid structures, reduction of structural defects of g-C3N4 nanosheets and suitable π-π restacking g-C3N4 nanosheets loading thickness.


Assuntos
Grafite , Nanocompostos/química , Compostos de Nitrogênio , Óxido de Zinco , Catálise , Grafite/química , Luz , Tamanho da Partícula , Processos Fotoquímicos
11.
J Pathol ; 250(3): 346-357, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859368

RESUMO

Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is a neoplastic proliferation of T follicular helper cells with clinical and histological presentations suggesting a role of antigenic drive in its development. Genetically, it is characterized by a stepwise acquisition of somatic mutations, with early mutations involving epigenetic regulators (TET2, DNMT3A) and occurring in haematopoietic stem cells, with subsequent changes involving signaling molecules (RHOA, VAV1, PLCG1, CD28) critical for T-cell biology. To search for evidence of potential oncogenic cooperation between genetic changes and intrinsic T cell receptor (TCR) signaling, we investigated somatic mutations and T-cell receptor ß (TRB) rearrangement in 119 AITL, 11 peripheral T-cell lymphomas with T follicular helper phenotype (PTCL-TFH), and 25 PTCL-NOS using Fluidigm polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Illumina MiSeq sequencing. We confirmed frequent TET2, DNMT3A, and RHOA mutations in AITL (72%, 34%, 61%) and PTCL-TFH (73%, 36%, 45%) and showed multiple TET2 mutations (2 or 3) in 57% of the involved AITL and PTCL-TFH. Clonal TRB rearrangement was seen in 76 cases with multiple functional rearrangements (2-4) in 18 cases (24%). In selected cases, we confirmed bi-clonal T-cell populations and further demonstrated that these independent T-cell populations harboured identical TET2 mutations by using BaseScope in situ hybridization, suggesting their derivation from a common TET2 mutant progenitor cell population. Furthermore, both T-cell populations expressed CD4. Finally, in comparison with tonsillar TFH cells, both AITL and PTCL-TFH showed a significant overrepresentation of several TRB variable family members, particularly TRBV19*01. Our findings suggest the presence of parallel neoplastic evolutions from a common TET2 mutant haematopoietic progenitor pool in AITL and PTCL-TFH, albeit to be confirmed in a large series of cases. The biased TRBV usage in these lymphomas suggests that antigenic stimulation may play an important role in predilection of T cells to clonal expansion and malignant transformation. © 2019 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Linfadenopatia Imunoblástica/imunologia , Linfoma de Células T/imunologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Idoso , Alelos , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Linfadenopatia Imunoblástica/genética , Linfadenopatia Imunoblástica/patologia , Linfoma de Células T/genética , Linfoma de Células T/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/patologia
12.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 10(11): 1554-1560, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749910

RESUMO

A medicinal chemistry effort focused on identifying a structurally diverse candidate for phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) led to the discovery of clinical candidate INCB050465 (20, parsaclisib). The unique structure of 20 contains a pyrazolopyrimidine hinge-binder in place of a purine motif that is present in other PI3Kδ inhibitors, such as idelalisib (1), duvelisib (2), and INCB040093 (3, dezapelisib). Parsaclisib (20) is a potent and highly selective inhibitor of PI3Kδ with drug-like ADME properties that exhibited an excellent in vivo profile as demonstrated through pharmacokinetic studies in rats, dogs, and monkeys and through pharmacodynamic and efficacy studies in a mouse Pfeiffer xenograft model.

13.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(1): 300-311, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206163

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) proteins regulate the expression of many cancer-associated genes and pathways; BET inhibitors have demonstrated activity in diverse models of hematologic and solid tumors. We report the preclinical characterization of INCB054329, a structurally distinct BET inhibitor that has been investigated in phase I clinical trials. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We used multiple myeloma models to investigate vulnerabilities created by INCB054329 treatment that could inform rational combinations. RESULTS: In addition to c-MYC, INCB054329 decreased expression of oncogenes FGFR3 and NSD2/MMSET/WHSC1, which are deregulated in t(4;14)-rearranged cell lines. The profound suppression of FGFR3 sensitized the t(4;14)-positive cell line OPM-2 to combined treatment with a fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitor in vivo. In addition, we show that BET inhibition across multiple myeloma cell lines resulted in suppressed interleukin (IL)-6 Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling. INCB054329 displaced binding of BRD4 to the promoter of IL6 receptor (IL6R) leading to reduced levels of IL6R and diminished signaling through STAT3. Combination with JAK inhibitors (ruxolitinib or itacitinib) further reduced JAK-STAT signaling and synergized to inhibit myeloma cell growth in vitro and in vivo. This combination potentiated tumor growth inhibition in vivo, even in the MM1.S model of myeloma that is not intrinsically sensitive to JAK inhibition alone. CONCLUSIONS: Preclinical data reveal insights into vulnerabilities created in myeloma cells by BET protein inhibition and potential strategies that can be leveraged in clinical studies to enhance the activity of INCB054329.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Orgânicos/farmacologia , Receptores de Interleucina-6/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Xenoenxertos , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Janus Quinases/genética , Camundongos , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Receptor Tipo 3 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores
15.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13357, 2018 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30190558

RESUMO

Coxsackievirus A10 (CV-A10) associated with Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) cases emerged increasingly in recent years. In this study, the samples from nation-wide HFMD surveillance, including 27 out of 31 provinces in China were investigated, and the continuous and extensive virological surveillance, covered 13 years, were conducted to provide a comprehensive molecular characterization analysis of CV-A10. 855 CV-A10 viruses (33 severe cases included), were isolated from HFMD children patients during 2009 to 2016 in China. 164 representative sequences from these viruses, together with 117 CV-A10 sequences downloaded from GenBank based on entire VP1 were recruited in this study. Two new genotypes (F and G) and two sub-genotypes (C1 and C2) were identified. Among 264 Chinese sequences, 9 of them were genotype B, 8 of them were C1, and the other (247) were C2, the predominant sub-genotype in China since 2012. Chinese C2 viruses showed obvious temporal characteristics and can be divided into 3 clusters (cluster 1~3). Cluster 3 viruses was circulating extensively during 2014 and 2016 with more severe cases. It is very necessary and important to continuously conduct the extensive virological surveillance for CV-A10, and further evolutionary studies will provide more evidence on its evolution and virulence.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano C/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genótipo , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/epidemiologia , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(15): 8684-8692, 2018 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29968461

RESUMO

α-MnO2 is a promising material for ozone catalytic decomposition and the oxygen vacancy is often regarded as the active site for ozone adsorption and decomposition. Here, α-MnO2 nanowire with tunable K+ concentration was prepared through a hydrothermal process in KOH solution. High concentration K+ in the tunnel can expand crystal cell and break the charge balance, leading to a lower average oxidation state (AOS) of Mn, which means abundant oxygen vacancy. DFT calculation has also proven that the samples with higher K+ concentration exhibit lower formation energy for oxygen vacancy. Due to the enormous active oxygen vacancies existing in the α-MnO2 nanowire, the lifetime of the catalyst (corresponding to 100% ozone removal rate, 25 °C) is increased from 3 to 15 h. The FT-IR results confirmed that the accumulation of intermediate oxygen species on the catalyst surface is the main reason why it is deactivated after long time reaction. In this work, the performance of the catalyst has been improved because the abundant active oxygen vacancies are fabricated by the electrostatic interaction between oxygen atoms inside the tunnels and the introduced K+, which offers us a new perspective to design a high efficiency catalyst and may promote manganese oxide for practical ozone elimination.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Catálise , Oxirredução , Oxigênio , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
17.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 70(3): 228-236, 2018 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29926063

RESUMO

Serotonin (5-hydroxtryptamine, 5-HT), one of the central neurotransmitters, is the most important modulator for emotion regulation, sensory processing, cognitive control, etc. The serotonergic neurons are limited in amount and mainly distributed in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) and the median raphe nucleus (MR) in the midline of the brain stem. Previous studies mainly focused on the function of 5-HT neurons in the DR, but little is known about 5-HT neurons in MR. In the present study, with Pet1-Cre transgenic mice and DREADDs technology, we specifically activated or silenced 5-HT neurons in the MR, and aimed to explore their roles in anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. The results showed that silencing 5-HT neurons in the MR decreased anxiety-like behaviors in the open field and elevated plus maze tasks. Inhibition of 5-HT neurons in the MR decreased depressive-like behaviors in the sucrose preference and forced swim test, while activation of 5-HT neurons in the MR enhanced depressive-like behaviors in the sucrose preference test. These results suggest that the 5-HT neurons in the MR play a key role in regulating anxiety- and depression-like behaviors.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/citologia , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/fisiologia , Animais , Tronco Encefálico , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Serotonina
18.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0199108, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29927999

RESUMO

The Proviral Integration site of Moloney murine leukemia virus (PIM) serine/threonine protein kinases are overexpressed in many hematologic and solid tumor malignancies and play central roles in intracellular signaling networks important in tumorigenesis, including the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathways. The three PIM kinase isozymes (PIM1, PIM2, and PIM3) share similar downstream substrates with other key oncogenic kinases and have differing but mutually compensatory functions across tumors. This supports the therapeutic potential of pan-PIM kinase inhibitors, especially in combination with other anticancer agents chosen based on their role in overlapping signaling networks. Reported here is a preclinical characterization of INCB053914, a novel, potent, and selective adenosine triphosphate-competitive pan-PIM kinase inhibitor. In vitro, INCB053914 inhibited proliferation and the phosphorylation of downstream substrates in cell lines from multiple hematologic malignancies. Effects were confirmed in primary bone marrow blasts from patients with acute myeloid leukemia treated ex vivo and in blood samples from patients receiving INCB053914 in an ongoing phase 1 dose-escalation study. In vivo, single-agent INCB053914 inhibited Bcl-2-associated death promoter protein phosphorylation and dose-dependently inhibited tumor growth in acute myeloid leukemia and multiple myeloma xenografts. Additive or synergistic inhibition of tumor growth was observed when INCB053914 was combined with selective PI3Kδ inhibition, selective JAK1 or JAK1/2 inhibition, or cytarabine. Based on these data, pan-PIM kinase inhibitors, including INCB053914, may have therapeutic utility in hematologic malignancies when combined with other inhibitors of oncogenic kinases or standard chemotherapeutics.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-pim-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citarabina/farmacologia , Citarabina/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Neoplasias Hematológicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Camundongos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol ; 11(5): 2714-2720, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31938387

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mediastinal myelolipoma/extramedullary hematopoiesis presenting as a mass is infrequent and can lead to misdiagnosis. Here we describe a large series aiming to illustrate the clinicopathologic features. METHODS: We retrospectively searched mediastinal tumors and myelolipoma diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, West China Hospital from 2010 to 2015 and collected 14 mediastinal myelolipoma/extramedullary hematopoiesis cases presenting as an encapsulated mass among 1324 mediastinal mass diseases and 252 myelolipomas. RESULTS: There were 8 females and 6 males aged from 35 to 67 years old, most of whom were diagnosed incidentally. Cross-sectional imaging revealed encapsulated masses located in the posterior mediastinum with fat and soft tissue density showing heterogeneous enhancement. Radiologic diagnosis was neurogenic tumor for most cases. All but one patient underwent surgery and postoperative pathologic findings showed fat and hematologic elements. Considering the accompanying hematologic disorders, 5 patients were diagnosed as extramedullary hematopoiesis and the remaining 9 as myelolipoma. The average hematopoietic tissue percentage in extramedullary hematopoiesis was 70%, significantly higher than it was in myelolipoma. Patients showed no sign of recurrence or metastasis apart from the patient with hepatocellular carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Mediastinal myelolipoma/extramedullary hematopoiesis is a rare entity of solid tumors in the posterior mediastinum, affecting patients from their third decades, with no sex predilection and lacking unique clinical symptoms, and may be misdiagnosed as a malignant tumor on cross-sectional imaging. The final diagnosis relies on pathologic findings, and the precise classification of myelolipoma or extramedullary hematopoiesis relies on percentage of hematopoietic tissue and accompanying clinical symptoms. Surgery is the recommended treatment.

20.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 364(1): 120-130, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29127109

RESUMO

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) is a critical signaling molecule in B cells and is considered a target for development of therapies against various B cell malignancies. INCB040093 is a novel PI3Kδ small-molecule inhibitor and has demonstrated promising efficacy in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma in clinical studies. In this study, we disclose the chemical structure and the preclinical activity of the compound. In biochemical assays, INCB040093 potently inhibits the PI3Kδ kinase, with 74- to >900-fold selectivity against other PI3K family members. In vitro and ex vivo studies using primary B cells, cell lines from B cell malignancies, and human whole blood show that INCB040093 inhibits PI3Kδ-mediated functions, including cell signaling and proliferation. INCB040093 has no significant effect on the growth of nonlymphoid cell lines and was less potent in assays that measure human T and natural killer cell proliferation and neutrophil and monocyte functions, suggesting that the impact of INCB040093 on the human immune system will likely be restricted to B cells. INCB040093 inhibits the production of macrophage-inflammatory protein-1ß (MIP-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-ß (TNF-beta) from a B cell line, suggesting a potential effect on the tumor microenvironment. In vivo, INCB040093 demonstrates single-agent activity in inhibiting tumor growth and potentiates the antitumor growth effect of the clinically relevant chemotherapeutic agent, bendamustine, in the Pfeiffer cell xenograft model of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. INCB040093 has a favorable exposure profile in rats and an acceptable safety margin in rats and dogs. Taken together, data presented in this report support the potential utility of orally administered INCB040093 in the treatment of B cell malignancies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Fosfoinositídeo-3 Quinase , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Animais , Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiocina CCL4/metabolismo , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Linfoma não Hodgkin/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Ratos , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
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