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1.
FASEB J ; 36 Suppl 12022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35557101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC), especially at precancerous adenoma stage, significantly reduces its incidence. Gut microbiome has become a promising non-invasive tool for CRC screening, whereas the potential of microbial multidimensional signatures remains poorly understood. Here we performed a cross-cohort analysis to evaluate the capability of microbial multidimensional biomarkers for adenoma detection. DESIGN: Whole metagenome sequencing data of four public datasets including 183 adenoma patients and 439 healthy controls were reprocessed consistently to obtain taxonomic-, functional- and single-nucleotide variants (SNVs)-profiling. With MMUPHin, differential multidimensional signatures were identified after adjusting confounders, based on which random forest (RF) models were constructed and then optimized by recursive feature elimination. Finally, internal validation and external validation with in-house dataset (10 controls and 6 adenomas) and five resampled datasets were conducted to further assess the robustness of the best biomarker panel. RESULTS: The integrated analysis identified 103 multi-kingdom differential species between adenoma and control group, of which 15 optimal species were selected to construct a RF model achieving an AUC of 0.75. Meanwhile, the model constructed with 31 optimal biomarkers out of 386 differential KO genes reached an AUC of 0.74. Notably, the diagnostic model with 75 SNVs from 10 species showed superior accuracy (AUC = 0.85) with high specificity to adenoma. Co-abundance analysis revealed intensive bacterial-fungal associations in line with functional abnormalities related to microbial quorum sensing, purine and butanoate metabolism. CONCLUSION: Microbial SNV biomarkers outperform other biomarkers and display high specificity to adenoma, which may serve as a novel non-invasive tool for early detection of CRC. Furthermore, multidimensional signatures provide potential therapeutic targets for adenoma.

2.
ACS Macro Lett ; 11(5): 669-674, 2022 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570809

RESUMO

The knowledge of chain entanglement is key to our understanding of the relation between the viscoelastic properties of polymeric material and their microscopic structure and dynamics. This work conducted a detailed study on the role of short chains in the entangled polymer network. A series of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) mixtures with bimodal molecular weight distribution were selected for this study. 1H double-quantum (DQ) NMR combined with the rheology measurement was used to investigate the entangled polymer network. We found that short-chain polymers have the potential to significantly alter the entangled polymer network formed by long-chain polymers. Additionally, both the amount of chain ends and the size of the short-chain polymer were found to have clear disentanglement influences on the entangled polymer network. Moreover, adding low molecular weight PEO to the entangle framework formed by the high molecular weight PEO, resulted in the formation of inhomogeneous entangled polymer networks. The effect of low molecular weight polymers on the entangled polymer networks in PEO melts provides a perspective on the molecular level effect of molecular weight distribution (MWD) on entanglement polymer networks.

3.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; : e1913, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline of ageing population has become one of the major public health challenges worldwide, and familial factors (such as household income, marital status, etc.) have been identified as risk factors. Currently, we mainly focused on two familial factors: living with spouse/child and intergenerational rearing (taking care of grandchildren), exploring their relations with cognitive ageing. We also tested the possible mediating role of depression between the two family factors and cognitive decline. METHODS: Data was derived from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) database, and a total of 8474 participants (3602 females, mean age = 69.64) were included in the current research. Latent growth model (LGM) has been constructed for cognitive functions, with initial level and declining rate being estimated respectively. We further examined: (1) whether living with spouse/child and intergenerational rearing could influence the declining trajectory (initial level and declining rate) of elders' cognitive functioning; (2) and if so, whether depression could mediate the effects of living with spouse/child and intergenerational rearing on cognitive functioning. RESULTS: First, while living with spouse/child was related to higher initial level of cognitive functions and slower declining rate, intergenerational rearing was associated with neither of them. Second, growth trajectory of depression partly mediated the effects of living with spouse/child on cognitive functioning (Indirect effect = 0.14; p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Familial factors (living with spouse/child and intergenerational rearing) may be influential on declining trajectories of elders' cognitive functions, and depression may mediate such effects. More research efforts are needed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the relations between familial factors and cognitive ageing.

4.
Radiat Res ; 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35476803

RESUMO

Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) is a serious side effect of radiotherapy for thoracic tumors. Advanced myocardial fibrosis in the late phase of RIHD can lead to myocardial remodeling, heart function impairing and heart failure, resulting in serious clinical consequences, and its pathogenesis remains vague. DNA methylation is one of the important epigenetic mechanisms which often occurs in response to environmental stimuli and is crucial in regulating gene expression. We hypothesized DNA methylation may contribute to pathogenesis in radiation-induced heart fibrosis (RIHF) and altered DNA methylation patterns probably influenced the genes expression in RIHF. In present study, we found genome-wide differences in DNA methylation status and RNA expression were demonstrated and we screened out 44 genes whose altered expression maybe were regulated by CpG island methylation within the gene promoter in RIHF of Sprague-Dawley rat by employing gene expression arrays and human CpG island microarrays. Gene expression and CpG island methylation levels of several candidate genes were further validated. Our investigation provided a new dimension to reveal the specific mechanisms of RIHF and explore the potential therapeutic targets for it.

5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 409, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35473558

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to further investigate the association of COVID-19 disease severity with numerous patient characteristics, and to develop a convenient severity prediction scale for use in self-assessment at home or in preliminary screening in community healthcare settings. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Data from 45,450 patients infected with COVID-19 from January 1 to February 27, 2020 were extracted from the municipal Notifiable Disease Report System in Wuhan, China. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We categorized COVID-19 disease severity, based on The Chinese Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for COVID-19, as "nonsevere" (which grouped asymptomatic, mild, and ordinary disease) versus "severe" (grouping severe and critical illness). RESULTS: Twelve scale items-age, gender, illness duration, dyspnea, shortness of breath (clinical evidence of altered breathing), hypertension, pulmonary disease, diabetes, cardio/cerebrovascular disease, number of comorbidities, neutrophil percentage, and lymphocyte percentage-were identified and showed good predictive ability (area under the curve = 0·72). After excluding the community healthcare laboratory parameters, the remaining model (the final self-assessment scale) showed similar area under the curve (= 0·71). CONCLUSIONS: Our COVID-19 severity self-assessment scale can be used by patients in the community to predict their risk of developing severe illness and the need for further medical assistance. The tool is also practical for use in preliminary screening in community healthcare settings. Our study constructed a COVID-19 severity self-assessment scale that can be used by patients in the community to predict their risk of developing severe illness and the need for further medical assistance.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Autoavaliação (Psicologia) , Comorbidade , Dispneia/complicações , Humanos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
6.
J Magn Reson ; 338: 107188, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35338893

RESUMO

Selectively probing specific molecules in complex mixtures with nuclear magnetic resonance promises new insights into molecular structures or molecular interaction. Such a study often can be further facilitated when two or more objects in chemical moieties of interest can be precisely targeted. Herein, we proposed a novel method to implement the multiple-targeting signal selection by optimal control of the spin singlets of two or more targeted spin systems from one or more molecules. This method can endow the conventional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), magnetic resonance image (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectrum (MRS) with the multiple-targeting signal selectivity to selectively probe several targeted molecules and/or chemical groups simultaneously.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Estrutura Molecular
7.
Chemistry ; : e202200305, 2022 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35307887

RESUMO

A core-shell heterogeneous metal-organic framework (MOF) hybrid is sequentially designed by a photosensitized porous coordination network (PCN)-typed MOF as core and Cu2+ -centered zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-67) as shell encapsulating cyanine 3-labelled siRNA. The heterogeneous MOF hybrid realized stimulus-responsive photodynamic therapy (PDT) and controllable siRNA delivery through 1 O2 -assistant endosomal escape for imaging-guided photodynamic-gene synergetic theranostics.

8.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 36, 2022 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35346382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While a COVID-19 vaccine protects people from serious illness and death, it remains a concern when and how to lift the high-cost and strict non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). This study examined the joint effect of vaccine coverage and NPIs on the control of local and sporadic resurgence of COVID-19 cases. METHODS: Between July 2021 and January 2022, we collected the large-scale testing information and case number of imported COVID-19 patients from the website of the National Health Commission of China. A compartment model was developed to identify the level of vaccine coverage that would allow safe relaxation of NPIs, and vaccination strategies that can best achieve this level of coverage. We applied Monte Carlo simulation 50 000 times to remove random fluctuation effects and obtain fitted/predicted epidemic curve based on various parameters with 95% confidence interval at each time point. RESULTS: We found that a vaccination coverage of 50.4% was needed for the safe relaxation of NPIs, if the vaccine effectiveness was 79.3%. The total number of incidence cases under the key groups firstly strategy was 103 times higher than that of accelerated vaccination strategy. It needed 35 months to fully relax NPIs if the key groups firstly strategy was implemented, and 27 months were needed with the accelerated vaccination strategy. If combined the two strategies, only 8 months are needed to achieve the vaccine coverage threshold for the fully relaxation of NPIs. Sensitivity analyses results shown that the higher the transmission rate of the virus and the lower annual vaccine supply, the more difficult the epidemic could be under control. When the transmission rate increased 25% or the vaccination effectiveness rate decreased 20%, 33 months were needed to reduce the number of total incidence cases below 1000. CONCLUSIONS: As vaccine coverage improves, the NPIs can be gradually relaxed. Until that threshold is reached, however, strict NPIs are still needed to control the epidemic. The more transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variant led to higher resurgence probability, which indicates the importance of accelerated vaccination and achieving the vaccine coverage earlier.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Vacinação
9.
J Genet Genomics ; 2022 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35231638

RESUMO

CHD8 is a candidate gene for autism spectrum disorders and neurological development delay. It has been reported to be essential for neurogenesis in the cerebral cortex, but the function of CHD8 in cerebellum has not been comprehensively investigated. The potential relationship of cerebellum dysplasia with psychiatric disorders in patients with CHD8 mutations is still not clear. In this study, we establish different conditional knockout mouse models to investigate the roles of CHD8 in cerebellar development. Mice with neural stem cell-specific Chd8 deletion exhibited significant reduction of cerebellum volume and no layering structure is detected. Genetic deletion of Chd8 in cerebellar granule neuron progenitors (GNPs) lead to cerebellar hypoplasia, absent of proliferation layer and ectopic of Purkinje neuron. However, no substantial cerebellar dysplasia is detected in mice with Purkinje neuron- or oligodendrocyte-specific Chd8 ablation. Single-cell RNA sequencing indicates that ribosome-related genes and pathways are most significantly disrupted in GNPs, indicating the potential mechanism. Importantly, in addition to ataxia phenotype, mice with GNP-specific Chd8 ablation present a neuropsychiatric phenotype in three-chamber and light/dark tests. Taken together, our results provide insights not only into the function of CHD8 in cerebellar development, but also the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders in patients with CHD8 mutations.

10.
Toxicol Sci ; 186(2): 309-322, 2022 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35134237

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic heavy metal in our environment. The influence of Cd on the development of platelets, or megakaryocytopoiesis, remains to be defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of Cd on megakaryocytopoiesis. C57BL/6 (B6) mice aged 6-8 weeks were treated with 10 ppm Cd via drinking water or control for 3 months, and megakaryocytopoiesis was evaluated thereafter. Mice treated with Cd had a decreased number of platelets in the blood, which was associated with the reduced number of megakaryocyte progenitors (MkP) and megakaryocytes (MK) in the bone marrow (BM). Functional analyses indicate that Cd treatment impaired the proliferation and differentiation of MkP as well as the maturation of MK in the BM, suggesting that Cd treatment impeded megakaryocytopoiesis. Intriguingly, the impaired megakaryocytopoiesis in the BM of mice treated with Cd was not caused by increased apoptosis of MkP. Moreover, in vitro treatment of MkP with Cd did not impact their proliferation or differentiation, indicating that the impeded megakaryocytopoiesis in the BM of mice was likely not caused by direct action of Cd on MkP. On the other hand, Cd treatment selectively suppressed thrombopoietin (TPO) production in the BM and decreased the cellular myelocytomatosis oncogene signaling in MkP, thus likely leading to the impeded megakaryocytopoiesis in the BM and thrombocytopenia in the blood of mice. This study revealed a previously unrecognized hematopoietic toxicity of Cd, which may extend our current understanding of Cd toxicity.


Assuntos
Trombopoese , Trombopoetina , Animais , Medula Óssea , Cádmio/toxicidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
11.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 20(1): 88, 2022 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35183183

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis (AS) is a leading cause of vascular diseases that severely threats the human health due to the lack of efficient therapeutic methods. During the development and progress of AS, macrophages play critical roles, which are polarized into pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype to excrete abundant cytokines and overproduce reactive oxygen species (ROS), and take up excess amount of lipid to form foam cells. In this work, we developed a MnO2-based nanomedicine to re-educate macrophages for targeting AS therapy. The MnO2 was one-pot synthesized under mild condition, showing intrinsic catalase-mimic activity for self-oxygenation by using endogenous H2O2 as substrate. Moreover, the mesoporous structure as well as the abundant metal coordination sites in MnO2 structure facilitated the loading of an anti-AS drug of curcumin (Cur), achieving extraordinarily high drug loading capacity of 54%. Cur displayed a broad spectrum of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory capabilities to repolarize M1 macrophages into M2 phenotype, and the catalytic MnO2 recovered the function of lipid efflux transporter to remove lipid from cells by suppressing HIF-1α. Collectively, the nanocarrier and the payload drug functioned as an all-active nanoplatform to synergistically alleviate the syndromes of AS. In ApoE-/- mice model, the nanosystem could significantly prolong the circulation half-life of Cur by sixfold, and enhance drug accumulation in atherosclerotic lesion by 3.5-fold after intravenous injection by virtue of surface hyaluronic acid (HA) modification. As a result, a robust anti-AS efficacy was achieved as evidenced by the decrease of atherosclerotic lesion, plaque area, lipid level.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Nanopartículas , Animais , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Compostos de Manganês/química , Compostos de Manganês/farmacologia , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/química , Óxidos/química
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 231: 113208, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35051759

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic heavy metal in our living environment. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are ancestors for all blood cells. Therefore understanding the impact of Cd on HSC is significant for public health. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of Cd2+ on energy metabolism of HSC and its involvement in hematopoiesis. Wild-type C57BL/6 mice were treated with 10 ppm of Cd2+ via drinking water for 3 months, and thereafter glycolysis and mitochondrial (MT) oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) of HSC in the bone marrow (BM) and their impact on hematopoiesis were evaluated. After Cd2+ treatment, HSC had reduced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and lactate production while having increased pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, MT membrane potential, ATP production, oxygen (O2) consumption and reactive oxygen species (ROS), indicating that Cd2+ switched the pattern of energy metabolism from glycolysis to OXPHOS in HSC. Moreover, Cd2+ switch of HSC energy metabolism was critically dependent on Wnt5a/Cdc42/calcium (Ca2+) signaling triggered by a direct action of Cd2+ on HSC. To test the biological significance of Cd2+ impact on HSC energy metabolism, HSC were intervened for Ca2+, OXPHOS, or ROS in vitro, and thereafter the HSC were transplanted into lethally irradiated recipients to reconstitute the immune system; the transplantation assay indicated that Ca2+-dependent MT OXPHOS dominated the skewed myelopoiesis of HSC by Cd2+ exposure. Collectively, we revealed that Cd2+ exposure activated Wnt5a/Cdc42/Ca2+ signaling to reprogram the energy metabolism of HSC to drive myelopoiesis at the expense of lymphopoiesis.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Mielopoese , Animais , Cádmio/toxicidade , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Linfopoese , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
13.
BMC Neurol ; 22(1): 1, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was performed to identify the association between the total magnetic resonance imaging burden of small vessel disease and the occurrence of post-stroke dysphagia in patients with a single recent small subcortical infarct (RSSI). METHODS: We retrospectively identified all patients with a magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed single RSSI. The water-swallowing test and volume-viscosity swallow test were performed within the first 24 h following admission to assess swallowing. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from our stroke database. Based on brain magnetic resonance imaging, we independently rated the presence of cerebral microbleeds, lacunes, white matter hyperintensities and enlarged perivascular spaces. The presence of each small vessel disease feature was summed to determine the total small vessel disease burden, ranging from 0 to 4. RESULTS: In total, 308 patients with a single RSSI were enrolled. Overall, 54 (17.5%) were diagnosed with post-stroke dysphagia. The risk factors related to post-stroke dysphagia included the following: older age, higher National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scores, higher C-reactive protein level and higher fibrinogen level. Based on multiple logistic regression, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scores and total small vessel disease burden were independent risk factors of post-stroke dysphagia in patients with a single RSSI, after adjusting for age, gender, history of hypertension, C-reactive protein level and fibrinogen level. CONCLUSIONS: Dysphagia in patients with a single RSSI was associated with a more severe total small vessel disease burden as reflected by MRI. Total MRI of cerebral small vessel disease burden may predict dysphagia in these patients. Furthermore, more severe total small vessel disease burden was associated with systemic inflammation.


Assuntos
Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais , Transtornos de Deglutição , Idoso , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/complicações , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos de Deglutição/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Humanos , Infarto , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Mol Carcinog ; 61(3): 311-321, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729830

RESUMO

The tumor mutational burden (TMB) calculated by whole-exome sequencing (WES) is a promising biomarker for the response to immune checkpoint inhibition (ICIs) in solid tumors. However, WES is not feasible in the routine clinical setting. In addition, the characteristics of the TMB in Chinese urothelial carcinoma (UC) are unclear. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the reliability of an Acornmed 808 panel and analyze the characteristics of the TMB in Chinese UC. An Acornmed 808 panel was designed and virtually validated using UC data from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). Comprehensive analysis of sequencing and clinical data was performed to explore the characteristics of the TMB for 143 Chinese UC patients. Compared to the TMB calculated with random 808-, 500-, and 250-gene panels, the TMB calculated with the Acornmed 808 panel was closer to that calculated by WES. There were marked disparities in the mutational landscape and TMB between Chinese and TCGA UC data. The TMB was negatively associated with copy number variation (CNV). In contrast, the TMB was positive correlation with numbers of mutated DDR genes. Exposure to aristolochic acid signature was observed only in the TMB-high groups. The Acornmed 808 panel is a clinically practical method to assess the TMB. The TMB was associated with the DDR gene status and CNV counts and might be a biomarker for further stratification of UC patients. The study suggested that patients with high TMB may have a unique carcinogenic mechanism.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/genética , China/epidemiologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Carga Tumoral/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética
16.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 43(4): 1001-1012, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183757

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women, mainly due to metastasis, which is strongly associated with cancer stemness. Our previous studies showed that the eradication of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) may be related to the activation of dopamine D1 receptor (D1DR). This study aimed to explicitly demonstrate the target-role of D1DR activation in antimetastatic therapy and to investigate the potential efficacy and the underlying D1DR-related mechanisms of QAP14, a new oral compound. 4T1, MDA-MB-231, and D1DR-knockout 4T1 (4T1-D1DR) cells were selected for in vitro study, while 4T1 and 4T1-D1DR cells were further used to establish a mouse allograft model for in vivo study. Our results showed that D1DR is abundantly expressed in both 4T1 and MDA-MB-231 cells and that knocking out D1DR in 4T1 cells accelerated migration and invasion in vitro as well as lung metastasis in vivo. QAP14 inhibited colony formation, cell motility, mammosphere formation and CSC frequency, induced CSC apoptosis and D1DR expression, and increased cAMP/cGMP levels. Additionally, QAP14 showed inhibitory effects on tumor growth and lung metastasis with acceptable safety in vivo. Knocking out D1DR almost completely abolished the efficacy, confirming that QAP14 exhibits its anti-CSC and antimetastatic effects through D1DR activation. The underlying mechanisms involved suppression of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway and consequent downregulation of both epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process and cancer stemness. In summary, our findings suggest a potential candidate compound, QAP14, as well as a potential target, D1DR, for metastatic breast cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas , Receptores de Dopamina D1/metabolismo
17.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132205, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563764

RESUMO

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have attracted attention due to their widespread distribution, recalcitrance, and substantial toxicity. In this work, high concentrations of PFOA and PFOS were degraded and mobilized through electrochemical treatments in a simulated source zone of saturated soil. Under a low constant voltage and direct current of 24 V and 467-690 mA, approximately 51.7% and 33% of PFOA and PFOS were degraded, respectively. Additionally, a total defluorination mass balance of 44.7% and 23% were detected for PFOA and PFOS, respectively, which indicates that the removal of PFOA and PFOS occurs through its destruction. Substantial electromigration causes the destruction and mobilization of solid PFOA and PFOS to shift into the water phase. Although electrochemical oxidation of PFAS (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances) were previously reported and studied, this study is one of the few that focus on simultaneous desorption, mobilization, and destruction of PFAS in saturated soil containing a low-intensity electrical field.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Caprilatos , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Solo
18.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 146: 112583, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34954644

RESUMO

Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) is a traditional herbal medicine that has been widely used in Asian countries for hundreds of years. Andrographolide (AG) is a diterpene lactone extracted from A. paniculata. Owing to the in-depth study of pharmacological mechanisms, the therapeutic potential of AG, including its anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and immunoregulatory attributes, has attracted the attention of many researchers. Studies testing the therapeutic effects of AG have demonstrated desirable results in the treatment of a variety of clinical diseases. With high safety and various biological functions, AG might be a promising candidate for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. Here, we review all available literatures to summarize the pharmacological effects of AG and facilitate further researches on musculoskeletal diseases.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/farmacologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/patologia , Animais , Artrite/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Diterpenos/efeitos adversos , Diterpenos/farmacocinética , Interações Medicamentosas , Humanos , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/patologia , Medicina Tradicional , Osteoporose/patologia
19.
Ultrasonics ; 120: 106654, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34915247

RESUMO

In order to solve the problems of frequency shift, efficiency decline and life shortening caused by temperature rise in the working process of high-power ultrasonic transducer, the technology of heat pipe is employed for enhancing heat dissipation of the ultrasonic transducer. A new type of high-power transducer with heat pipe heat dissipation (HPUT) is proposed in this study. The heat pipe radiator adopts the form of a copper-water-composite wick, and installs straight fins on the condensation section to enhance heat dissipation. Six heat pipe radiators are embedded in the front cover plate of the transducer close to the piezoelectric ceramic and evenly arranged along the circumference of the transducer. The vibration characteristics, radiated sound field characteristics and heat dissipation characteristics of the HPUT are compared with those of traditional Langevin ultrasonic transducer (TLUT) through simulations and experiments. Results manifest that compared with the TLUT, the HPUT has much lower operation temperature (reduced by 60% in this study), much smaller resonant frequency shift (reduced by 75% in this study) and the higher vibration amplitude (increased by 25% in this study). This study will contribute to the development of high-power ultrasonic transducer which has potential application value in many industrial fields.

20.
Oncoimmunology ; 10(1): 2004659, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34858728

RESUMO

Numerous studies have found that chronic stress could promote tumor progression and this may be related to inhibtion of immune system. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of cells with immunosuppressive activity. MDSCs may represent a key link between chronic stress and tumor progression. However, the role of stress-induced MDSCs in breast cancer progression is unclear. The present study showed that pre-exposure of chronic stress could lead to MDSCs elevation and facilitated breast cancer metastasis in tumor-bearing mice. Adoptive transfer of MDSCs could significantly increase lung metastatic foci. In contrast, lung metastasis could be alleviated by depleting endogenous MDSCs with Gr-1 antibody. The concentration of norepinephrine in serum and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in bone marrow could be significantly elevated by chronic stress. Moreover, propranolol, an inhibitor of ß-adrenergic signaling, could inhibit breast carcinoma metastasis and prevent the expansion of chronic stress-induced MDSCs. Further study revealed that the expressions of IL-6 and JAK/STAT3 signaling pathways were upregulated by chronic stress in mice, and this upregulation could be inhibited by propranolol. Blocking the IL-6 signal or inhibiting the activation of the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway could reduce tumor growth and metastasis by attenuating the accumulation of MDSCs in vivo. Besides, propranolol inhibited the expression of IL-6 in supernatant of 4T1 cells induced by isoproterenol and reduced the proportion of inducible MDSCs in vitro. Taken together, these data indicated that chronic stress may accumulate MDSCs via activation of ß-adrenergic signaling and IL-6/STAT3 pathway, thereby promoting breast carcinoma metastasis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma , Células Supressoras Mieloides , Adrenérgicos , Animais , Camundongos , Propranolol/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais
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