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1.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 68, 2022 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35168626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified multiple risk loci for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, identifying the functional (or potential causal) variants in the reported risk loci and elucidating their roles in PD pathogenesis remain major challenges. To identify the potential causal (or functional) variants in the reported PD risk loci and to elucidate their regulatory mechanisms, we report a functional genomics study of PD. METHODS: We first integrated chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) (from neuronal cells and human brain tissues) data and GWAS-identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PD risk loci. We then conducted a series of experiments and analyses to validate the regulatory effects of these (i.e., functional) SNPs, including reporter gene assays, allele-specific expression (ASE), transcription factor (TF) knockdown, CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing, and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis. RESULTS: We identified 44 SNPs (from 11 risk loci) affecting the binding of 12 TFs and we validated the regulatory effects of 15 TF binding-disrupting SNPs. In addition, we also identified the potential target genes regulated by these TF binding-disrupting SNPs through eQTL analysis. Finally, we showed that 4 eQTL genes of these TF binding-disrupting SNPs were dysregulated in PD cases compared with controls. CONCLUSION: Our study systematically reveals the gene regulatory mechanisms of PD risk variants (including widespread disruption of CTCF binding), generates the landscape of potential PD causal variants, and pinpoints promising candidate genes for further functional characterization and drug development.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doença de Parkinson , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genômica , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
3.
EBioMedicine ; 75: 103803, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been a great threat to global public health since 2020. Although the advance on vaccine development has been largely achieved, a strategy to alleviate immune overactivation in severe COVID-19 patients is still needed. The NLRP3 inflammasome is activated upon SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated with COVID-19 severity. However, the processes by which the NLRP3 inflammasome is involved in COVID-19 disease remain unclear. METHODS: We infected THP-1 derived macrophages, NLRP3 knockout mice, and human ACE2 transgenic mice with live SARS-CoV-2 in Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) laboratory. We performed quantitative real-time PCR for targeted viral or host genes from SARS-CoV-2 infected mouse tissues, conducted histological or immunofluorescence analysis in SARS-CoV-2 infected mouse tissues. We also injected intranasally AAV-hACE2 or intraperitoneally NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor MCC950 before SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice as indicated. FINDINGS: We have provided multiple lines of evidence that the NLRP3 inflammasome plays an important role in the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 invasion of the lungs. Inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome attenuated the release of COVID-19 related pro-inflammatory cytokines in cell cultures and mice. The severe pathology induced by SARS-CoV-2 in lung tissues was reduced in Nlrp3-/- mice compared to wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Finally, specific inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome by MCC950 alleviated excessive lung inflammation and thus COVID-19 like pathology in human ACE2 transgenic mice. INTERPRETATION: Inflammatory activation induced by SARS-CoV-2 is an important stimulator of COVID-19 related immunopathology. Targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome is a promising immune intervention against severe COVID-19 disease. FUNDING: This work was supported by grants from the Bureau of Frontier Sciences and Education, CAS (grant no. QYZDJ-SSW-SMC005 to Y.G.Y.), the key project of the CAS "Light of West China" Program (to D.Y.) and Yunnan Province (202001AS070023 to D.Y.).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pulmão , Macrófagos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/imunologia , Animais , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Macrófagos/virologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Células THP-1
6.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 127: 104307, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748795

RESUMO

DNA damage inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3, also known as CHOP) belongs to the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family and plays an essential role in endoplasmic reticulum stress. Here, we characterized the potential role of the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) DDIT3 (tDDIT3) in viral infections. The tDDIT3 protein is highly conserved and has a species-specific insertion of the SQSS repeat upstream of the C-terminal basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) domain. Phylogenetic analysis of DDIT3 protein sequences of tree shrew and related mammals indicated a closer genetic affinity between tree shrew and primates than between tree shrew and rodents. Three positively selected sites (PSSs: Glu83, Pro93, and Ser172) were identified in tDDIT3 based on the branch-site model. Expression analysis of tDDIT3 showed a constitutively expressed level in different tissues and a significantly increased level in tree shrew cells upon herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infections. Overexpression of tDDIT3 significantly increased the production of HSV-1 and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in tree shrew primary renal cells (TSPRCs), whereas tDDIT3 knockout in tree shrew stable cell line (TSR6 cells) had an inhibitory effect on virus production. The enhanced effect on viral infection by tDDIT3 was not associated with the three PSSs. Mechanistically, tDDIT3 overexpression inhibited type I IFN signaling. tDDIT3 interacted with tMAVS through CARD and PRR domains, but not with other immune-related factors such as tMDA5, tSTING and tTBK1. Collectively, our results revealed tDDIT3 as a negative regulator for virus infection.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Viroses , Animais , Dano ao DNA , Filogenia , Tupaia/genética
8.
Zool Res ; 42(6): 834-844, 2021 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766482

RESUMO

Understanding the zoonotic origin and evolution history of SARS-CoV-2 will provide critical insights for alerting and preventing future outbreaks. A significant gap remains for the possible role of pangolins as a reservoir of SARS-CoV-2 related coronaviruses (SC2r-CoVs). Here, we screened SC2r-CoVs in 172 samples from 163 pangolin individuals of four species, and detected positive signals in muscles of four Manis javanica and, for the first time, one M. pentadactyla. Phylogeographic analysis of pangolin mitochondrial DNA traced their origins from Southeast Asia. Using in-solution hybridization capture sequencing, we assembled a partial pangolin SC2r-CoV (pangolin-CoV) genome sequence of 22 895 bp (MP20) from the M. pentadactyla sample. Phylogenetic analyses revealed MP20 was very closely related to pangolin-CoVs that were identified in M. javanica seized by Guangxi Customs. A genetic contribution of bat coronavirus to pangolin-CoVs via recombination was indicated. Our analysis revealed that the genetic diversity of pangolin-CoVs is substantially higher than previously anticipated. Given the potential infectivity of pangolin-CoVs, the high genetic diversity of pangolin-CoVs alerts the ecological risk of zoonotic evolution and transmission of pathogenic SC2r-CoVs.


Assuntos
COVID-19/veterinária , Evolução Molecular , Pangolins/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Animais , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética
9.
J Immunol ; 207(11): 2673-2680, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732469

RESUMO

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) is a key molecule that binds to cyclic dinucleotides produced by the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase to activate IFN expression and autophagy in the fight against microbial infection. The regulation of STING in the activation of IFN expression has been extensively reported, whereas the regulation of STING in the initiation of autophagy is still insufficiently determined. IFN-inducible guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) are central to the cell-autonomous immunity in defending a host against viral, bacterial, and protozoan infections. In this study using the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), which is genetically close to primates, we found that Tupaia GBP1 (tGBP1) combines with Tupaia STING (tSTING), promotes autophagy, and moderately inhibits HSV type 1 (HSV-1) infection. The antiviral effects of tGBP1 are IFN independent. Mechanistically, tGBP1 interacted with tSTING, Tupaia sequestosome 1, and Tupaia microtubule associated protein 1 L chain 3, forming a complex which promotes autophagy in response to HSV-1 infection. This function of tGBP1 against HSV-1 infection was lost in tSTING knockout cells. Overexpression of either tSTING or its mutant tSTING-ΔCTT that can only activate autophagy rescued the anti-HSV-1 activity of tGBP1 in tSTING knockout cells. Our study not only elucidated the underlying mechanism of tGBP1 antiviral activity against HSV-1 infection, but also uncovered the regulation of tSTING in the initiation of autophagy in response to HSV-1 infection.


Assuntos
Autofagia/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/imunologia , Herpes Simples/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/imunologia , Animais , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Tupaia
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 192: 1075-1083, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673100

RESUMO

The objective of the present investigation was to extract pectic polysaccharides from sesame seed hull and to determine their physicochemical and functional characteristics. The pectic polysaccharides in the seed hull were extracted with HCl and then collected at three ethanol concentrations of 30% (SSP30), 50% (SSP50), and 90% (SSP90). We found that SSP30 represented 75.6% of the total polysaccharides, and that it contained 76.39% galacturonic acid, with many HG domains and few short side chains in the RG-I domains. SSP30 exhibited the strongest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity among the three fractions, and was better able to stabilize the emulsions. Higher Mw pectic polysaccharides were firstly precipitated at lower ethanol concentrations, and the Mw of the precipitated pectic polysaccharides decreased with increasing ethanol concentration. These results provide important information on the structure and functional characteristics of sesame hull polysaccharides. This information can contribute to the future development of sesame hull polysaccharides for industrial purposes.


Assuntos
Pectinas/química , Pectinas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fenômenos Químicos , Emulsões , Peso Molecular , Pectinas/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Reologia , Sesamum/química , Análise Espectral , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Açúcares/química , Termogravimetria
12.
Org Biomol Chem ; 19(44): 9637-9640, 2021 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34714900

RESUMO

Two new quassinoids (1 and 2) were isolated from the twigs of Harrisonia perforata (Blanco) Merr. Perforalactone E (2) possesses an uncommon hexacyclic 1α,12α:5α,13α-dicyclo-9ßH-picrasane skeleton. Its structure was determined based on spectroscopic data and X-ray crystallography. Compounds 1 and 2 could significantly induce lysosomal biogenesis through transcriptional activation of lysosomal genes.


Assuntos
Simaroubaceae
13.
Redox Biol ; 47: 102172, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678655

RESUMO

Innate immunity is the first line of host defense against pathogens. This process is modulated by multiple antiviral protein modifications, such as phosphorylation and ubiquitination. Here, we showed that cellular S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) is actively involved in innate immunity activation. GSNOR deficiency in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) and RAW264.7 macrophages reduced the antiviral innate immune response and facilitated herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication. Concordantly, HSV-1 infection in Gsnor-/- mice and wild-type mice with GSNOR being inhibited by N6022 resulted in higher mortality relative to the respective controls, together with severe infiltration of immune cells in the lungs. Mechanistically, GSNOR deficiency enhanced cellular TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) protein S-nitrosation at the Cys423 site and inhibited TBK1 kinase activity, resulting in reduced interferon production for antiviral responses. Our study indicated that GSNOR is a critical regulator of antiviral responses and S-nitrosation is actively involved in innate immunity.


Assuntos
Álcool Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Cisteína , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Imunidade Inata , Animais , Camundongos , Nitrosação , /genética
14.
Front Neuroanat ; 15: 727883, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602987

RESUMO

Doublecortin (DCX) is transiently expressed in new-born neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ) related to adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb (OB) and hippocampal formation. DCX immunoreactive (DCX+) immature neurons also occur in the cerebral cortex primarily over layer II and the amygdala around the paralaminar nucleus (PLN) in various mammals, with interspecies differences pointing to phylogenic variation. The tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) are phylogenetically closer to primates than to rodents. Little is known about DCX+ neurons in the brain of this species. In the present study, we characterized DCX immunoreactivity (IR) in the forebrain of Chinese tree shrews aged from 2 months- to 6 years-old (n = 18). DCX+ cells were present in the OB, SVZ, SGZ, the piriform cortex over layer II, and the amygdala around the PLN. The numerical densities of DCX+ neurons were reduced in all above neuroanatomical regions with age, particularly dramatic in the DG in the 5-6 years-old animals. Thus, DCX+ neurons are present in the two established neurogenic sites (SVZ and SGZ) in the Chinese tree shrew as seen in other mammals. DCX+ cortical neurons in this animal exhibit a topographic pattern comparable to that in mice and rats, while these immature neurons are also present in the amygdala, concentrating around the PLN as seen in primates and some nonprimate mammals.

16.
Zool Res ; 42(6): 692-709, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581030

RESUMO

The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is emerging as an important experimental animal in multiple fields of biomedical research. Comprehensive reference genome annotation for both mRNA and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is crucial for developing animal models using this species. In the current study, we collected a total of 234 high-quality RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) datasets and two long-read isoform sequencing (ISO-seq) datasets and improved the annotation of our previously assembled high-quality chromosome-level tree shrew genome. We obtained a total of 3 514 newly annotated coding genes and 50 576 lncRNA genes. We also characterized the tissue-specific expression patterns and alternative splicing patterns of mRNAs and lncRNAs and mapped the orthologous relationships among 11 mammalian species using the current annotated genome. We identified 144 tree shrew-specific gene families, including interleukin 6 (IL6) and STT3 oligosaccharyltransferase complex catalytic subunit B (STT3B), which underwent significant changes in size. Comparison of the overall expression patterns in tissues and pathways across four species (human, rhesus monkey, tree shrew, and mouse) indicated that tree shrews are more similar to primates than to mice at the tissue-transcriptome level. Notably, the newly annotated purine rich element binding protein A (PURA) gene and the STT3B gene family showed dysregulation upon viral infection. The updated version of the tree shrew genome annotation (KIZ version 3: TS_3.0) is available at http://www.treeshrewdb.org and provides an essential reference for basic and biomedical studies using tree shrew animal models.


Assuntos
Genoma , Análise de Sequência de RNA/veterinária , Tupaiidae/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Isoformas de Proteínas , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 325, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465723

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive synaptic dysfunction, neuronal death, and brain atrophy, with amyloid-ß (Aß) plaque deposits and hyperphosphorylated tau neurofibrillary tangle accumulation in the brain tissue, which all lead to loss of cognitive function. Pathogenic mutations in the well-known AD causal genes including APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 impair a variety of pathways, including protein processing, axonal transport, and metabolic homeostasis. Here we identified a missense variant rs117916664 (c.896T>C, p.Asn299Ser [p.N299S]) of the acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 1 (ACAA1) gene in a Han Chinese AD family by whole-genome sequencing and validated its association with early-onset familial AD in an independent cohort. Further in vitro and in vivo evidence showed that ACAA1 p.N299S contributes to AD by disturbing its enzymatic activity, impairing lysosomal function, and aggravating the Aß pathology and neuronal loss, which finally caused cognitive impairment in a murine model. Our findings reveal a fundamental role of peroxisome-mediated lysosomal dysfunction in AD pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Acetil-CoA C-Aciltransferase/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Idade de Início , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/genética , Animais , Transporte Axonal/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lisossomos/genética , Lisossomos/patologia , Camundongos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Neurônios/patologia , Placa Amiloide , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
18.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 177, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over 200 schizophrenia risk loci have been identified by genome-wide association studies (GWASs). However, the majority of risk loci were identified in populations of European ancestry (EUR), potentially missing important biological insights. It is important to perform 5 GWASs in non-European populations. METHODS: To identify novel schizophrenia risk loci, we conducted a GWAS in Han Chinese population (3493 cases and 4709 controls). We then performed a large-scale meta-analysis (a total of 143,438 subjects) through combining our results with previous GWASs conducted in EAS and EUR. In addition, we also carried out comprehensive post-GWAS analysis, including heritability partitioning, enrichment of schizophrenia associations in tissues and cell types, trancscriptome-wide association study (TWAS), expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and differential expression analysis. RESULTS: We identified two new schizophrenia risk loci, including associations in SHISA9 (rs7192086, P = 4.92 × 10-08) and PES1 (rs57016637, P = 2.33 × 10-11) in Han Chinese population. A fixed-effect meta-analysis (a total of 143,438 subjects) with summary statistics from EAS and EUR identifies 15 novel genome-wide significant risk loci. Heritability partitioning with linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSC) reveals a significant enrichment of schizophrenia heritability in conserved genomic regions, promoters, and enhancers. Tissue and cell-type enrichment analyses show that schizophrenia associations are significantly enriched in human brain tissues and several types of neurons, including cerebellum neurons, telencephalon inhibitory, and excitatory neurons. Polygenic risk score profiling reveals that GWAS summary statistics from trans-ancestry meta-analysis (EAS + EUR) improves prediction performance in predicting the case/control status of our sample. Finally, transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) identifies risk genes whose cis-regulated expression change may have a role in schizophrenia. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identifies 17 novel schizophrenia risk loci and highlights the importance and necessity of conducting genetic study in different populations. These findings not only provide new insights into genetic etiology of schizophrenia, but also facilitate to delineate the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and develop new therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Esquizofrenia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA , Esquizofrenia/genética , Transcriptoma
19.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(9): 4628-4638, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148215

RESUMO

Drug addiction is a global health problem and continues to place an enormous financial burden on society. This addiction is characterized by drug dependence sensitization and craving. Morphine has been widely used for pain relief, but chronic administration of morphine causes analgesic tolerance, hyperalgesia, and addiction, all of which limit its clinical usage. Alterations of multiple molecular pathways have been reported to be involved in the development of drug addiction, including mitochondrial dysfunction, excessive oxidative stress and nitric oxide stress, and increased levels of apoptosis, autophagy, and neuroinflammation. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that the co-administration of melatonin with morphine leads to a reversal of these affected pathways. In addition, murine models have shown that melatonin improves morphine-induced analgesic tolerance and addictive behaviors, such as behavioral sensitization, reward effect, and physical dependence. In this review, we attempt to summarize the recent findings about the beneficial effect and molecular mechanism of melatonin on mitochondrial dysfunction, uncontrolled autophagy, and neuroinflammation in morphine addiction and morphine analgesic tolerance. We propose that melatonin might be a useful supplement in the treatment opiate abuse.


Assuntos
Tolerância a Medicamentos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Dependência de Morfina/fisiopatologia , Morfina/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Medição da Dor
20.
Development ; 148(10)2021 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999995

RESUMO

The focal adhesion protein Kindlin2 is essential for integrin activation, a process that is fundamental to cell-extracellular matrix adhesion. Kindlin 2 (Fermt2) is widely expressed in mouse embryos, and its absence causes lethality at the peri-implantation stage due to the failure to trigger integrin activation. The function of kindlin2 during embryogenesis has not yet been fully elucidated as a result of this early embryonic lethality. Here, we showed that kindlin2 is essential for neural crest (NC) formation in Xenopus embryos. Loss-of-function assays performed with kindlin2-specific morpholino antisense oligos (MOs) or with CRISPR/Cas9 techniques in Xenopus embryos severely inhibit the specification of the NC. Moreover, integrin-binding-deficient mutants of Kindlin2 rescued the phenotype caused by loss of kindlin2, suggesting that the function of kindlin2 during NC specification is independent of integrins. Mechanistically, we found that Kindlin2 regulates the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) pathway, and promotes the stability of FGF receptor 1. Our study reveals a novel function of Kindlin2 in regulating the FGF signaling pathway and provides mechanistic insights into the function of Kindlin2 during NC specification.


Assuntos
Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Crista Neural/embriologia , Proteínas de Xenopus/metabolismo , Xenopus laevis/embriologia , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Linhagem Celular , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Integrinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Morfolinos/genética , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteínas de Xenopus/genética
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