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1.
Schizophr Bull ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768244

RESUMO

Recent large-scale integrative analyses (including Transcriptome-Wide Association Study [TWAS] and Summary-data-based Mendelian Randomization [SMR]) have identified multiple genes whose cis-regulated expression changes may confer risk of schizophrenia. Nevertheless, expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data and genome-wide associations used for integrative analyses were mainly from populations of European ancestry, resulting in potential missing of pivotal biological insights in other continental populations due to population heterogeneity. Here we conducted TWAS and SMR integrative analyses using blood eQTL (from 162 subjects) and GWAS data (22 778 cases and 35 362 controls) of schizophrenia in East Asian (EAS) populations. Both TWAS (P = 2.89 × 10-14) and SMR (P = 6.04 × 10-5) analyses showed that decreased TMEM180 mRNA expression was significantly associated with risk of schizophrenia. We further found that TMEM180 was significantly down-regulated in the peripheral blood of schizophrenia cases compared with controls (P = 8.63 × 10-4 in EAS sample), and its expression was also significantly lower in the brain tissues of schizophrenia cases compared with controls (P = 1.87 × 10-5 in European sample from PsychENCODE). Functional explorations suggested that Tmem180 knockdown affected neurodevelopment, ie, proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells. RNA sequencing showed that pathways regulated by Tmem180 were significantly enriched in brain development and synaptic transmission. In conclusion, our study provides convergent lines of evidence for the involvement of TMEM180 in schizophrenia, and highlights the potential and importance of resource integration and sharing at this big data era in bio-medical research.

2.
Clin Genet ; 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646620

RESUMO

Previous genotyping-based assays have identified non-coding variants of several interleukins (ILs) being associated with genetic susceptibility to leprosy. However, understanding of the involvement of coding variants within all IL family genes in leprosy was still limited. To obtain the full mutation spectrum of all ILs in leprosy, we performed a targeted deep sequencing of coding regions of 58 ILs genes in 798 leprosy patients (age 56.2 ± 14.4; female 31.5%) and 990 healthy controls (age 38.1 ± 14.0; female 44.3%) from Yunnan, Southwest China. mRNA expression alterations of ILs in leprosy skin lesions or in response to M. leprae treatment were estimated by using publicly available expression datasets. Two coding variants in IL27 (rs17855750, p.S59A, p = 4.02 × 10-8 , odds ratio [OR] = 1.748) and IL1RN (rs45507693, p.A106T, p = 1.45 × 10-5 , OR = 3.629) were significantly associated with leprosy risk. mRNA levels of IL27 and IL1RN were upregulated in whole blood cells after M. leprae stimulation. These data showed that IL27 and IL1RN are leprosy risk genes. Further functional study is required for characterizing the exact role of ILs in leprosy.

3.
Zool Res ; 42(2): 138-140, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554486

RESUMO

We recently identified a cynomolgus monkey with naturally occurring Parkinson's disease (PD), indicating that PD may not be a uniquely human disease (Li et al, 2020). In our previous study, four lines of evidence, including typical PD clinical symptoms, pharmacological responses, pathological hallmarks, and genetic mutations, strongly supported the identification of a monkey with spontaneous PD (Figure 1). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of naturally developed PD in animals. This suggests that PD is not a disease restricted to humans, with its existence in a non-human primate providing a novel evolutionary angle for understanding PD. As a close relative to humans (Buffalo et al, 2019; Phillips et al, 2014; Yan et al, 2011), this rare case of PD in another primate species provides solid evidence that monkeys are ideal candidates for the development of a genuine "animal version of PD", with conserved etiology and pathogenesis (Li et al, 2020). Furthermore, it allows us to compare similarities and differences in PD development between species and to understand PD pathogenesis from an evolutionary point of view.


Assuntos
Macaca fascicularis , Doenças dos Macacos/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/veterinária , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças dos Macacos/genética , Mutação , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
Zool Res ; 42(1): 1-2, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448190

RESUMO

Since its establishment in 1980, Zoological Research ( ZR) has walked with many scientists during their academic careers (Yao & Zhang, 2015; Yao et al., 2019). During this joyful holiday season and hopeful new year, we are incredibly pleased to share our wonderful news with all authors, readers, editorial board members, and peer reviewers of ZR. Due to its growing academic influence over the last several years, ZR has attained its highest impact factor to date, reaching 2.638 by the end of 2019 (Q1, 12th/169 SCI journals). Furthermore, its current CiteScore has reached 4.3 (as of December 2020), a nearly 60% increase since 2019. Meanwhile, both the publishing capacity and efficiency of ZR have continued to expand. We are immensely proud of each of our efforts in promoting ZR. Of note, your enduring support and faith have helped drive the sustained growth and advancement of ZR, which continues to evolve as a prominent journal in the zoological field.


Assuntos
Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/história , Zoologia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Fator de Impacto de Revistas/história , Zoologia/história
6.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(5): 1894-1903, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404980

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence demonstrated that GABAergic dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The GABA aminotransferase (ABAT) gene encodes a mitochondrial GABA transaminase and plays key roles in the biogenesis and metabolism of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter. In this study, we performed an integrative study at the genetic and expression levels to investigate the potential genetic association between the ABAT gene and AD. Through re-analyzing data from the currently largest meta-analysis of AD genome-wide association study (GWAS), we identified genetic variants in the 3'-UTR of ABAT as the top AD-associated SNPs (P < 1 × 10-4) in this gene. Functional annotation of these AD-associated SNPs indicated that these SNPs are located in the regulatory regions of transcription factors or/and microRNAs. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis and luciferase reporter assay showed that the AD risk alleles of these SNPs were associated with a reduced expression level of ABAT. Further analysis of mRNA expression data and single-cell transcriptome data of AD patients showed that ABAT reduction in the neuron is an early event during AD development. Overall, our results indicated that ABAT genetic variants may be associated with AD through affecting its mRNA expression. An abnormal level of ABAT will lead to a disturbance of the GABAergic signal pathway in AD brains.

8.
Mol Biol Evol ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283852

RESUMO

The rise and expansion of Tibetan Empire in the 7th to 9th centuries AD affected the course of history across East Eurasia, but the genetic impact of Tibetans on surrounding populations remains undefined. We sequenced 60 genomes for four populations from Pakistan and Tajikistan to explore their demographic history. We showed that the genomes of Balti people from Baltistan were comprised of 22.6% ∼ 26% Tibetan ancestry. We inferred a single admixture event and dated it to about 39 to 21 generations ago, a period that postdated the conquest of Baltistan by the ancient Tibetan Empire. The analyses of mitochondrial DNA, Y, and X chromosome data indicated that both ancient Tibetan males and females were involved in the male-biased dispersal. Given the fact that the Balti people adopted Tibetan language and culture in history, our study suggested the impact of Tibetan Empire on Baltistan involved dominant cultural and minor demic diffusion.

9.
Org Lett ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284631

RESUMO

Harpertrioate A (1), an A,B,D-seco-limonoid with a rearranged ring B incorporating exocyclic C-30, was isolated from the EtOAc extract of Harrisonia perforata twigs. Its structure, including absolute configurations, was determined on the basis of spectroscopic data and X-ray crystallography. This compound exhibited biological activities against Alzheimer's disease by reducing Aß42 and Aß40 production and shifting APP processing toward nonamyloidogenic pathway. The effect of 1 on the Aß production was comparable to that of gemfibrozil.

10.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33263727

RESUMO

Importance: The genetic basis of bipolar disorder (BD) in Han Chinese individuals is not fully understood. Objective: To explore the genetic basis of BD in the Han Chinese population. Design, Setting, and Participants: A genome-wide association study (GWAS), followed by independent replication, was conducted to identify BD risk loci in Han Chinese individuals. Individuals with BD were diagnosed based on DSM-IV criteria and had no history of schizophrenia, mental retardation, or substance dependence; individuals without any personal or family history of mental illnesses, including BD, were included as control participants. In total, discovery samples from 1822 patients and 4650 control participants passed quality control for the GWAS analysis. Replication analyses of samples from 958 patients and 2050 control participants were conducted. Summary statistics from the European Psychiatric Genomics Consortium 2 (PGC2) BD GWAS (20 352 cases and 31 358 controls) were used for the trans-ancestry genetic correlation analysis, polygenetic risk score analysis, and meta-analysis to compare BD genetic risk between Han Chinese and European individuals. The study was performed in February 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Single-nucleotide variations with P < 5.00 × 10-8 were considered to show genome-wide significance of statistical association. Results: The Han Chinese discovery GWAS sample included 1822 cases (mean [SD] age, 35.43 [14.12] years; 838 [46%] male) and 4650 controls (mean [SD] age, 27.48 [5.97] years; 2465 [53%] male), and the replication sample included 958 cases (mean [SD] age, 37.82 [15.54] years; 412 [43%] male) and 2050 controls (mean [SD] age, 27.50 [6.00] years; 1189 [58%] male). A novel BD risk locus in Han Chinese individuals was found near the gene encoding transmembrane protein 108 (TMEM108, rs9863544; P = 2.49 × 10-8; odds ratio [OR], 0.650; 95% CI, 0.559-0.756), which is required for dendritic spine development and glutamatergic transmission in the dentate gyrus. Trans-ancestry genetic correlation estimation (ρge = 0.652, SE = 0.106; P = 7.30 × 10-10) and polygenetic risk score analyses (maximum liability-scaled Nagelkerke pseudo R2 = 1.27%; P = 1.30 × 10-19) showed evidence of shared BD genetic risk between Han Chinese and European populations, and meta-analysis identified 2 new GWAS risk loci near VRK2 (rs41335055; P = 4.98 × 10-9; OR, 0.849; 95% CI, 0.804-0.897) and RHEBL1 (rs7969091; P = 3.12 × 10-8; OR, 0.932; 95% CI, 0.909-0.956). Conclusions and Relevance: This GWAS study identified several loci and genes involved in the heritable risk of BD, providing insights into its genetic architecture and biological basis.

11.
Cytokine ; 138: 155388, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271385

RESUMO

Chinese tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) are increasingly used as an alternative experimental animal to non-human primates in studying viral infections. Guanylate-binding proteins (GBP) belong to interferon (IFN)-inducible GTPases and defend the mammalian cell interior against diverse invasive pathogens. Previously, we identified five tree shrew GBP genes (tGBP1, tGBP2, tGBP4, tGBP5, and tGBP7) and found that tGBP1 showed antiviral activity against vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and type 1 herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) infections. Here, we showed that the anti-VSV activity of tGBP1 was independent of its GTPase activity and isoprenylation. In response to VSV infection, instead of regulating IFN expression and autophagy, tGBP1 competed with the VSV nucleocapsid (N) protein in binding to the VSV phosphoprotein (VSV-P), leading to the repression of the primary transcription of the VSV genome. These observations constitute the first report of the potential mechanism underlying the inhibition of VSV by GBP1.

12.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 294, 2020 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361761

RESUMO

Understanding the processes of immune regulation in patients infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is crucial for improving treatment. Here, we performed longitudinal whole-transcriptome RNA sequencing on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples from 18 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during their treatment, convalescence, and rehabilitation. After analyzing the regulatory networks of differentially expressed messenger RNAs (mRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) between the different clinical stages, we found that humoral immunity and type I interferon response were significantly downregulated, while robust T-cell activation and differentiation at the whole transcriptome level constituted the main events that occurred during recovery from COVID-19. The formation of this T cell immune response might be driven by the activation of activating protein-1 (AP-1) related signaling pathway and was weakly affected by other clinical features. These findings uncovered the dynamic pattern of immune responses and indicated the key role of T cell immunity in the creation of immune protection against this disease.


Assuntos
/genética , Imunidade Humoral/genética , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , /epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , MicroRNAs , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA-Seq , /patogenicidade , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/patologia , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/genética
13.
J Immunol ; 205(12): 3419-3428, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188074

RESUMO

Melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) is a key cytoplasmic dsRNA sensor. Upon binding to invading viral RNA, activated MDA5 is recruited to mitochondria and interacts with mitochondrial antiviral signaling gene (MAVS) to initiate innate antiviral immune responses. The elegant regulation of this process remains elusive. In this study, using the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), which is genetically close to primates, we identified the Tupaia oligoadenylate synthetases-like 1 (tOASL1) as a positive regulator of the Tupaia MDA5 (tMDA5) and Tupaia MAVS (tMAVS)-mediated IFN signaling. Overexpression of tOASL1 significantly potentiated the RNA virus-triggered induction of the type I IFNs and downstream antiviral genes. Conversely, knockdown of tOASL1 had an impaired antiviral immune response. Mechanistically, tOASL1 was associated with mitochondria and directly interacted with tMDA5 and tMAVS. Upon RNA virus infection, tOASL1 enhanced the interaction between tMDA5 and tMAVS via its OAS and UBL domains. Our results revealed a novel mechanism by which tOASL1 contributes to host antiviral responses via enhancing tMDA5 and tMAVS interaction.

14.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have reported hundreds of genomic loci associated with schizophrenia, yet identifying the functional risk variations is a key step in elucidating the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: We applied multiple bioinformatics and molecular approaches, including expression quantitative trait loci analyses, epigenome signature identification, luciferase reporter assay, chromatin conformation capture, homology-directed genome editing by CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9), RNA sequencing and ATAC-Seq (assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing). RESULTS: We found that the schizophrenia GWAS risk variations at 16p11.2 were significantly associated with messenger RNA levels of multiple genes in human brain, and one of the leading expression quantitative trait loci genes, MAPK3, is located ∼200 kb away from these risk variations in the genome. Further analyses based on the epigenome marks in human brain and cell lines suggested that a noncoding single nucleotide polymorphism, rs4420550 (p = 2.36 × 10-9 in schizophrenia GWAS), was within a DNA enhancer region, which was validated via in vitro luciferase reporter assays. The chromatin conformation capture experiment showed that the rs4420550 region physically interacted with the MAPK3 promoter and TAOK2 promoter. Precise CRISPR/Cas9 editing of a single base pair in cells followed by RNA sequencing further confirmed the regulatory effects of rs4420550 on the transcription of 16p11.2 genes, and ATAC-Seq demonstrated that rs4420550 affected chromatin accessibility at the 16p11.2 region. The rs4420550-[A/A] cells showed significantly higher proliferation rates compared with rs4420550-[G/G] cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results together suggest that rs4420550 is a functional risk variation, and this study illustrates an example of comprehensive functional characterization of schizophrenia GWAS risk loci.

15.
J Immunol ; 205(8): 2091-2099, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907995

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the cause of severe liver disease in many people. The restricted species tropism of HCV hinders the research and development of drugs and vaccines. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is a close relative of primates and can be infected by HCV, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we have characterized the functions of tree shrew MAVS (tMAVS) in response to HCV infection and defined the capacity of HCV replication. HCV was shown to be colocalized with tMAVS in primary tree shrew hepatocytes and cleaved tMAVS at site Cys508 via its NS3/4A protease, with a modulating effect by site Glu506 of tMAVS. The tMAVS cleavage by HCV NS3/4A impaired the IRF3-mediated induction of IFN-ß but maintained the activated NF-κB signaling in the tree shrew primary cells. Activation of the tMAVS-dependent NF-κB signaling inversely inhibited HCV replication and might limit the establishment of persistent infection. Overall, our study has revealed an elegant example of the balance between the host defenses and HCV infection via the MAVS-mediated antiviral signaling and has provided an insight into the mechanisms underpinning HCV infection in the Chinese tree shrew.

16.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(20): 8813-8823, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinesis) is a rising experimental animal and has been used for studying a variety of human diseases, such as metabolic and viral infectious diseases. METHODS: In this study, we established an immortalized tree shrew hepatic cell line, ITH6.1, by introducing the simian virus 40 large T antigen gene into primary tree shrew hepatocytes (PTHs). RESULTS: The ITH6.1 cell line had a stable cell morphology and proliferation activity. This cell line could be infected by enterovirus 71 (EV71), but not hepatitis C virus (HCV), although the known HCV entry factors, including CD81, SR-BI, CLDN1 and OCLN, were all expressed in the PTHs and ITH6.1 of different passages. Comparison of the transcriptomic features of the PTHs and different passages of the ITH6.1 cells revealed the dynamic gene expression profiles during the transformation. We found that the DNA replication- and cell cycle-related genes were upregulated, whereas the metabolic pathway-related genes were downregulated in early passages of immortalized hepatocytes compared to the PTHs. Furthermore, expression of hepatocytes function-related genes were repressed in ITH6.1 compared to that of PTHs. CONCLUSION: We believe these cellular expression alterations might cause the resistance of the ITH6.1 cell to HCV infection. This tree shrew liver cell line may be a good resource for the field. KEY POINTS: • A tree shrew hepatic cell line (ITH6.1) was established. • ITH6.1 cells could be infected by EV71, but not HCV. • ITH6.1 had an altered expression profiling compared to the primary hepatocytes.

17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 161: 1535-1544, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755702

RESUMO

In this investigation, the hemicellulose fractions were isolated from sesame hulls before and after roasting at 160 °C, 180 °C, 200 °C, and 220 °C. The structural properties of the hemicelluloses were comparatively investigated by analytical techniques including FT-IR, sugar compositions analysis, molecular weight analysis, thermal analysis, and NMR. Roasting at temperatures from 180 to 220 °C resulted in higher yields of hemicelluloses subsequently isolated from sesame hulls by the alkaline method. The results of sugar analysis and average molecular weight analysis of the hull hemicelluloses revealed that the side chain sugar units such as arabinose and rhamnose of the hemicelluloses are more easily degraded after roasting during the roasting. That the main chains of hemicelluloses in the cell wall of sesame seed hulls did not change significantly. The investigation provides new information about the mechanisms of the structural changes that occur in sesame hull hemicelluloses during roasting.

18.
J Genet Genomics ; 47(5): 233-248, 2020 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712163

RESUMO

The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) has recently identified 10 potential functional coding variants for schizophrenia. However, how these coding variants confer schizophrenia risk remains largely unknown. Here, we investigate the associations between eight potential functional coding variants identified by PGC and schizophrenia in a large Han Chinese sample (n = 4022 cases and 9270 controls). Among the eight tested single nucelotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs3617 (a missense variant, p.K315Q in the ITIH3 gene) showed genome-wide significant association with schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population (P = 8.36 × 10-16), with the same risk allele as in PGC. Interestingly, rs3617 is located in a genomic region that is highly evolutionarily conserved, and its schizophrenia risk allele (C allele) was associated with lower ITIH3 mRNA and protein expression. Intriguingly, mouse neural stem cells stably overexpressing ITIH3 with different alleles of rs3617 exhibited significant differences in proliferation, migration, and differentiation, suggesting the impact of rs3617 on neurodevelopment. Subsequent transcriptome analysis found that the differentially expressed genes in neural stem cells stably overexpressing different alleles of rs3617 were significantly enriched in schizophrenia-related pathways, including cell adhesion, synapse assembly, MAPK and PI3K-AKT pathways. Our study provides convergent lines of evidence suggesting that rs3617 in ITIH3 likely affects protein function and neurodevelopment and thereby confers risk of schizophrenia.

19.
FASEB J ; 34(9): 12726-12738, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713114

RESUMO

The proto-oncogene ets1 is highly expressed in the pre-migratory and migratory neural crest (NC), and has been implicated in the delamination and migration of the NC cells. To identify the downstream target genes of Ets1 in this process, we did RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) on wild-type and ets1 mutant X. tropicalis embryos. A list of genes with significantly differential expression was obtained by analyzing the RNA-Seq data. We validated the RNA-Seq data by quantitative PCR, and examined the expression pattern of the genes identified from this assay with whole mount in situ hybridization. A majority of the identified genes showed expression in migrating NC. Among them, the expression of microseminoprotein beta gene 3 (msmb3) was positively regulated by Ets1 in both X. laevis and X. tropicalis. Knockdown of msmb3 with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides or disruption of msmb3 by CRISPR/Cas9 both impaired the migratory streams of NC. Our study identified msmb3 as an Ets1 target gene and uncovered its function in maintaining neural crest migration pattern.

20.
Cells ; 9(7)2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32630355

RESUMO

The ubiquitin E3 ligase RNF220 and its co-factor ZC4H2 are required for multiple neural developmental processes through different targets, including spinal cord patterning and the development of the cerebellum and the locus coeruleus. Here, we explored the effects of loss of ZC4H2 and RNF220 on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from mouse embryonic cortex. We showed that loss of either ZC4H2 or RNF220 inhibits the proliferation and promotes the differentiation abilities of NSCs in vitro. RNA-Seq profiling revealed 132 and 433 differentially expressed genes in the ZCH2-/- and RNF220-/- NSCs, compared to wild type (WT) NSCs, respectively. Specifically, Cend1, a key regulator of cell cycle exit and differentiation of neuronal precursors, was found to be upregulated in both ZCH2-/- and RNF220-/- NSCs at the mRNA and protein levels. The targets of Cend1, such as CyclinD1, Notch1 and Hes1, were downregulated both in ZCH2-/- and RNF220-/- NSCs, whereas p53 and p21 were elevated. ZCH2-/- and RNF220-/- NSCs showed G0/G1 phase arrest compared to WT NSCs in cell cycle analysis. These results suggested that ZC4H2 and RNF220 are likely involved in the regulation of neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation through Cend1.

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