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1.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; : e1900583, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009279

RESUMO

A unique cuboid spider silk from the outer egg sac of Nephila pilipes, with an unusual square cross-section, is disclosed. The structure-function relationships within this silk are first studied through structural characterization, mechanical measurement, protein conformation, and polypeptide signature of silk proteins. This silk maintains the higher stiffness property of egg sac silks, and also shows a species difference. Environmental response of the mechanical properties within this silk are observed. Synchrotron FTIR microspectroscopy is used to monitor the silk protein conformation in a single natural silk. The ß-sheet structure aligns parallel to the fiber axis with a content of 22% ± 2.6%. The de novo resulting polypeptide from the solid silk fibers are novel, and an abundant polar amino acid insertion is observed. Short polyalanine (An , n ≤ 3), alternating serine and alanine (S/A)X, and alternating glycine and alanine (G/A)X, GGX, and SSX dominates in the resulting de novo polypeptide. This accords with the composition pattern of other egg sac silk proteins, besides the rarely observed GGX. This study broadens the library of egg sac spider silks and provides a new perspective to uncover structure-function relationships in spider silk.

2.
Acad Radiol ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035760

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the value of MRI-based features and texture analysis (TA) in the differential diagnosis between ovarian thecomas/fibrothecomas (OTCA/f-TCAs) and uterine fibroids in the adnexal area (UF-iaas). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 16 OTCA/f-TCA and 37 UF-iaa patients who underwent conventional MRI and DWI between August 2014 and September 2018. Three-dimensional TA was performed with T2-weighted MRI. The clinical, MRI-based and texture features were compared between OTCA/f-TCAs and UF-iaas. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used for filtering the independent discriminative features and constructing the discriminating model. ROCs were generated to analyse MRI-based features, texture features and their combination for discriminating between the two diseases. RESULTS: Six imaging-based features (ipsilateral ovary detection, arterial period enhancement, lesion components, peripheral cysts, "whorl signs", mean ADCs) and six texture features (Histogram-energy, Histogram-entropy, Histogram-kurtosis, GLCM-energy, GLCM-entropy, and Haralick correlation) were significantly different between OTCA/f-TCAs and UF-iaas (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis of the MRI-based features revealed that arterial period enhancement (OR = 0.104), peripheral cysts (OR = 16.513), and whorl signs (OR = 0.029) were independent features for discriminating between OTCA/f-TCAs and UF-iaas (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis of the texture features showed that Histogram-energy and GLCM-energy were independent features for discriminating between OTCA/f-TCAs and UF-iaas (p < 0.05). The area under the curve of imaging-based diagnosis was 0.85, and the combination of imaging-based diagnosis and TA improved the area under the curve to 0.87, with higher accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of 86%, 92%, and 84%, respectively (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: MRI-based features can be useful in differentiating OTCA/f-TCAs from UF-iaas. Furthermore, combining imaging-based diagnosis and TA can improve diagnostic performance.

3.
Neuroimage Clin ; 26: 102202, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045732

RESUMO

Current models of addiction biology highlight altered neural responses to non-drug rewards as a central feature of addiction. However, given that drugs of abuse can directly impact reward-related dopamine circuitry, it is difficult to determine the extent to which reward processing alterations are a trait feature of individuals with addictions, or primarily a consequence of exogenous drug exposure. Examining individuals with behavioral addictions is one promising approach for disentangling neural features of addiction from the direct effects of substance exposure. The current fMRI study compared neural responses during monetary reward processing between drug naïve young adults with a behavioral addiction, internet gaming disorder (IGD; n = 22), and healthy controls (n = 27) using a monetary incentive delay task. Relative to controls, individuals with IGD exhibited blunted caudate activity associated with loss magnitude at the outcome stage, but did not differ from controls in neural activity at other stages. These findings suggest that decreased loss sensitivity might be a critical feature of IGD, whereas alterations in gain processing may be less characteristic of individuals with IGD, relative to those with substance use disorders. Therefore, classic theories of altered reward processing in substance use disorders should be translated to behavioral addictions with caution.

4.
Langmuir ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040329

RESUMO

In natural tissue, nanofibrils in extracellular matrix (ECM), such as collagen fibrils, direct cell migration through contacting guidance. The contacting nanofibers on cell-ECM interface are reorganized from curl fibers to straightened fibers. However, how these nanofibers regulate cell migration remains obscure. To investigate this issue, we fabricated collagen/polymer based biomimetic nanofiber sheets of varying topography. And we selected tumorigenic cell KGN and non-tumorigenic cell 293T for comparison. We found KGN showed higher sensitivity to the nanofiber alignment rather than the non-tumorigenic cell 293T, in morphological change, trajectory adaptation and velocity variation. We also found aligned nanofibers shaped both KGN and 293T into elongated spindle morphology. Comparatively, KGN had greater perimeter and lower roundness than 293T. To study the dynamics of single cell migration of KGN and 293T, we conducted trajectory tracking and siRNA validation on regulatory proteins. We found nanofibers of varying topography regulated the patterns of single cell migration differently. For KGN cell, ß-catenin, Rac1 and Cdc42 participated in its migration, but it was impervious to vimentin variation. Comparatively, epithelial cell 293T involved vimentin in its directional migration.

5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(2)2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936791

RESUMO

High spatial resolution remote sensing image (HSRRSI) data provide rich texture, geometric structure, and spatial distribution information for surface water bodies. The rich detail information provides better representation of the internal components of each object category and better reflects the relationships between adjacent objects. In this context, recognition methods such as geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) have improved significantly. However, these methods focus mainly on bottom-up classifications from visual features to semantic categories, but ignore top-down feedback which can optimize recognition results. In recent years, deep learning has been applied in the field of remote sensing measurements because of its powerful feature extraction ability. A special convolutional neural network (CNN) based region proposal generation and object detection integrated framework has greatly improved the performance of object detection for HSRRSI, which provides a new method for water body recognition based on remote sensing data. This study uses the excellent "self-learning ability" of deep learning to construct a modified structure of the Mask R-CNN method which integrates bottom-up and top-down processes for water recognition. Compared with traditional methods, our method is completely data-driven without prior knowledge, and it can be regarded as a novel technical procedure for water body recognition in practical engineering application. Experimental results indicate that the method produces accurate recognition results for multi-source and multi-temporal water bodies, and can effectively avoid confusion with shadows and other ground features.

6.
Nanoscale ; 12(3): 1414-1418, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903477

RESUMO

An understanding of nanoparticle growth is significant for controlled synthesis of nanomaterials with desired physical and chemical properties. Here we report the in situ study of platinum-nickel alloy nanoparticle growth using in situ liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The observation revealed that Ni dendrites can form at the beginning and subsequently PtNi nanoparticles nucleate and grow by consumption of the Ni dendrites. The resulting PtNi alloy nanoparticles have a narrow size distribution with an average diameter of 3.7 nm, which are smaller than those obtained via classical solution growth. This work shed light on using such a unique growth pathway for the synthesis of novel nanoparticles.

7.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(3): 1674-1681, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895353

RESUMO

Single-molecule electrical characterization reveals the events occurring at the nanoscale, which provides guidelines for molecular materials and devices. However, data analysis to extract valuable information from the nanoscale measurement data remained as a major challenge. Herein, an unsupervised deep leaning method, a deep auto-encoder K-means (DAK) algorithm, is developed to distinguish different events from single-molecule charge transport measurements. As validated by three single-molecule junction systems, the method applies to the recognition for multiple compounds with various events and offers an effective data analysis method to track reaction kinetics at the single-molecule scale. This work opens the possibility of using deep unsupervised approaches to studying the physical and chemical processes at the single-molecule level.

8.
Nanoscale ; 12(5): 3183-3193, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967158

RESUMO

Extracellular matrix anisotropy tunes the organization and movement of surrounding cells. The primary mediators of the extracellular matrix are fiber-based materials. Natural collagen fibers reorganize from curled and isotropic fibers to straightened and anisotropic fibers during tumorigenesis, yet how the cytoskeleton is involved in the directional migration in response to the topography is unknown. To investigate this, we fabricated random, orthogonal, and aligned nanofibers to deconstruct the basic mechanisms for the migration of the human pancreatic cancer cells PANC-1 on different substrates. We found that the extracellular matrix orchestrated actin reorganization by templating the surface topography as an irregular pattern on random fibers, crossover feature on orthogonal fibers, and parallel characteristics on aligned fibers. The intermediate filament as vimentin was upregulated to form a perinuclear shape on orthogonal or aligned surfaces. We also found that the nanofiber topography mediated the directional migration via different mechanisms. The directionality ratio and velocity were statistically analyzed to unveil the pattern of directional migration. Cells on aligned nanofibers yielded a greater velocity. Rac1 and Cdc42 were involved in cell migration through regulating actin polymerization and membrane protrusions. Thus, our findings elucidate that nanofiber alignment orchestrates cytoskeletal reorganization and mediates the directional migration of cancer cells.

9.
Ophthalmic Res ; : 1-11, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31962335

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We characterized the role of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-interacting multifunctional protein 1 (AIMP1) in retinal inflammation and apoptosis regulation, both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, we used clinical specimens to show the relationship between AIMP1 and the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the role of AIMP1 in DR. METHODS: A diabetic AIMP1-specific knockout (KO) C57 mouse model was used. Human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) were incubated with normal glucose, high glucose (HG), and HG + AIMP1-small interfering RNA (siRNA). The expression of AIMP1 and relative inflammatory and apoptotic cytokines in diabetic mice retina and HRMECs were measured using Western blotting and polymerase chain reaction. The apoptosis of HRMECs was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. The levels of AIMP1 in the vitreous humor and serum were determined using ELISA. Possible correlations between the intravitreal level of AIMP1 and blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c, intravitreal levels of IL-1ß, and caspase-3 were determined. RESULTS: The expression of inflammatory and apoptotic proteins was inhibited in the AIMP1 KO mice and HRMECs incubated with AIMP1-siRNA. The apoptosis of HRMECs was decreased in the AIMP1-siRNA group. The intravitreal level of AIMP1 in DR patients was significantly higher than that in nondiabetic patients (p < 0.01). There was a positive correlation between intravitreal AIMP1 and HbA1c and intravitreal IL-1ß and caspase-3 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: HG induced increased expression of AIMP1 in HRMECs and retinas from diabetic C57 mice, thereby increasing the expression of inflammatory and apoptotic cytokines, which promoted DR progression. A decrease in AIMP1 expression prevented the development of DR by inhibiting the activation of inflammatory and apoptotic signaling. Therefore, AIMP1 is an effective interfering target for the prevention and treatment of DR.

10.
Glycobiology ; 30(2): 120-129, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584064

RESUMO

Galectin-13 (Gal-13) plays numerous roles in regulating the relationship between maternal and fetal tissues. Low expression levels or mutations of the lectin can result in pre-eclampsia. The previous crystal structure and gel filtration data show that Gal-13 dimerizes via formation of two disulfide bonds formed by Cys136 and Cys138. In the present study, we mutated them to serine (C136S, C138S and C136S/C138S), crystalized the variants and solved their crystal structures. All variants crystallized as monomers. In the C136S structure, Cys138 formed a disulfide bond with Cys19, indicating that Cys19 is important for regulation of reversible disulfide bond formation in this lectin. Hemagglutination assays demonstrated that all variants are inactive at inducing erythrocyte agglutination, even though gel filtration profiles indicate that C136S and C138S could still form dimers, suggesting that these dimers do not exhibit the same activity as wild-type (WT) Gal-13. In HeLa cells, the three variants were found to be distributed the same as with WT Gal-13. However, a Gal-13 variant (delT221) truncated at T221 could not be transported into the nucleus, possibly explaining why women having this variant get pre-eclampsia. Considering the normally high concentration of glutathione in cells, WT Gal-13 should exist mostly as a monomer in cytoplasm, consistent with the monomeric variant C136S/C138S, which has a similar ability to interact with HOXA1 as WT Gal-13.

11.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 562: 213-223, 2020 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838357

RESUMO

The bifunctional catalysts assist the complete reversible cycle of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) with low polarization of a lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) battery were known to be critical cathode components. In this work, electrospun nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (N-CNFs) were prepared to use as supports to anchor iron phthalocyanine (FePc) bifunctional catalyst for oxygen (O2) electrode in Li-O2 batteries. By using FePc and N-CNFs, two different bonding composites were fabricated via diazonium reaction by refluxing and physical mixing methods which were resulting into covalent linkage via pyridine (Py) (denoted as FePc/Py/N-CNFs) and noncovalent interaction via π-π stacking (denoted as FePc/N-CNFs). The systematic characterizations confirmed that the spun carbon nanofibers were functionalized by pyridine and the anchored FePc molecule donated the axial ligand for the iron (Fe) center in the FePc/Py/N-CNFs composite. The FePc were embedded in the N-CNFs composites combining the electrocatalytic activity of the FePc with ORR/OER processes and N-CNFs with a three-dimensional (3D) interconnected porous network structure through a connecting link of one-dimensional (1D) porous and N-doping carbon nanofiber which exhibited a high performance when acting as the cathode in Li-O2 batteries. However, the FePc/Py/N-CNFs composite showed the higher catalytic activity and prominent structural stability due to the FePc being strongly interlinked with the N-CNFs through the Py connection, which could avoid the deformation and agglomeration of FePC molecules during cycling and thus possessed the high electrochemical performance of the composite. This study demonstrated the unique design of FePc/Py/N-CNFs composite structure in this work would be found as a promising O2 electrode material with enhanced electrochemical performance in rechargeable Li-O2 batteries.

12.
Nano Lett ; 20(2): 868-873, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869236

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) magnetic materials have recently been introduced as a new horizon in materials science, and they enable potential applications for next-generation spintronic devices. Here, in this communication, the observations of stable Bloch-type magnetic skyrmions in single crystals of 2D vdW Fe3GeTe2 (FGT) are reported by using in situ Lorentz transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We find the ground-state magnetic stripe domains in FGT transform into skyrmion bubbles when an external magnetic field is applied perpendicularly to the (001) thin plate with temperatures below the Curie temperature TC. Most interestingly, a hexagonal lattice of skyrmion bubbles is obtained via field-cooling manipulation with magnetic field applied along the [001] direction. Owing to their topological stability, the skyrmion bubble lattices are stable to large field-cooling tilted angles and further reproduced by utilizing the micromagnetic simulations. These observations directly demonstrate that the 2D vdW FGT possesses a rich variety of topological spin textures, being of great promise for future applications in the field of spintronics.

13.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 44: 102194, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698330

RESUMO

We present a machine learning approach to short tandem repeat (STR) sequence detection and extraction from massively parallel sequencing data called Fragsifier. Using this approach, STRs are detected on each read by first locating the longest repeat stretches followed by locus prediction using k-mers in a machine learning sequence model. This is followed by reference flanking sequence alignment to determine precise STR boundaries. We show that Fragsifier produces genotypes that are concordant with profiles obtained using capillary electrophoresis (CE), and also compared the results with that of STRait Razor and the ForenSeq UAS. The data pre-processing and training of the sequence classifier is readily scripted, allowing the analyst to experiment with different thresholds, datasets and loci of interest, and different machine learning models.

14.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 103: 103497, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518591

RESUMO

The lectin pathway of complement activation is an important component of the innate immune response, which must be tightly controlled to maintain immune homeostasis. However, its control mechanisms have not been investigated in detail in bony fish. In this study, we identified and characterized two novel, phylogenetically conserved mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-associated proteins (MAps) of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), CiMAp27 and CiMAp39, which were truncated, alternatively-spliced forms of grass carp MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs), CiMASP1 and CiMASP2, respectively. Gene expression profiling showed that both CiMAp27 and CiMAp39 were upregulated by low doses of Aeromonas hydrophila, and inhibited by high doses, which lead to the inference that these genes acted as immune factors in antibacterial defense. Sequence analysis showed that CiMAp27 lack a catalytic domain but retains two domains (CUB1-EGF) involved in the association with MBL, while CiMAp39 retained four domains (CUB1-EGF-CUB2-CCP1). Not only the two CiMASPs but also the CiMAps were detected in grass carp serum. Furthermore, both recombinant CiMASPs (rCiMASPs) and recombinant rCiMAps (rCiMAps) interacted with recombinant MBL and the two CiMAps competed with CiMASPs for binding to MBL, and hence inhibited downstream C4 binding. These results indicated that CiMAps acted as competitive inhibitors in the lectin complement pathway of grass carp.

15.
Chem Rev ; 119(24): 12279-12336, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793285

RESUMO

The extraordinary properties of biological materials often result from their sophisticated hierarchical structures. Through multilevel and cross-scale structural designs, biological materials offset the weakness of their individual building blocks and enhance performance at multiple length scales to match the multifunctional needs of organisms. One essential merit of hierarchical structure is that it can optimize the interfacial features of the "building blocks" at different length scales, from the molecular level to the macroscale. Understanding the roles of biological material interfaces (BMIs) on the determination of properties and functions of biological materials has become a growing interdisciplinary research area in recent years. A pivotal aim of these studies is to use BMIs as inspiration for developing bioinspired and biomimetic materials and devices with advanced structures and functions. Given these considerations, this review aims to comprehensively discuss the structure-property-function relationships of BMIs in nature. We particularly focus on the discussion of BMIs and their inspired materials from mechanical and optical perspectives because these two directions are the most well-investigated and closely related. The challenges and directions of design and fabrication of BMI-inspired mechanical and optical materials are also discussed. This review is expected to garner interest from advanced material communities as well as environmental, nanotechnology, food processing, and engineering fields.

16.
Front Neurorobot ; 13: 93, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798437

RESUMO

The problem of generating structured Knowledge Graphs (KGs) is difficult and open but relevant to a range of tasks related to decision making and information augmentation. A promising approach is to study generating KGs as a relational representation of inputs (e.g., textual paragraphs or natural images), where nodes represent the entities and edges represent the relations. This procedure is naturally a mixture of two phases: extracting primary relations from input, and completing the KG with reasoning. In this paper, we propose a hybrid KG builder that combines these two phases in a unified framework and generates KGs from scratch. Specifically, we employ a neural relation extractor resolving primary relations from input and a differentiable inductive logic programming (ILP) model that iteratively completes the KG. We evaluate our framework in both textual and visual domains and achieve comparable performance on relation extraction datasets based on Wikidata and the Visual Genome. The framework surpasses neural baselines by a noticeable gap in reasoning out dense KGs and overall performs particularly well for rare relations.

17.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 11: 281-289, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802960

RESUMO

Background: Sleep disorders (SDs) are usually associated with an increase in frequency of ventricular tachycardia (VT). However, the relationship between SDs and the prevalence of VT within the first week of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate their associations and potential mechanisms. Methods: This structured questionnaire-based cross-sectional study enrolled 303 patients with AMI from a hospital in northern China. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to determine sleep quality of subjects. Heart rate variability (HRV) of patients was investigated by ambulatory electrocardiography recorders. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the plasma levels of catecholamine in a subgroup including 80 patients with AMI. Results: After adjusting to basic cardiovascular characteristics, results of multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that the global PSQI score and its main components were positively associated with VT prevalence in inpatients with AMI. There were significantly different HRV parameters interpreted as autonomic nerve activity in two groups of AMI patients with different sleep quality. In addition, we found the influence of sleep quality on plasma concentrations of adrenaline and norepinephrine in AMI patients. Conclusion: Sleep status was significantly associated with the initiation of VT within the first week of AMI, probably due to the effect of SDs on sympathetic nerve activity. Amelioration of sleep quality and sympathetic hyperactivity may be prospective strategy to curb arrhythmias after AMI.

18.
Sci Prog ; : 36850419885235, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829789

RESUMO

Seven prestressed concrete beams and one normal concrete beam were tested to study the seismic performance of concrete beams with prestressing carbon fiber reinforced polymer tendons. The failure modes, hysteretic curves, ductility, stiffness degeneration, and energy dissipation capacity were studied systematically. This study shows that the partial prestressing ratio is the main factor that affects the seismic performance of carbon fiber reinforced polymer prestressed concrete beams. The beam is more resilient to seismic loads as the partial prestressing ratio decreases. Under the same partial prestressing ratio value, the energy dissipation capacity of prestressed concrete beams with unbonded carbon fiber reinforced polymer tendons was better than that of prestressed beams with bonded carbon fiber reinforced polymer tendons. When combining both bonded and unbonded prestressing carbon fiber reinforced polymer tendons, the ductility index of concrete beams was improved. Compared with that of fully unbonded and fully bonded carbon fiber reinforced polymer prestressed concrete beams, the ductility index of concrete beams with combined bonded and unbonded prestressing tendons increased by 26% and 12%, respectively.

19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5698, 2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836709

RESUMO

Recently, carbon dioxide capture and conversion, along with hydrogen from renewable resources, provide an alternative approach to synthesis of useful fuels and chemicals. People are increasingly interested in developing innovative carbon dioxide hydrogenation catalysts, and the pace of progress in this area is accelerating. Accordingly, this perspective presents current state of the art and outlook in synthesis of light olefins, dimethyl ether, liquid fuels, and alcohols through two leading hydrogenation mechanisms: methanol reaction and Fischer-Tropsch based carbon dioxide hydrogenation. The future research directions for developing new heterogeneous catalysts with transformational technologies, including 3D printing and artificial intelligence, are provided.

20.
Molecules ; 25(1)2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861563

RESUMO

This paper mainly focuses on the application of nanostructured MoO3 materials in both energy and environmental catalysis fields. MoO3 has wide tunability in bandgap, a unique semiconducting structure, and multiple valence states. Due to the natural advantage, it can be used as a high-activity metal oxide catalyst, can serve as an excellent support material, and provide opportunities to replace noble metal catalysts, thus having broad application prospects in catalysis. Herein, we comprehensively summarize the crystal structure and properties of nanostructured MoO3 and highlight the recent significant research advancements in energy and environmental catalysis. Several current challenges and perspective research directions based on nanostructured MoO3 are also discussed.

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