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1.
Clin Immunol ; 213: 108377, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135278

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) targeting against programmed cell death-1(PD-1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) have shown efficacy in cancer treatment. However, a spectrum of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) have raised concerns about their clinical application. IrAEs are distinct from traditional chemo- and radiotherapy-induced toxicities, as they are related in particular to the dysregulation of immune system and autoimmunity. The underlying pathogenesis of irAEs remains elusive. Understanding of the potential underlying mechanism is of great importance for the management of irAEs and the development of new ICIs with insignificant irAEs. In this review, we summarize the current evidence to provide insights into the biological basis of irAEs and provide a potential explanation for their pathogenesis, with focus on the relationship between checkpoint molecules and immune cell regulation.

2.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 8(1): 146-154, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719056

RESUMO

T-cell receptor (TCR)-based biomarkers might predict patient response to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) but need further exploration and validation for that use. We sequenced complementarity-determining region 3 of TCRß chains isolated from PD-1+ CD8+ T cells to investigate its value for predicting the response to anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) therapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Two independent patient cohorts (cohort A, n = 25; cohort B, n = 15) were used as discovery and validation sets, respectively. Pre- and post-ICB peripheral blood samples were collected. In cohort A, patients with high PD-1+ CD8+ TCR diversity before ICB treatment showed better response to ICB and progression-free survival (PFS) compared with patients with low diversity [6.4 months vs. 2.5 months, HR, 0.39; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.17-0.94; P = 0.021]. The results were validated in cohort B. Pre-ICB PD-1+ CD8+ TCR diversity achieved an optimal Youden's index of 0.81 (sensitivity = 0.87 and specificity = 0.94) for differentiating the ICB response in the merged dataset (cohort A plus cohort B). Patients with increased PD-1+ CD8+ TCR clonality after ICB treatment had longer PFS (7.3 months vs. 2.6 months, HR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.08-0.86; P = 0.002) than those with decreased clonality. Thus, TCR diversity and clonality in peripheral blood PD-1+ CD8+ T cells may serve as noninvasive predictors of patient response to ICB and survival outcomes in NSCLC.

3.
Front Physiol ; 9: 452, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29765332

RESUMO

Background and Objective: Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is one of the galectin family members which are known as proteins with ß-galactoside-binding affinity. Accumulative evidence suggest that Gal-9 plays multifaceted roles in tumor biology. However, the prognostic significance of Gal-9 in solid cancer patients remains controversial. The objective of the study was to clarify the prognostic significance of Gal-9 in solid tumors via meta-analysis. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane library for studies that report the correlation between Gal-9 expression and prognosis or clinicopathological parameters in solid cancer patients from inception to October 2017, with no language restriction. We calculated pooled hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to investigate the prognostic significance of Gal-9 expression in solid tumors. We also calculated Odds ratio (OR) to explore the association between Gal-9 expression and clinicopathological features. Results: We included Fourteen studies with 2326 patients in our meta-analysis. The synthetic results revealed that high Gal-9 expression indicated improved overall survival (OS; HR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.51-0.71, P = 0.006) but had no correlation with disease-free survival (DFS)/recurrence-free survival (RFS) (HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.51-1.41, P = 0.527) in solid tumors. In stratified analyses, high Gal-9 expression was significantly correlated with improved OS in hepatocellular carcinoma and colon cancer and with improved DFS/RFS in gastric cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. In addition, ethnicity and the method of data extraction didn't affect the positive prognostic values of high Gal-9 expression. Moreover, high Gal-9 expression was significantly correlated with a smaller depth of invasion (TI/TII vs. TIII/TIV, OR = 2.80, 95% CI = 1.97-3.96, P < 0.001), an earlier histopathological stage (I/II vs. III/IV, OR = 3.00, 95% CI = 2.04-4.42, P < 0.001), negative lymph node metastasis (Presence vs. Absence, OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.25-0.89, P = 0.020) and negative distal tumor metastasis (Presence vs. Absence, OR = 13.85, 95% CI = 3.50-54.76, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Gal-9 expression indicates beneficial outcome in patients with solid tumors and is correlated with the pathogenesis of solid tumors. Gal-9 may serve as a prognostic biomarker and an emerging therapeutic target against solid tumors.

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