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1.
J Telemed Telecare ; : 1357633X211058329, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor management of type 2 diabetes mellitus may affect individuals' physical and emotional health. Access to ongoing psychosocial interventions through technological platforms may potentially minimise diabetes complications and improve health-related outcomes. However, little is known about the effectiveness of such interventions on diabetes distress and health-related outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To synthesise the best available evidence concerning the effectiveness of technology-based psychosocial interventions on diabetes distress, self-efficacy, health-related quality of life, and HbA1c level in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A search of eleven databases was conducted to identify randomised controlled trials that examined the effects of technology-based psychosocial interventions on the outcomes. Randomised controlled trials reported in English from 2010 to 2020 were included. Selection of studies, quality appraisal, and data extraction were conducted by two reviewers independently. Meta-analyses, subgroup analyses and sensitivity analysis were performed using Review Manager. Intervention effects was measured using standardise mean difference. RESULTS: Twenty randomised controlled trials fulfilled the eligibility criteria and 18 randomised controlled trials were included in meta-analysis. technology-based psychosocial interventions improved diabetes distress, self-efficacy and HbA1c levels with significant and small effect sizes. Subgroup analyses revealed greater improvement in health-related quality of life for participants with comorbid depression and lower HbA1c levels for studies with lesser than 100 participants. CONCLUSION: The findings of this review increase knowledge on the effectiveness of technology-based psychosocial interventions on diabetes distress and self-efficacy. However, evidence to support the effects of technology-based psychosocial interventions on HbA1c and health-related quality of life was not strong. More research is needed to examine the effectiveness of the psychosocial interventions delivered through mobile applications or virtual reality.

2.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203997

RESUMO

Diet is one of the strongest modifiable risk factors for hypertension. In this study, we described the associations between dietary factors and blood pressure; and explored how weight status moderated these associations in a sample of New Zealand male adolescents. We collected demographics information, anthropometric, blood pressure, and dietary data from 108 male adolescents (15-17 years old). Mixed effects and logistic regression models were used to estimate relationships between dietary variables, blood pressure, and hypertension. Moderation effects of overweight status on the relationship between hypertension and diet were explored through forest plots. One-third (36%) of the sample was classified as hypertensive. Fruit intake was related to significantly lower systolic (-2.4 mmHg, p = 0.005) and diastolic blood pressure (-3.9 mmHg, p = 0.001). Vegetable and milk intake was related to significantly lower diastolic blood pressure (-1.4 mmHg, p = 0.047) and (-2.2 mmHg, p = 0.003), respectively. In overweight participants, greater vegetable and milk, and lower meat intake appeared to reduce the odds of hypertension. Certain dietary factors may have more prominent effects on blood pressure depending on weight status.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Dieta , Hipertensão/etiologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Adolescente , Animais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Leite , Nova Zelândia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras
3.
Environ Res ; 199: 111298, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971133

RESUMO

Culture scaffolds allow microalgae cultivation with minimum water requirement using the air-liquid interface approach. However, the stability of cellulose-based scaffolds in microalgae cultivation remains questionable. In this study, the stability of regenerated cellulose culture scaffolds was enhanced by adjusting TiO2 loading and casting gap. The membrane scaffolds were synthesized using cellulose dissolved in NaOH/urea aqueous solution with various loading of TiO2 nanoparticles. The TiO2 nanoparticles were embedded into the porous membrane scaffolds as proven by Fourier transform infrared spectra, scanning electron microscopic images, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectra. Although surface hydrophilicity and porosity were enhanced by increasing TiO2 and casting gap, the scaffold pore size was reduced. Cellulose membrane scaffold with 0.05 wt% of TiO2 concentration and thickness of 100 µm attained the highest percentage of Navicula incerta growth rate, up to 37.4%. The membrane scaffolds remained stable in terms of weight, porosity and pore size even they were immersed in acidic solution, hydrogen peroxide or autoclaved at 121 °C for 15 min. The optimal cellulose membrane scaffold is with TiO2 loading of 0.5 wt% and thickness of 100 µm, resulting in supporting the highest N. incerta growth rate and and exhibits good membrane stability.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Tecidos Suporte , Celulose , Porosidade , Titânio
4.
Evol Appl ; 14(5): 1225-1238, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34025763

RESUMO

We consider approaches for conserving genetic diversity from plant populations whose destruction is imminent. We do this using SNP genotype data from two endangered species, Pimelea spicata and Eucalyptus sp. Cattai. For both species, we genotyped plants from a 'condemned' population and designed ex situ collections, characterizing how the size and composition of the collection affected the genetic diversity preserved. Consistent with previous observations, populations where genetic diversity was optimized captured more alleles than populations of equal size chosen at random. This benefit of optimization was larger when the propagation population was small. That is, small numbers of individuals (e.g. 20) needed to be selected carefully to capture a comparable proportion of alleles to optimized populations, but larger random populations (e.g. >48) captured almost as many alleles as optimized populations. We then examined strategies for generating translocation populations based on the horticultural constraints presented by each species. In P. spicata, which is readily grown from cuttings, we designed translocation populations of different sizes, using different numbers of ramets from each member of propagation populations. We then performed simulations to predict the loss of alleles from these populations over 10 generations. Large translocation populations were predicted to maintain a greater proportion of source population alleles than smaller translocation populations, but this effect was saturated beyond 200 individuals. In E. sp. Cattai, we examined strategies to promote the diversity of progeny from a conservation planting scenario with 36 individuals. This included the optimization of the spatial arrangement of the planting and supplementing the diversity of the condemned population with individuals from additional sites. In sum, we studied approaches for designing genetically diverse translocations of condemned populations for two species that require contrasting methods of propagation, illustrating the application of approaches that were useful in different circumstances.

5.
J Hum Nutr Diet ; 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The measurement of height is crucial for weight status assessment. When standing height is difficult to measure, ulna length may offer a convenient and accurate surrogate of height measure. Adolescence is a period of accelerated linear growth; hence, the validation of age-specific equations that predict height from ulna length in adolescents is warranted. The present study aimed to develop and validate age- and sex-specific equations for predicting height from ulna length in New Zealand adolescents. METHODS: Height, weight and ulna length were measured in 364 adolescents (n = 110 males, n = 254 females) aged 15.0-18.8 years, who were enrolled in the SuNDiAL (Survey of Nutrition Dietary Assessment and Lifestyle) project, a cross-sectional survey performed in 2019 and 2020. Regression models were used to determine equations to predict height from ulna length. Agreement between measured and predicted height, body mass index (BMI) and BMI z-score was assessed with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for classifying obesity. RESULTS: Strong agreement was found between predicted and measured height (ICC = 0.78; mean difference = 0; 95% confidence interval = -0.5 to 0.5 cm) and BMI (ICC = 0.95; mean difference = 0; 95% confidence interval = -0.1 to 0.1 kg m-2 ). Predicted height was 88.1% accurate when classifiying weight status, showing high sensitivity (93.8%) and specificity (99.4%) for classifying obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Ulna length measurement can accurately estimate height and subsequently weight status in New Zealand adolescents aged 15-18 years.

6.
Chemosphere ; 273: 129657, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524750

RESUMO

Microalgae cultivation using open cultivation systems requires large area and it is susceptible to contamination as well as weather changes. Meanwhile, the closed systems require large capital investment, and they are susceptible to the build-up of dissolved oxygen. Air-liquid interface culture systems with low water-footprint, but high packing density can be used for microalgae cultivation if low-cost culture scaffolds are available. In this study, cellulose-based scaffolds were synthesized using NaOH/urea aqueous solution as the solvent. Titanium dioxide (TiO2), silica gel and polyethylene glycol 1000 (PEG 1000) nanoparticles were added into the membrane scaffolds to increase the hydrophilicity of nutrient absorbing to support the growth of microalgae. The membrane scaffolds were characterized by FTIR, SEM, contact angle, porosity and porometry. All three nanoparticles additives showed their ability in reducing the contact angle of membrane scaffolds from 63.4 ± 2.3° to a range of 52.6 ± 1.2° to 38.8 ± 1.5° due to the hydrophilic properties of the nanoparticles. The decreasing in pore size when nanoparticles were added did not affect the porosity of membrane scaffolds. Cellulose membrane scaffold with TiO2 showed the highest percentage of microalgae Navicula incerta growth rate of 22.1% because of the antibacterial properties of TiO2 in lowering the risk of cell contamination and enhancing the growth of N. incerta. The results exhibited that cellulose-based scaffold with TiO2 added could be an effective support in plant cell culture field.


Assuntos
Celulose , Nanopartículas , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Porosidade , Titânio
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844417

RESUMO

Epilepsy is marked by seizures that are a manifestation of excessive brain activity and is symptomatically treatable by anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Unfortunately, the older AEDs have many side effects, with cognitive impairment being a major side effect that affects the daily lives of people with epilepsy. Thus, this study aimed to determine if newer AEDs (Zonisamide, Levetiracetam, Perampanel, Lamotrigine and Valproic Acid) also cause cognitive impairment, using a zebrafish model. Acute seizures were induced in zebrafish using pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) and cognitive function was assessed using the T-maze test of learning and memory. Neurotransmitter and gene expression levels related to epilepsy as well as learning and memory were also studied to provide a better understanding of the underlying processes. Ultimately, impaired cognitive function was seen in AED treated zebrafish, regardless of whether seizures were induced. A highly significant decrease in γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) and glutamate levels was also discovered, although acetylcholine levels were more variable. The gene expression levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate (CAMP) Responsive Element Binding Protein 1 (CREB-1) were not found to be significantly different in AED treated zebrafish. Based on the experimental results, a decrease in brain glutamate levels due to AED treatment appears to be at least one of the major factors behind the observed cognitive impairment in the treated zebrafish.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Pentilenotetrazol , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/psicologia , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Acetilcolina/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/biossíntese , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , AMP Cíclico/biossíntese , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/biossíntese , Interações Medicamentosas , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuropeptídeo Y/biossíntese , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/complicações , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
8.
Front Pharmacol ; 9: 655, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29997502

RESUMO

Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by seizures which result in distinctive neurobiological and behavioral impairments. Not much is known about the causes of epilepsy, making it difficult to devise an effective cure for epilepsy. Moreover, clinical studies involving epileptogenesis and ictogenesis cannot be conducted in humans due to ethical reasons. As a result, animal models play a crucial role in the replication of epileptic seizures. In recent years, non-mammalian models have been given a primary focus in epilepsy research due to their advantages. This systematic review aims to summarize the importance of non-mammalian models in epilepsy research, such as in the screening of anti-convulsive compounds. The reason for this review is to integrate currently available information on the use and importance of non-mammalian models in epilepsy testing to aid in the planning of future studies as well as to provide an overview of the current state of this field. A PRISMA model was utilized and PubMed, Springer, ScienceDirect and SCOPUS were searched for articles published between January 2007 and November 2017. Fifty-one articles were finalized based on the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were discussed in this review. The results of this review demonstrated the current use of non-mammalian models in epilepsy research and reaffirmed their potential to supplement the typical rodent models of epilepsy in future research into both epileptogenesis and the treatment of epilepsy. This review also revealed a preference for zebrafish and fruit flies in lieu of other non-mammalian models, which is a shortcoming that should be corrected in future studies due to the great potential of these underutilized animal models.

9.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; 38(5): 736, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29944049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transverse abdominis plane (TAP) block is a peripheral nerve block designed to anaesthetise the nerves supplying the anterolateral abdominal wall (T6 to L1). We introduced laparoscopic TAP block at Ninewells Hospital in 2014 and present a retrospective study assessing its efficacy. To our knowledge, there is limited study done on laparoscopic-guided TAP block whilst there are abundant literatures available on ultrasound-guided TAP block. AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy of laparoscopic-guided TAP block as postoperative analgesia following total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH). METHODOLOGY: A retrospective study was done between November 2014 to October 2016 (24 months) comparing patients who had TLH with TAP block (Group 1; n = 45) and patients who had TLH without TAP block (Group 2; n = 31) in our gynaecology unit. Patients were identified from theatre database. Data was collected from clinical portal and medical notes. The data included demographic information, BMI, METS score, intra-operative opiates use, post-operative pain scores, opiate requirements and use of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA), total dose of opiates used and day of discharge. The outcomes were analysed using means, odds ratios (OR), Mann-Whitney U-test and Fisher's exact or Chi-square test with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Patients in Group 1 were older (mean age of 64.4, range 38-87) when compared to Group 2 (mean age of 49.3, range 37-81). Group 1 and 2 had comparable mean BMI (30.34 vs. 30.02) and METS score (6.77 vs. 7.76). Mean post-operative pain scores were lower in Group 1 within 4 hours, in periods of 4-12 hours, 12-24 hours and 24-48 hours post-op. Smaller proportion of patients in Group 1 required opiates post-operatively in all periods as compared to Group 2. This was statistically significant in the periods of 12-24 hours post-op (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11-0.82; p = .01). PCA use was significantly lower in Group 1 (OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.0014-0.46; p = .01). Group 1 had lower mean total dose of opiates used (27.182 mg, range 0-102 mg) than Group 2 (59.452 mg, range 0-240 mg), which was statistically significant (p < .0001). Average post-op hospital stay was 1.3 and 1.8 days in Group 1 and 2, respectively. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic-guided TAP block delivered as post-operative analgesia following TLH results in reduced opiate requirement at post-operative period 12-24 hours, reduced PCA use and lower total dose of opiates used.

10.
Eur J Med Chem ; 150: 479-490, 2018 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29549835

RESUMO

Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a genital fungal infection afflicting approximately 75% of women globally and is primarily caused by the yeast Candida albicans. The extensive use of fluconazole, the first-line antifungal drug of choice, has led to the emergence of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans, creating a global clinical concern. This, coupled to the lack of new antifungal drugs entering the market over the past decade, has made it imperative for the introduction of new antifungal drug classes. Peptides with antifungal properties are deemed potential drug candidates due to their rapid membrane-disrupting mechanism of action. By specifically targeting and rapidly disrupting fungal membranes, they reduce the chances of resistance development and treatment duration. In a previous screening campaign involving an antimicrobial peptide library, we identified an octapeptide (IKIKIKIK-NH2) with potent activity against C. albicans. Herein, we report a structure-activity relationship study on this peptide with the aim of designing a more potent peptide for further development. The lead peptide was then tested against a panel of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans, subjected to a fungicidal/static determination assay, a human dermal fibroblast viability assay and a homozygous profiling assay to gain insights into its mechanism of action and potential for further development as a topical antifungal agent.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/síntese química , Antifúngicos/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Peptídeos/síntese química , Peptídeos/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
11.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0186663, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29117184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prehistoric human activities have contributed to the dispersal of many culturally important plants. The study of these traditional interactions can alter the way we perceive the natural distribution and dynamics of species and communities. Comprehensive research on native crops combining evolutionary and anthropological data is revealing how ancient human populations influenced their distribution. Although traditional diets also included a suite of non-cultivated plants that in some cases necessitated the development of culturally important technical advances such as the treatment of toxic seed, empirical evidence for their deliberate dispersal by prehistoric peoples remains limited. Here we integrate historic and biocultural research involving Aboriginal people, with chloroplast and nuclear genomic data to demonstrate Aboriginal-mediated dispersal of a non-cultivated rainforest tree. RESULTS: We assembled new anthropological evidence of use and deliberate dispersal of Castanospermum australe (Fabaceae), a non-cultivated culturally important riparian tree that produces toxic but highly nutritious water-dispersed seed. We validated cultural evidence of recent human-mediated dispersal by revealing genomic homogeneity across extensively dissected habitat, multiple catchments and uneven topography in the southern range of this species. We excluded the potential contribution of other dispersal mechanisms based on the absence of suitable vectors and current distributional patterns at higher elevations and away from water courses, and by analyzing a comparative sample from northern Australia. CONCLUSIONS: Innovative studies integrating evolutionary and anthropological data will continue to reveal the unexpected impact that prehistoric people have had on current vegetation patterns. A better understanding of how traditional practices shaped species' distribution and assembly will directly inform cultural heritage management strategies, challenge "natural" species distribution assumptions, and provide innovative baseline data for pro-active biodiversity management.


Assuntos
Antropologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Fabaceae , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/genética , Austrália , Produtos Agrícolas , Ecossistema , História Antiga , Humanos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/história , Floresta Úmida , Árvores , Clima Tropical
12.
Proc Biol Sci ; 282(1820): 20151998, 2015 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26645199

RESUMO

Seed dispersal is a key process in plant spatial dynamics. However, consistently applicable generalizations about dispersal across scales are mostly absent because of the constraints on measuring propagule dispersal distances for many species. Here, we focus on fleshy-fruited taxa, specifically taxa with large fleshy fruits and their dispersers across an entire continental rainforest biome. We compare species-level results of whole-chloroplast DNA analyses in sister taxa with large and small fruits, to regional plot-based samples (310 plots), and whole-continent patterns for the distribution of woody species with either large (more than 30 mm) or smaller fleshy fruits (1093 taxa). The pairwise genomic comparison found higher genetic distances between populations and between regions in the large-fruited species (Endiandra globosa), but higher overall diversity within the small-fruited species (Endiandra discolor). Floristic comparisons among plots confirmed lower numbers of large-fruited species in areas where more extreme rainforest contraction occurred, and re-colonization by small-fruited species readily dispersed by the available fauna. Species' distribution patterns showed that larger-fruited species had smaller geographical ranges than smaller-fruited species and locations with stable refugia (and high endemism) aligned with concentrations of large fleshy-fruited taxa, making them a potentially valuable conservation-planning indicator.


Assuntos
Frutas/anatomia & histologia , Lauraceae/anatomia & histologia , Dispersão Vegetal , Floresta Úmida , Austrália , DNA de Plantas/genética , Frutas/genética , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Genoma de Planta , Lauraceae/genética , Sementes , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
PLoS One ; 10(6): e0128126, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26061691

RESUMO

The Wollemi pine (Wollemia nobilis) is a rare Southern conifer with striking morphological similarity to fossil pines. A small population of W. nobilis was discovered in 1994 in a remote canyon system in the Wollemi National Park (near Sydney, Australia). This population contains fewer than 100 individuals and is critically endangered. Previous genetic studies of the Wollemi pine have investigated its evolutionary relationship with other pines in the family Araucariaceae, and have suggested that the Wollemi pine genome contains little or no variation. However, these studies were performed prior to the widespread use of genome sequencing, and their conclusions were based on a limited fraction of the Wollemi pine genome. In this study, we address this problem by determining the entire sequence of the W. nobilis chloroplast genome. A detailed analysis of the structure of the genome is presented, and the evolution of the genome is inferred by comparison with the chloroplast sequences of other members of the Araucariaceae and the related family Podocarpaceae. Pairwise alignments of whole genome sequences, and the presence of unique pseudogenes, gene duplications and insertions in W. nobilis and Araucariaceae, indicate that the W. nobilis chloroplast genome is most similar to that of its sister taxon Agathis. However, the W. nobilis genome contains an unusually high number of repetitive sequences, and these could be used in future studies to investigate and conserve any remnant genetic diversity in the Wollemi pine.


Assuntos
Genoma de Cloroplastos , Traqueófitas/genética , Austrália , Evolução Biológica , Variação Genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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