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1.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250891, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930073

RESUMO

While a number of tools have been developed for researchers to compute the lexical characteristics of words, extant resources are limited in their useability and functionality. Specifically, some tools require users to have some prior knowledge of some aspects of the applications, and not all tools allow users to specify their own corpora. Additionally, current tools are also limited in terms of the range of metrics that they can compute. To address these methodological gaps, this article introduces LexiCAL, a fast, simple, and intuitive calculator for lexical variables. Specifically, LexiCAL is a standalone executable that provides options for users to calculate a range of theoretically influential surface, orthographic, phonological, and phonographic metrics for any alphabetic language, using any user-specified input, corpus file, and phonetic system. LexiCAL also comes with a set of well-documented Python scripts for each metric, that can be reproduced and/or modified for other research purposes.

2.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660139

RESUMO

There is currently limited research and a lack of consensus on emotional processing impairments among adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present pilot study sought to characterize the extent to which adults with ASD are impaired in processing emotions in both words and pictures. Ten adults with ASD rated word and picture stimuli on emotional valence and arousal. Their ratings were compared to normative data for both stimuli sets using item-level correlations. Adults with ASD rank-ordered stimuli similarly to typically developing individuals, demonstrating relatively typical understanding of emotional words and pictures. However, they used a narrower range of the scales which suggests more subtle impairments affecting emotion-processing. Future directions arising from the findings of this pilot study are discussed.

3.
Behav Res Methods ; 52(6): 2535-2555, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472499

RESUMO

Consistency reflects the mapping between spelling and sound. That is, a word is feedforward consistent if its pronunciation matches that of similarly spelled words, and feedback consistent if its spelling matches that of similar pronounced words. For a quasi-regular language such as English, the study of consistency effects on lexical processing has been limited by the lack of readily accessible norms. In order to improve current methodological resources, feedforward (spelling-to-sound) and feedback (sound-to-spelling) consistency measures for 37,677 English words were computed. The consistency measures developed here are operationalized at the composite level for multisyllabic words, and at different sub-syllabic segments (onset, nucleus, coda, oncleus, and rime) for both monosyllabic and multisyllabic words. These measures constitute the largest database of English consistency norms to be developed, and will be a valuable resource for researchers to explore the effects of consistency on lexical processes, such as word recognition and spelling. The norms are available as supplementary material with this paper.

4.
Behav Res Methods ; 52(5): 2202-2231, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32291734

RESUMO

The Auditory English Lexicon Project (AELP) is a multi-talker, multi-region psycholinguistic database of 10,170 spoken words and 10,170 spoken nonwords. Six tokens of each stimulus were recorded as 44.1-kHz, 16-bit, mono WAV files by native speakers of American, British, and Singapore English, with one from each gender. Intelligibility norms, as determined by average identification scores and confidence ratings from between 15 and 20 responses per token, were obtained from 561 participants. Auditory lexical decision accuracies and latencies, with between 25 and 36 responses per token, were obtained from 438 participants. The database also includes a variety of lexico-semantic variables and structural indices for the words and nonwords, as well as participants' individual difference measures such as age, gender, language background, and proficiency. Taken together, there are a total of 122,040 sound files and over 4 million behavioral data points in the AELP. We describe some of the characteristics of this database. This resource is freely available from a website ( https://inetapps.nus.edu.sg/aelp/ ) hosted by the Department of Psychology at the National University of Singapore.

5.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 73(4): 504-518, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019427

RESUMO

The Chinese Lexicon Project is a repository of lexical decision data for 25,286 Cantonese Chinese two-character compound words. To create that repository, 594 participants responded to approximately 1,404 words and 1,404 nonwords over three sessions. Using the data in this repository, the present study examines the variability and reliability of Chinese lexical decision performance, along with the moderating influence of individual differences on lexical processing. We generally found high to very high within- and between-session reliabilities for mean response times, ex-Gaussian parameters, accuracy rates, and a composite proficiency measure tapping lexical processing fluency. Using linear mixed effects models, we also found reliable interactions between fluency and two lexical effects. Specifically, more fluent readers showed larger effects of word frequency and semantic transparency. These results attest to the stability of Chinese word recognition performance, and are most consistent with a flexible lexical processing system that adapts optimally to task demands.

6.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 72(10): 2452-2461, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947626

RESUMO

In the lexical decision task, the additive effects of stimulus quality and word frequency have been used to infer the presence of independent processing stages in visual word recognition. Importantly, this pattern can be moderated by semantic priming, suggesting the presence of a retrospective prime retrieval mechanism that is selectively engaged based on task context (i.e., utility of the primes). We examine the sensitivity of this mechanism in two lexical decision experiments that manipulate stimulus quality, word frequency, and semantic priming. Critically, we studied these joint effects when the proportion of related primes was set at .50 or .25. Results indicated that with a .50 relatedness proportion, a three-way interaction was obtained such that additivity between frequency and stimulus quality was found following related semantic primes, but an overadditive pattern was exhibited following unrelated primes. When the relatedness proportion was reduced to .25, this interaction was eliminated. Furthermore, relatedness proportion affected the magnitude of the stimulus quality by priming interaction but not the frequency by priming interaction. These results are interpreted within the context of a flexible lexical processer that adaptively engages processes in response to task context.


Assuntos
Associação , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Leitura , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Semântica , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 45(1): 82-96, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29683706

RESUMO

Word frequency is an important predictor of lexical-decision task performance. The current study further examined the role of this variable by exploring the influence of frequency trajectory. Frequency trajectory is measured by how often a word occurs in childhood relative to adulthood. Past research on the role of this variable in word recognition has produced equivocal results. In the current study, words were selected based on their frequencies in Grade 1 (child frequency) and Grade 13 (college frequency). In Experiment 1, four frequency trajectory conditions were factorially examined in a lexical-decision task with English words: high-to-high (world), high-to-low (uncle), low-to-high (brain) and low-to-low (opera). an interaction between Grade 1 and college frequency demonstrated that words in the low-to-high condition were processed significantly faster and more accurately than words in the low-to-low condition, whereas the high-to-high and high-to-low conditions did not differ significantly. In Experiment 2, an advantage for words with an increasing frequency trajectory was also supported in regression analyses on both lexical decision and naming times for 3,039 items selected from the English Lexicon Project (Balota et al., 2007). This was replicated in Experiment 3, based on a regression analysis of 2,680 words from the British Lexicon Project (BLP; Keuleers, Lacey, Rastle, & Brysbaert, 2012). In all analyses, rated age-of-acquisition also significantly impacted word recognition. Together, the results suggest that the age at which a word is initially learned as well as its frequency trajectory across childhood impact performance in the lexical-decision task. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Vocabulário , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
Behav Res Methods ; 51(6): 2722-2732, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291593

RESUMO

Previous studies on visual word recognition of compound words have provided evidence for the influence of lexical properties (e.g., length, frequency) and semantic transparency (the degree of relatedness in meaning between a compound word and its constituents) in morphological processing (e.g., to what extent is doorbell influenced by door and bell?). However, a number of questions in this domain, which are difficult to address with the available methodological resources, are still unresolved. We collected semantic transparency scores for 2,861 compound words at the constituent level (i.e., how strongly the overall meaning of a compound word is related to that of each constituent) and analyzed their effects on speeded pronunciation and lexical decision performance for the compound words using the English Lexicon Project (http://elexicon.wustl.edu) data. The results from both tasks indicated that our human-judged semantic transparency ratings for both the first and second constituents play a significant role in compound word processing. Moreover, additional analyses indicated that the human-judged semantic transparency scores at the constituent level accounted for more variance in compound word recognition performance than did either whole-word semantic transparency scores or corpus-based semantic distance scores.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Semântica , Humanos , Leitura , Reconhecimento Psicológico
9.
Behav Res Methods ; 51(2): 453-466, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30484218

RESUMO

Ratings of body-object interaction (BOI) measure the ease with which the human body can interact with a word's referent. Researchers have studied the effects of BOI in order to investigate the relationships between sensorimotor and cognitive processes. Such efforts could be improved, however, by the availability of more extensive BOI norms. In the present work, we collected BOI ratings for over 9,000 words. These new norms show good reliability and validity and have extensive overlap with the words used both in other lexical and semantic norms and in the available behavioral megastudies (e.g., the English Lexicon Project, Balota, Yap, Cortese, Hutchison, Kessler, & Loftis in Behavior Research Methods, 39, 445-459, 2007; and the Calgary Semantic Decision Project, Pexman, Heard, Lloyd, & Yap in Behavior Research Methods, 49, 407-417, 2017). In analyses using the new BOI norms, we found that high-BOI words tended to be more concrete, more graspable, and more strongly associated with sensory, haptic, and visual experience than are low-BOI words. When we used the new norms to predict response latencies and accuracy data from the behavioral megastudies, we found that BOI was a stronger predictor of responses in the semantic decision task than in the lexical decision task. These findings are consistent with a dynamic, multidimensional account of lexical semantics. The norms described here should be useful for future research examining the effects of sensorimotor experience on performance in tasks involving word stimuli.


Assuntos
Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Semântica , Adulto , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Corpo Humano , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa
10.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 26(2): 599-608, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30511230

RESUMO

The underlying processes and mechanisms supporting the recognition of visually and auditorily presented words have received considerable attention in the literature. To a lesser extent, the interplay between visual and spoken lexical representations has also been investigated using cross-modal lexical processing paradigms, yielding evidence that auditorily presented words influence visual word recognition, and vice versa. The present study extends this work by examining and comparing the relative sizes of cross-modal repetition (cat-CAT) and semantic (dog-CAT) priming in auditory lexical decision, using heavily masked, briefly presented visual primes and a common set of auditory targets. Even when conscious awareness of the prime was minimized, reliable cross-modal repetition and semantic priming was observed. More critically, repetition priming was stronger than semantic priming, consistent with the idea that multiple pathways connect the two modalities. Implications of the findings for the bidirectional interactive activation model (Grainger & Ferrand, 1994) are discussed.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Priming de Repetição , Semântica , Percepção da Fala , Percepção Visual , Atenção , Humanos
11.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 71(10): 2207-2222, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30226433

RESUMO

Psycholinguists have developed a number of measures to tap different aspects of a word's semantic representation. The influence of these measures on lexical processing has collectively been described as semantic richness effects. However, the effects of these word properties on memory are currently not well understood. This study examines the relative contributions of lexical and semantic variables in free recall and recognition memory at the item-level, using a megastudy approach. Hierarchical regression of recall and recognition performance on a number of lexical-semantic variables showed task-general effects where the structural component, frequency, number of senses, and arousal accounted for unique variance in both free recall and recognition memory. Task-specific effects included number of features, imageability, and body-object interaction, which accounted for unique variance in recall, whereas age of acquisition, familiarity, and extremity of valence accounted for unique variance in recognition. Forward selection regression analyses generally converged on these findings. Hierarchical regression also revealed that lexical variables accounted for more variance in recognition compared with recall, whereas semantic variables accounted for more unique variance above and beyond lexical variables in recall compared with recognition. Implications of the findings are discussed.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Semântica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicolinguística , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Análise de Regressão , Aprendizagem Verbal , Vocabulário
12.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 71(9): 2022-2038, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30117382

RESUMO

To examine the effect of lexical variables on two-character Chinese compound word processing, we performed item-level hierarchical regression analyses on lexical decision megastudy data of 18,983 two-character Chinese compound words. The first analysis determined the unique item-level variance explained by orthographic (frequency and stroke count), phonological (consistency, homophonic density), and semantic (transparency) variables. Both character and word variables were considered. Results showed that orthographic and semantic variables, respectively, accounted for more collective variance than phonological variables, suggesting that Chinese skilled readers rely more on orthographic and semantic information than phonological information when processing visually presented words. The second analysis tested interactive effects of lexical variables and showed significant semantic transparency × cumulative character frequency and word frequency × cumulative character frequency interactions. The effect of cumulative character frequency was stronger for transparent words than for opaque words and was stronger for low-frequency words than for high-frequency words. However, there was no semantic transparency × word frequency interaction in reaction time. Implications of the current findings on models of Chinese compound word processing are discussed.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Semântica , Vocabulário , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Psicolinguística , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Leitura , Análise de Regressão , Aprendizagem Verbal
13.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 48(12): 4138-4154, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971659

RESUMO

Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) show deficits in reporting others' emotions (Lartseva et al. in Front Hum Neurosci 8:991, 2015) and in deriving meaning in social contexts (Klin et al. in Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders, Wiley, Hoboken, 2005). However, researchers often use stimuli that conflate salient emotional and social information. Using a matched-pairs design, the impact of emotional and social information on emotional language in pre-school and school-age children, with and without ASD, was assessed with a picture description task comprising rated stimuli from the Pictures with Social Contexts and Emotional Scenes database (Teh et al. in Behav Res Methods, https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-017-0947-x , 2017). Results showed both groups with ASD produced fewer emotional terms than typically developing children, but the effects were moderated by valence, social engagement, and age. Implications for theory and clinical practice are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Emoções , Idioma , Comportamento Social , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 71(7): 1506-1511, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29685097

RESUMO

Separate processes underlying forward (e.g., crescent MOON) and backward (e.g., office POST) priming have previously been inferred from button-press lexical decision response times, with an automatic prospective mechanism and a strategic retrospective mechanism presumed responsible for forward and backward priming, respectively. We tracked hand/mouse kinematics during lexical decision, and found that forward, backward, and symmetrical (e.g., cat DOG) priming exhibited different movement trajectories, with the effect of forward priming emerging earlier than that of backward priming and with symmetrical priming taking the lead around the time when the backward priming effect came online. The findings provide strong converging evidence for different mechanisms driving forward and backward priming, and demonstrate that continuous kinematic measures can shed light on cognitive processes as they unfold in real time.


Assuntos
Associação , Psicolinguística , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Semântica , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 44(7): 1091-1112, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29481104

RESUMO

Most previous studies of semantic processing have examined group-level data. We investigated the possibility that there might be individual differences in semantic decision performance even among the standard undergraduate population and that such differences might provide insights into semantic processing. We analyzed the Calgary Semantic Decision Project dataset, which includes concrete/abstract semantic decision responses to thousands of words and also a vocabulary measure for each of 312 participants. Results of our analyses showed that semantic decision responses had good reliability, and that the speed of those responses was related to individual differences as assessed by vocabulary scores and also by diffusion model parameters. That is, semantic decisions were faster for participants with higher vocabulary scores and for participants with steeper drift rates. Further, in their semantic decision responses high vocabulary participants showed more sensitivity to some lexical/semantic predictors and less sensitivity to others. For responses to both concrete and abstract words, high vocabulary participants were more sensitive to word concreteness and less sensitive to word frequency and age of acquisition. For concrete words, high vocabulary participants were also more sensitive to semantic neighborhood similarity. The results suggest that high vocabulary participants are able to more readily access semantic information and are better able to emphasize task-relevant dimensions. In sum, the results are consistent with a dynamic, multidimensional account of semantic processing. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Individualidade , Semântica , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Imaginação , Modelos Teóricos , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Vocabulário
16.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 25(5): 1917-1924, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28786020

RESUMO

There is a growing interest in understanding how aspects of binary decision-making change dynamically at the trial level. For example, in lexical decision, there is a well-established interaction between current and previous trial characteristics (e.g., lexicality and stimulus degradation) that suggests that participants adjust their decision processes based on the relative match in signal strength between the current and previous trial. The present study assessed the generality of this finding by examining the presence of such cross-trial adjustments in two new tasks, syntactic classification, and memory scanning. Stimulus degradation is manipulated in both tasks. Results indicate that response latencies are facilitated when salient aspects of the stimulus repeat across trials. These findings are interpreted within the context of a flexible processor that utilizes information from the prior target to prime the relevant processing pathway on the current trial. Candidate models that potentially can accommodate the pattern are briefly discussed.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Behav Res Methods ; 50(5): 1793-1805, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28842854

RESUMO

Picture databases are commonly used in experimental work on various aspects of emotion processing. However, existing standardized facial databases, typically used to explore emotion recognition, can be augmented with more contextual information for studying emotion and social perception. Moreover, the perception of social engagement, i.e., the degree of interaction or engagement inferred between the people in target pictures, has not been measured. In this paper, we describe the development of a database comprising 203 black-and-white line drawings depicting people within various situational contexts, and normed on perceived emotional valence, intensity, and social engagement, a new construct. Analyses of ratings collected from 62 young adults (30 females, 32 males; mean age 22 years) revealed the typical quadratic relationship between valence and intensity, i.e., stimuli that are more emotionally charged, whether positively or negatively valenced, are more intense than emotionally-neutral stimuli. Moreover, the results showed significant linear and quadratic relationships between valence and social engagement ratings, indicating that emotionally-charged social scenes were perceived as more engaging than emotionally-neutral social scenes. This new database will facilitate investigations of how people perceive and interpret social and emotional information in everyday interactions, and is offered as a resource to experimenters involved in social and/or emotional processing research.


Assuntos
Emoções , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Comportamento Social , Pesquisa Comportamental/métodos , Data Warehousing , Bases de Dados Factuais , Discriminação Psicológica , Inteligência Emocional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meio Social , Percepção Social , Técnicas Sociométricas , Adulto Jovem
18.
Front Psychol ; 8: 974, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28676770

RESUMO

Spatial metaphors are used to represent and reason about time. Such metaphors are typically arranged along the sagittal axis in most languages. For example, in English, "The future lies ahead of us" and "We look back on our past." This is less straightforward for Chinese. Specifically, both the past and future can either be behind or ahead. The present study aims to explore these cross-linguistic differences by priming auditory targets (e.g., tomorrow) with either a congruent (i.e., pointing forwards) or incongruent (i.e., pointing backwards) gesture. Two groups of college-age young adult participants (English and Chinese speakers) made temporal classifications of words after watching a gestural prime. If speakers represent time along the sagittal axis, they should respond faster if the auditory target is preceded with a gesture indicating a congruent vs. incongruent spatial location. Results showed that English speakers responded faster to congruent gesture-word pairs than to incongruent pairs, mirroring spatio-temporal metaphors commonly recruited to talk about time in their native language. However, such an effect of congruency was not found for Chinese speakers. These findings suggest that while the spatio-temporal metaphors commonly recruited to talk about time help to structure the mental timelines of English speakers, the varying instances in how time is represented along the sagittal axis in Chinese may lead to a more variable mental timeline as well. In addition, our findings demonstrate that gestures may not only be a means of accessing concrete concepts in the mind, as shown in previous studies, but may be used to access abstract ones as well.

19.
Behav Res Methods ; 49(2): 407-417, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26944579

RESUMO

Psycholinguistic research has been advanced by the development of word recognition megastudies. For instance, the English Lexicon Project (Balota et al., 2007) provides researchers with access to naming and lexical-decision latencies for over 40,000 words. In the present work, we extended the megastudy approach to a task that emphasizes semantic processing. Using a concrete/abstract semantic decision (i.e., does the word refer to something concrete or abstract?), we collected decision latencies and accuracy rates for 10,000 English words. The stimuli were concrete and abstract words selected from Brysbaert, Warriner, and Kuperman's (2013) comprehensive list of concreteness ratings. In total, 321 participants provided responses to 1,000 words each. Whereas semantic effects tend to be quite modest in naming and lexical decision studies, analyses of the concrete/abstract semantic decision responses show that a substantial proportion of variance can be explained by semantic variables. The item-level and trial-level data will be useful for other researchers interested in the semantic processing of concrete and abstract words.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Psicolinguística/normas , Semântica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Reação , Padrões de Referência , Adulto Jovem
20.
Behav Res Methods ; 49(4): 1503-1519, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27734329

RESUMO

Using a megastudy approach, we developed a database of lexical variables and lexical decision reaction times and accuracy rates for more than 25,000 traditional Chinese two-character compound words. Each word was responded to by about 33 native Cantonese speakers in Hong Kong. This resource provides a valuable adjunct to influential mega-databases, such as the Chinese single-character, English, French, and Dutch Lexicon Projects. Three analyses were conducted to illustrate the potential uses of the database. First, we compared the proportion of variance in lexical decision performance accounted for by six word frequency measures and established that the best predictor was Cai and Brysbaert's (PLoS One, 5, e10729, 2010) contextual diversity subtitle frequency. Second, we ran virtual replications of three previously published lexical decision experiments and found convergence between the original experiments and the present megastudy. Finally, we conducted item-level regression analyses to examine the effects of theoretically important lexical variables in our normative data. This is the first publicly available large-scale repository of behavioral responses pertaining to Chinese two-character compound word processing, which should be of substantial interest to psychologists, linguists, and other researchers.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Idioma , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Tempo de Reação , Adolescente , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
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