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1.
J Med Chem ; 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591748

RESUMO

SAR efforts directed at identifying RORγt inverse agonists structurally different from our clinical compound 1 (BMS-986251) led to tricyclic-carbocyclic analogues represented by 3-7 and culminated in the identification of 3d (BMS-986313), with structural differences distinct from 1. The X-ray co-crystal structure of 3d with the ligand binding domain of RORγt revealed several key interactions, which are different from 1. The in vitro and in vivo PK profiles of 3d are described. In addition, we demonstrate robust efficacy of 3d in two preclinical models of psoriasis-the IMQ-induced skin lesion model and the IL-23-induced acanthosis model. The efficacy seen with 3d in these models is comparable to the results observed with 1.

2.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 35: 127778, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422603

RESUMO

The discovery of a series of substituted diarylether compounds as retinoic acid related orphan receptor γt (RORγt) agonists is described. Compound 1 was identified from deck mining as a RORγt agonist. Hit-to-lead optimization led to the identification of lead compound 5, which possesses improved potency (10x). Extensive SAR exploration led to the identification of a potent and selective compound 22, that demonstrated an improved pharmacokinetic profile and a dose-dependent pharmacodynamic response. However, when dosed in a MC38 syngeneic tumor model, no evidence of efficacy was observed. ©2020 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

3.
J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods ; 106: 106935, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096237

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Murine transverse aortic constriction (TAC) is a frequently used model of pressure overload-induced left ventricular (LV) remodeling. However, there is considerable variability in disease progression to overt heart failure (HF) development in the most commonly used strain of mice (i.e., C57BL/6J). Studies have shown that C57BL/6J mice are more resistant than BALB/c mice to congestive HF development following myocardial infarction or angiotensin II-induced hypertension. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that BALB/c mice may be a better research model to study TAC-induced progressive HF. METHODS: Following sham or TAC surgery in both C57BL/6J (n = 29) and BALB/c (n = 32) mice, we evaluated cardiac dimensions and function by echocardiography at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks and monitored survival throughout the study. In a separate cohort of BALB/c mice, we repeated the study in the presence of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril or a vehicle initiated 2 weeks post-TAC and administered for 6 weeks. At the end of the studies, we assessed the heart weight, lung weight, and plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentration. RESULTS: Following comparable TAC, both C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice showed significant LV remodeling compared with the sham control mice. BALB/c mice progressively developed systolic dysfunction, LV dilation, lung congestion, and significant mortality, whereas C57BL/6J mice did not. In the separate cohort of BALB/c TAC mice, enalapril significantly reduced the heart weight, lung weight, and plasma BNP concentration and improved survival compared with the vehicle control. DISCUSSION: BALB/c mice uniformly developed congestive HF post-TAC. Enalapril was effective in improving survival and reducing lung congestion in this model. The data suggest that BALB/c mice may be a better research tool than C57BL/6J mice to study TAC-induced disease progression to HF and to evaluate novel therapies for the treatment of chronic HF with reduced ejection fraction.

4.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 30(23): 127521, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882417

RESUMO

In order to rapidly develop C6 and C8 SAR of our reported tricyclic sulfone series of RORγt inverse agonists, a late-stage bromination was employed. Although not regioselective, the bromination protocol allowed us to explore new substitution patterns/vectors that otherwise would have to be incorporated at the very beginning of the synthesis. Based on the SAR obtained from this exercise, compound 15 bearing a C8 fluorine was developed as a very potent and selective RORγt inverse agonist. This analog's in vitro profile, pharmacokinetic (PK) data and efficacy in an IL-23 induced mouse acanthosis model will be discussed.

5.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 30(17): 127392, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738966

RESUMO

A novel series of cis-3,4-diphenylpyrrolidines were designed as RORγt inverse agonists based on the binding conformation of previously reported bicyclic sulfonamide 1. Preliminary synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) study established (3S,4S)-3-methyl-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxyprop-2-yl)phenyl)pyrrolidine as the most effective scaffold. Subsequent SAR optimization led to identification of a piperidinyl carboxamide 31, which was potent against RORγt (EC50 of 61 nM in an inverse agonist assay), selective relative to RORα, RORß, LXRα and LXRß, and stable in human and mouse liver microsomes. Furthermore, compound 31 exhibited considerably lower PXR Ymax (46%) and emerged as a promising lead. The binding mode of the diphenylpyrrolidine series was established with an X-ray co-crystal structure of 10A/RORγt.

6.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 30(19): 127466, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763309

RESUMO

RORγt is the master regulator of the IL-23/IL-17 axis, a pathway that is clinically validated for the treatment of various immunological disorders. Over the last few years, our group has reported different chemotypes that potently act as inverse agonists of RORγt. One of them, the tricyclic pyrrolidine chemotype, has demonstrated biologic-like preclinical efficacy and has led to our clinical candidate BMS-986251. In this letter, we discuss the invention of an annulation reaction which enabled the synthesis of a tricyclic exocyclic amide chemotype and the identification of compounds with RORγt inverse agonist activity. Preliminary structure activity relationships are disclosed.

7.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 30(19): 127441, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736080

RESUMO

In an effort to discover oral inverse agonists of RORγt to treat inflammatory diseases, a new 2,6-difluorobenzyl ether series of cyclopentyl sulfones were found to be surprisingly more potent than the corresponding alcohol derivatives. When combined with a more optimized phenyl ((R)-3-phenylpyrrolidin-3-yl)sulfone template, the 2,6-difluorobenzyl ethers yielded a set of very potent RORγt inverse agonists (e.g., compound 26, RORγt Gal4 EC50 11 nM) that are highly selective against PXR, LXRα and LXRß. After optimizing for stability in human and mouse liver microsomes, compounds 29 and 38 were evaluated in vivo and found to have good oral bioavailability (56% and 101%, respectively) in mice. X-ray co-crystal structure of compound 27 in RORγt revealed that the bulky benzyl ether group causes helix 11 of the protein to partially uncoil to create a new, enlarged binding site, which nicely accommodates the benzyl ether moiety, leading to net potency gain.

8.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 11(6): 1221-1227, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551004

RESUMO

Novel tricyclic analogues were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as RORγt inverse agonists. Several of these compounds were potent in an IL-17 human whole blood assay and exhibited excellent oral bioavailability in mouse pharmacokinetic studies. This led to the identification of compound 5, which displayed dose-dependent inhibition of IL-17F production in a mouse IL-2/IL-23 stimulated pharmacodynamic model. In addition, compound 5 was studied in mouse acanthosis and imiquimod-induced models of skin inflammation, where it demonstrated robust efficacy comparable to a positive control. As a result of this excellent overall profile, compound 5 (BMS-986251) was selected as a clinically viable developmental candidate.

9.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 30(12): 127204, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334911

RESUMO

Substituted benzyloxy aryl compound 2 was identified as an RORγt agonist. Structure based drug design efforts resulted in a potent and selective tricyclic compound 19 which, when administered orally in an MC38 mouse tumor model, demonstrated a desired pharmacokinetic profile as well as a dose-dependent pharmacodynamic response. However, no perceptible efficacy was observed in this tumor model at the doses investigated.

10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(11): 1281-1295, 2020 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Better risk stratification strategies are needed to enhance clinical care and trial design in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the value of a targeted plasma multi-marker approach to enhance our phenotypic characterization and risk prediction in HFpEF. METHODS: In this study, the authors measured 49 plasma biomarkers from TOPCAT (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist) trial participants (n = 379) using a Multiplex assay. The relationship between biomarkers and the risk of all-cause death or heart failure-related hospital admission (DHFA) was assessed. A tree-based pipeline optimizer platform was used to generate a multimarker predictive model for DHFA. We validated the model in an independent cohort of HFpEF patients enrolled in the PHFS (Penn Heart Failure Study) (n = 156). RESULTS: Two large, tightly related dominant biomarker clusters were found, which included biomarkers of fibrosis/tissue remodeling, inflammation, renal injury/dysfunction, and liver fibrosis. Other clusters were composed of neurohormonal regulators of mineral metabolism, intermediary metabolism, and biomarkers of myocardial injury. Multiple biomarkers predicted incident DHFA, including 2 biomarkers related to mineral metabolism/calcification (fibroblast growth factor-23 and OPG [osteoprotegerin]), 3 inflammatory biomarkers (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, sTNFRI [soluble tumor necrosis factor-receptor I], and interleukin-6), YKL-40 (related to liver injury and inflammation), 2 biomarkers related to intermediary metabolism and adipocyte biology (fatty acid binding protein-4 and growth differentiation factor-15), angiopoietin-2 (related to angiogenesis), matrix metalloproteinase-7 (related to extracellular matrix turnover), ST-2, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. A machine-learning-derived model using a combination of biomarkers was strongly predictive of the risk of DHFA (standardized hazard ratio: 2.85; 95% confidence interval: 2.03 to 4.02; p < 0.0001) and markedly improved the risk prediction when added to the MAGGIC (Meta-Analysis Global Group in Chronic Heart Failure Risk Score) risk score. In an independent cohort (PHFS), the model strongly predicted the risk of DHFA (standardized hazard ratio: 2.74; 95% confidence interval: 1.93 to 3.90; p < 0.0001), which was also independent of the MAGGIC risk score. CONCLUSIONS: Various novel circulating biomarkers in key pathophysiological domains are predictive of outcomes in HFpEF, and a multimarker approach coupled with machine-learning represents a promising strategy for enhancing risk stratification in HFpEF.

11.
Physiol Genomics ; 52(4): 191-199, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089075

RESUMO

Aortic valve sclerosis is a highly prevalent, poorly characterized asymptomatic manifestation of calcific aortic valve disease and may represent a therapeutic target for disease mitigation. Human aortic valve cusps and blood were obtained from 333 patients undergoing cardiac surgery (n = 236 for severe aortic stenosis, n = 35 for asymptomatic aortic valve sclerosis, n = 62 for no valvular disease), and a multiplex assay was used to evaluate protein expression across the spectrum of calcific aortic valve disease. A subset of six valvular tissue samples (n = 3 for asymptomatic aortic valve sclerosis, n = 3 for severe aortic stenosis) was used to create RNA sequencing profiles, which were subsequently organized into clinically relevant gene modules. RNA sequencing identified 182 protein-encoding, differentially expressed genes in aortic valve sclerosis vs. aortic stenosis; 85% and 89% of expressed genes overlapped in aortic stenosis and aortic valve sclerosis, respectively, which decreased to 55% and 84% when we targeted highly expressed genes. Bioinformatic analyses identified six differentially expressed genes encoding key extracellular matrix regulators: TBHS2, SPARC, COL1A2, COL1A1, SPP1, and CTGF. Differential expression of key circulating biomarkers of extracellular matrix reorganization was observed in control vs. aortic valve sclerosis (osteopontin), control vs. aortic stenosis (osteoprotegerin), and aortic valve sclerosis vs. aortic stenosis groups (MMP-2), which corresponded to valvular mRNA expression. We demonstrate distinct mRNA and protein expression underlying aortic valve sclerosis and aortic stenosis. We anticipate that extracellular matrix regulators can serve as circulating biomarkers of early calcific aortic valve disease and as novel targets for early disease mitigation, pending prospective clinical investigations.

12.
JACC Heart Fail ; 8(3): 172-184, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926856

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess if clinical phenogroups differ in comprehensive biomarker profiles, cardiac and arterial structure/function, and responses to spironolactone therapy. BACKGROUND: Previous studies identified distinct subgroups (phenogroups) of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). METHODS: Among TOPCAT (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist Trial) participants, we performed latent-class analysis to identify HFpEF phenogroups based on standard clinical features and assessed differences in multiple biomarkers measured from frozen plasma; cardiac and arterial structure/function measured with echocardiography and arterial tonometry; prognosis; and response to spironolactone. RESULTS: Three HFpEF phenogroups were identified. Phenogroup 1 (n = 1,214) exhibited younger age, higher prevalence of smoking, preserved functional class, and the least evidence of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and arterial stiffness. Phenogroup 2 (n = 1,329) was older, with normotrophic concentric LV remodeling, atrial fibrillation, left atrial enlargement, large-artery stiffening, and biomarkers of innate immunity and vascular calcification. Phenogroup 3 (n = 899) demonstrated more functional impairment, obesity, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, concentric LV hypertrophy, high renin, and biomarkers of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated inflammation, liver fibrosis, and tissue remodeling. Compared with phenogroup 1, phenogroup 3 exhibited the highest risk of the primary endpoint of cardiovascular death, heart failure hospitalization, or aborted cardiac arrest (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.79 to 4.24); phenogroups 2 and 3 demonstrated similar all-cause mortality (phenotype 2 HR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.89 to 2.95; phenotype 3 HR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.77 to 2.87). Spironolactone randomized therapy was associated with a more pronounced reduction in the risk of the primary endpoint in phenogroup 3 (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.59 to 0.95; p for interaction = 0.016). Results were similar after excluding participants from Eastern Europe. CONCLUSIONS: We identified important differences in circulating biomarkers, cardiac/arterial characteristics, prognosis, and response to spironolactone across clinical HFpEF phenogroups. These findings suggest distinct underlying mechanisms across clinically identifiable phenogroups of HFpEF that may benefit from different targeted interventions.

13.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(4): 575-582, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843232

RESUMO

Little data are available regarding the determinants and prognostic significance of serum albumin in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction (HFpEF). We sought to examine the phenotypic correlates of albumin and its independent prognostic implications in HFpEF. We analyzed data from 3,254 subjects enrolled the TOPCAT trial. We stratified subjects according to tertiles of albumin and examined differences in various phenotypic traits between these strata, including 8 protein biomarkers selected ad hoc and measured from frozen samples available in a subset of participants (n = 372). We also assessed the relationship between albumin and the trial primary endpoint. Lower albumin was associated with older age, black race, and greater prevalence of NYHA class III-IV, peripheral arterial disease, atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus. Lower albumin was also associated with increased levels of several inflammatory biomarkers, markers of liver fibrosis, albuminuria, and greater arterial stiffness, diastolic dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. Albumin was a strong predictor of the primary trial endpoint, even after adjustment for the MAGGIC risk score (hazard ratio [HR] 0.72, confidence interval [CI] 0.67 to 0.78; p <0.0001) and prespecified traditional risk factors (HR 0.78, CI 0.71 to 0.85; p <0.0001). Lower albumin was strongly associated with a worse prognosis even well within normal ranges (>3.5 g/dL), with a sharp increase in risk between 4.6 and 3.6 g/dL. In conclusion, albumin is an integrated marker of various adverse processes in HFpEF, including inflammation, subclinical liver disease, arterial stiffness, and renal disease. Albumin is a powerful risk predictor independent of traditional risk prediction models, even within normal ranges.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico , Volume Sistólico
14.
J Med Chem ; 62(21): 9931-9946, 2019 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638797

RESUMO

RORγt is an important nuclear receptor that regulates the production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-17 and IL-22. As a result, RORγt has been identified as a potential target for the treatment of various immunological disorders such as psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and inflammatory bowel diseases. Structure and computer-assisted drug design led to the identification of a novel series of tricyclic RORγt inverse agonists with significantly improved in vitro activity in the reporter (Gal4) and human whole blood assays compared to our previous chemotype. Through careful structure activity relationship, several potent and selective RORγt inverse agonists have been identified. Pharmacokinetic studies allowed the identification of the lead molecule 32 with a low peak-to-trough ratio. This molecule showed excellent activity in an IL-2/IL-23-induced mouse pharmacodynamic study and demonstrated biologic-like efficacy in an IL-23-induced preclinical model of psoriasis.


Assuntos
Desenho de Fármacos , Agonismo Inverso de Drogas , Membro 3 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/agonistas , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Membro 3 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/química , Conformação Proteica , Pirrolidinas/química , Pirrolidinas/farmacocinética , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Distribuição Tecidual
15.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 29(16): 2265-2269, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257087

RESUMO

An X-ray crystal structure of one of our previously discovered RORγt inverse agonists bound to the RORγt ligand binding domain revealed that the cyclohexane carboxylic acid group of compound 2 plays a significant role in RORγt binding, forming four hydrogen bonding and ionic interactions with RORγt. SAR studies centered around the cyclohexane carboxylic acid group led to identification of several structurally diverse and more potent compounds, including new carboxylic acid analogues 7 and 20, and cyclic sulfone analogues 34 and 37. Notably, compounds 7 and 20 were found to maintain the desirable pharmacokinetic profile of 2.


Assuntos
Membro 3 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/agonistas , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Sulfonas/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cristalografia por Raios X , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Agonismo Inverso de Drogas , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Pirrolidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirrolidinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonas/química
16.
Am J Transl Res ; 11(3): 1531-1540, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972180

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis represents a significant and rapidly growing unmet medical need. The development of novel therapies has been hindered in part, by the limitations of existing preclinical models. There is a strong need for physiologically relevant in vivo and in vitro liver fibrosis models that are characterized by better translational predictability. In this study, we used the InSphero 3D InSightTM three-dimensional (3D) human liver microtissue (3D-hLMT) system prepared by co-culturing primary human hepatocytes with hepatic stellate cells, Kupffer cells and endothelial cells to develop a model of NASH with a severe fibrotic phenotype. In our model, palmitic acid (PA) induced a robust proinflammatory and profibrogenic phenotype in the 3D-hLMT. PA significantly increased several markers of the inflammatory and profibrotic process including gene expression of collagens, α-sma, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloprotease 1 (timp1) and the stellate cell activation marker pdgfrß as well as secreted CXCL8 (IL8) levels. We also observed TGFß pathway activation, increase in active collagen synthesis and significant overall increase in tissue damage in the 3D-hLMTs. Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated the upregulation of collagen, cleaved caspase 3 as well as of the PDGFRß protein. We further validated the model using a phase 3 clinical compound, GS-4997, an apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK-1) inhibitor and showed that GS-4997 significantly decreased PA induced profibrotic and proinflammatory response in the 3D-hLMTs with decreases in apoptosis and stellate cell activation in the microtissues. Taken together we have established and validated an in vitro 3D-hLMT NASH model with severe fibrotic phenotype that can be a powerful tool to investigate experimental compounds for the treatment of NASH.

17.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 10(3): 367-373, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891142

RESUMO

A new phenyl (3-phenylpyrrolidin-3-yl)sulfone series of RORγt inverse agonists was discovered utilizing the binding conformation of previously reported bicyclic sulfonamide 1. Through a combination of structure-based design and structure-activity relationship studies, a polar set of amides at N1-position of the pyrrolidine ring and perfluoroisopropyl group at para-position of the 3-phenyl group were identified as critical structural elements to achieve high selectivity against PXR, LXRα, and LXRß. Further optimization led to the discovery of (1R,4r)-4-((R)-3-((4-fluorophenyl)sulfonyl)-3-(4-(perfluoropropan-2-yl)phenyl)pyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid (26), which displayed excellent selectivity, desirable liability and pharmacokinetic properties in vitro, and a good pharmacokinetic profile in mouse. Oral administration of 26 demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of IL-17 production in a mouse IL-2/IL-23-induced pharmacodynamic model and biologic-like efficacy in an IL-23-induced mouse acanthosis model.

18.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 28(2): 85-93, 2018 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29233651

RESUMO

We disclose the optimization of a high throughput screening hit to yield benzothiazine and tetrahydroquinoline sulfonamides as potent RORγt inverse agonists. However, a majority of these compounds showed potent activity against pregnane X receptor (PXR) and modest activity against liver X receptor α (LXRα). Structure-based drug design (SBDD) led to the identification of benzothiazine and tetrahydroquinoline sulfonamide analogs which completely dialed out LXRα activity and were less potent at PXR. Pharmacodynamic (PD) data for compound 35 in an IL-23 induced IL-17 mouse model is discussed along with the implications of a high Ymax in the PXR assay for long term preclinical pharmacokinetic (PK) studies.


Assuntos
Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Propanóis/farmacologia , Receptores do Ácido Retinoico/agonistas , Receptores de Esteroides/agonistas , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Animais , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/síntese química , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Receptores X do Fígado/agonistas , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Receptor de Pregnano X , Propanóis/síntese química , Propanóis/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/síntese química , Sulfonamidas/química
19.
J Med Chem ; 60(12): 5193-5208, 2017 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28541707

RESUMO

PI3Kδ plays an important role controlling immune cell function and has therefore been identified as a potential target for the treatment of immunological disorders. This article highlights our work toward the identification of a potent, selective, and efficacious PI3Kδ inhibitor. Through careful SAR, the successful replacement of a polar pyrazole group by a simple chloro or trifluoromethyl group led to improved Caco-2 permeability, reduced Caco-2 efflux, reduced hERG PC activity, and increased selectivity profile while maintaining potency in the CD69 hWB assay. The optimization of the aryl substitution then identified a 4'-CN group that improved the human/rodent correlation in microsomal metabolic stability. Our lead molecule is very potent in PK/PD assays and highly efficacious in a mouse collagen-induced arthritis model.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Fosfoinositídeo-3 Quinase , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Células CACO-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2/imunologia , Cães , Canal de Potássio ERG1/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/tratamento farmacológico , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pirazóis/química , Pirazóis/metabolismo , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Coelhos
20.
J Med Chem ; 59(21): 9837-9854, 2016 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27726358

RESUMO

Fingolimod (1) is the first approved oral therapy for the treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. While the phosphorylated metabolite of fingolimod was found to be a nonselective S1P receptor agonist, agonism specifically of S1P1 is responsible for the peripheral blood lymphopenia believed to be key to its efficacy. Identification of modulators that maintain activity on S1P1 while sparing activity on other S1P receptors could offer equivalent efficacy with reduced liabilities. We disclose in this paper a ligand-based drug design approach that led to the discovery of a series of potent tricyclic agonists of S1P1 with selectivity over S1P3 and were efficacious in a pharmacodynamic model of suppression of circulating lymphocytes. Compound 10 had the desired pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profile and demonstrated maximal efficacy when administered orally in a rat adjuvant arthritis model.


Assuntos
Desenho de Fármacos , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/farmacologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Receptores de Lisoesfingolipídeo/agonistas , Animais , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Experimental/imunologia , Cães , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/administração & dosagem , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/química , Adjuvante de Freund/administração & dosagem , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/química , Ligantes , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Mycobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Distribuição Tecidual
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