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World J Cardiol ; 9(2): 162-166, 2017 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28289530


AIM: To investigate whether consumption of an energy drink will acutely impair endothelial function in young healthy adults. METHODS: Energy drinks are being consumed more and more worldwide, and have been associated with some deaths in adolescents and young adults, especially when consumed while exercising. After fasting and not smoking for at least 8 h prior, eleven medical students (9 males) received an electrocardiogram, blood pressure and pulse check, and underwent baseline testing (BL) of endothelial function using the technique of endothelium-dependent flow mediated dilatation (FMD) with high-resolution ultrasound (according to recommended guidelines of the University of Wisconsin Atherosclerosis Imaging Research Program Core Laboratory). The subjects then drank an energy beverage (EB), a 24-oz can of Monster Energy, and the above was repeated at 90 min after consumption. The relative FMD (%) was calculated as the ratio between the average post-cuff release and the baseline diameter. Each image was checked for quality control, and each artery diameter was measured from the media to media points by two experts, 3 measurements at the QRS complex, repeated on 3 separate beats, and then all were averaged. RESULTS: Subjects characteristics averages (given with standard deviations) include: Age 24.5 ± 1.5 years, sex 9 male and 2 female, weight 71.0 ± 9.1 kg, height 176.4 ± 6.0 cm, BMI 22.8 ± 2.7 kg/m2. The hemodynamics were as follows, BL vs EB group respectively (mean ± SD): Heart rate 65.2 ± 11.3 vs 68.2 ± 11.8 beats per minute, systolic blood pressure 114.0 ± 10.4 mmHg vs 114.1 ± 10.4 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure 68.8 ± 9.3 mmHg vs 70.6 ± 7.1 mmHg; all were not significantly different. However after drinking the EB, a significantly attenuated peak FMD response was measured (mean ± SD): BL group 5.9% ± 4.6% vs EB group 1.9% ± 2.1%; P = 0.03). Given the increased consumption of energy beverages associated with exercise in young adults, more research is needed. CONCLUSION: Energy beverage consumption has a negative impact on arterial endothelial function in young healthy adults.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 39(5): 483-9, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26931098


OBJECTIVES: To reevaluate risk factors for high defibrillation threshold (DFT) and propose a risk assessment tool. BACKGROUND: Controversy exists over routine DFT testing during implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) placement. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 1,642 consecutive patients who received an ICD and underwent DFT testing. RESULTS: The incidence of high DFT requiring addition of a subcutaneous array was 2.3%. Five significant independent variables predictive of high DFT were identified, including younger age, male gender (hazard ratio 1.99), left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, secondary prevention (hazard ratio 2.33), and amiodarone use (hazard ratio 2.39). Each 10-year increase in age was indicative of a 0.35-times lower chance of high DFT. Each 10% increase of LV ejection fraction (EF) was indicative of a 0.52-times lower chance of high DFT. These five variables form the EF-SAGA risk score (LVEF < 20%, Secondary prevention ICD indication, Age < 60 years, male Gender, Amiodarone use). Cumulative risk of high DFT increased incrementally; patients with four or more variables had an 8.9% likelihood of high DFT. Importantly, primary prevention patients with LVEF > 20% had a negative predictive value for high DFT of 99.3%. CONCLUSION: We identified five independent predictors of high DFT. We propose the EF-SAGA risk score to help decision making. Primary prevention patients with an LVEF > 20% had an exceedingly low incidence of high DFT suggesting that testing could be avoided in these patients. Careful assessment of the risk-benefit ratio of testing is important in high-risk patients.

Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Implantação de Prótese , Fibrilação Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Fibrilação Ventricular/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco