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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247018, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285617

RESUMO

Abstract The Rufous treepie (Dendrocitta vagabunda) belongs to family corvidae, order Passeriformes which includes about 100 species. The current study was conducted to gather information about the Population distribution and habitat analysis of D. vagabunda at District Abbottabad, Pakistan. The data were collected on monthly basis both morning and evening times (2018-2019). "The ''Point count Method" was used for population estimation and ''Quadrates Method" for habitat analysis of study area. The result shows an average month-wise population density of D. vagabunda was maximum at Jhangra 0.14±0.039/ha, whereas minimum at Havelian 0.11±0.022/ha. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) among monthly population densities of D. vagabunda, however, a significant difference (p<0.05) was found between morning and evening times population of the specie. The present study revealed that importance value index (IVI) of plants species at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 59.6±12.6, 50.1±6.9, 53.4±6.3, 66.8±10 and 60.1±7.7. Likewise, the frequency of shrubs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 33.3±4.2, 45±9.4, 46.7±8.2, 55.6±22.2 and 37.5±8.5. Similarly, the frequency of herbs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 40.4±6.0, 37.5±5.6, 53.3±7.4, 48.5±5.2 and 46.9±7.4 respectively. Our results show the study area as suitable habitat for D. vagabunda.


Resumo A trepadeira Rufous (Dendrocitta vagabunda) pertence à família corvidae, ordem Passeriformes que inclui cerca de 100 espécies. O estudo atual foi realizado para reunir informações sobre a distribuição da população e análise do habitat de D. vagabunda no distrito de Abbottabad, Paquistão. Os dados foram coletados mensalmente pela manhã e à noite (2018-2019). O "método de contagem de pontos" foi usado para estimativa da população e o "método dos quadrados" para análise de habitat da área de estudo. O resultado mostra que uma densidade populacional média mensal de D. vagabunda foi máxima em Jhangra 0,14 ± 0,039 / ha, enquanto a mínima em Havelian 0,11 ± 0,022/ha. Não houve diferença significativa (p> 0,05) entre as densidades populacionais mensais de D. vagabunda, entretanto foi encontrada diferença significativa (p <0,05) entre os períodos matutino e noturno da população da espécie. O presente estudo revelou que o índice de valor de importância (IVI) das espécies de plantas em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi de: 59,6 ± 12,6, 50,1 ± 6,9, 53,4 ± 6,3, 66,8 ± 10 e 60,1 ± 7,7. Da mesma forma, a frequência de arbustos em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi de: 33,3 ± 4,2, 45 ± 9,4, 46,7 ± 8,2, 55,6 ± 22,2 e 37,5 ± 8,5. Da mesma forma, a frequência de ervas em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi: 40,4 ± 6,0, 37,5 ± 5,6, 53,3 ± 7,4, 48,5 ± 5,2 e 46,9 ± 7,4, respectivamente. Nossos resultados mostram a área de estudo como habitat adequado para D. vagabunda.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242205, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339332

RESUMO

Abstract Tapeworms of zoonotic importance have been described as a leading public health problem. Current research was aim to assess the prevalence of tapeworms among 5-12years school children residing in district Lower Dir, Pakistan from January 2019-December 2019. The wet mount preparation in saline/iodine/methods were used for stool examination. Data was analyzed using appropriate descriptive, static methods. Of the 400 children studied 71.7% were infected with one or more species of intestinal parasites. Single infection of cestode species was found in 69 individuals with 17.2% prevalence and multiple parasitic infections were identified in 19.7% (n=79/400) individuals. The multiple infection were comprised as 10% (n=40) double, 6.75% (n=27) triple and 3% (n=12) quadruple. A total of 9 species of helminths and one species of protozoan infection. Among the helminths Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent 33.1% (n=95), Taenia saginata 22.6% (n=65), hookworm 19.8% (n=57), Hymenolepis nana 18.8% (n=54), Enterobius vermicularis and Hymenolepis diminuta 1.39% (n=4each), Trichuris trichura 1.04% (n=3), Toxocara spp 0.69% (n=2) and Schistosoma japonicum 0.34% (n=1) were reported. One protozoan species was Cryptosporidium spp 0.69% (n=2) in current study. In case of A.lumbricoides, hookworm, E.vermicularis, T.trichura, T.saginata, H.nana and H.diminuta the male children of below 8 years of age were highly infected. Other infections are reported in the same prevalence with slight difference if any. We conclude that there is a need for mass scale campaigns to create awareness regarding health and hygiene in children and the need for development of effective poverty control programs because deworming alone is not adequate to control parasitic infections.


Resumo As tênias de importância zoonótica têm sido descritas como um dos principais problemas de saúde pública. A pesquisa atual teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de tênias entre crianças em idade escolar de 5 a 12 anos que residem no distrito de Lower Dir, Paquistão, de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2019. Os métodos de preparação para montagem úmida em solução salina/iodo foram usados ​​para exame de fezes. Os dados foram analisados ​​usando métodos descritivos e estáticos apropriados. Das 400 crianças estudadas, 71,7% estavam infectadas com uma ou mais espécies de parasitas intestinais. Infecção única de espécies de cestóides foi encontrada em 69 indivíduos com prevalência de 17,2% e infecções parasitárias múltiplas foram identificadas em 19,7% (n = 79/400) indivíduos. As infecções múltiplas foram compostas por 10% (n = 40) dupla, 6,75% (n = 27) tripla e 3% (n = 12) quádrupla. Um total de 9 espécies de helmintos e uma espécie de infecção por protozoários. Entre os helmintos, Ascaris lumbricoides foi o mais prevalente 33,1% (n = 95), Taenia saginata 22,6% (n = 65), ancilóstomo 19,8% (n = 57), Hymenolepis nana 18,8% (n = 54), Enterobius vermicularis e Hymenolepis diminuta 1,39% (n = 4cada), Trichuris trichura 1,04% (n = 3), Toxocara spp 0,69% (n = 2) e Schistosoma japonicum 0,34% (n = 1). Uma espécie de protozoário foi Cryptosporidium spp 0,69% (n = 2) no estudo atual. No caso de A.lumbricoides, ancilostomíase, E.vermicularis, T.trichura, T.saginata, H.nana e H.diminuta, as crianças do sexo masculino com menos de 8 anos de idade estavam altamente infectadas. Outras infecções são relatadas na mesma prevalência, com ligeira diferença, se houver. Concluímos que há uma necessidade de campanhas em massa para criar consciência sobre saúde e higiene em crianças e a necessidade de desenvolvimento de programas eficazes de controle da pobreza, porque a desparasitação por si só não é adequada para controlar infecções parasitárias.

3.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e242205, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644726

RESUMO

Tapeworms of zoonotic importance have been described as a leading public health problem. Current research was aim to assess the prevalence of tapeworms among 5-12years school children residing in district Lower Dir, Pakistan from January 2019-December 2019. The wet mount preparation in saline/iodine/methods were used for stool examination. Data was analyzed using appropriate descriptive, static methods. Of the 400 children studied 71.7% were infected with one or more species of intestinal parasites. Single infection of cestode species was found in 69 individuals with 17.2% prevalence and multiple parasitic infections were identified in 19.7% (n=79/400) individuals. The multiple infection were comprised as 10% (n=40) double, 6.75% (n=27) triple and 3% (n=12) quadruple. A total of 9 species of helminths and one species of protozoan infection. Among the helminths Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent 33.1% (n=95), Taenia saginata 22.6% (n=65), hookworm 19.8% (n=57), Hymenolepis nana 18.8% (n=54), Enterobius vermicularis and Hymenolepis diminuta 1.39% (n=4each), Trichuris trichura 1.04% (n=3), Toxocara spp 0.69% (n=2) and Schistosoma japonicum 0.34% (n=1) were reported. One protozoan species was Cryptosporidium spp 0.69% (n=2) in current study. In case of A.lumbricoides, hookworm, E.vermicularis, T.trichura, T.saginata, H.nana and H.diminuta the male children of below 8 years of age were highly infected. Other infections are reported in the same prevalence with slight difference if any. We conclude that there is a need for mass scale campaigns to create awareness regarding health and hygiene in children and the need for development of effective poverty control programs because deworming alone is not adequate to control parasitic infections.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Criança , Fezes , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas
4.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247890, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468530

RESUMO

Asiatic black bear is present in variety of habitats like broad-leaves and coniferous forests, extending form sea level to 4300m elevation and change their habitat for food purpose seasonally. The present study was conducted at Kaghan and Siran Valleys, District Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan to assess habitat of black bear. Line transect method was used for observation of bear signs. Twelve meter circular radius plots were selected for the concern vegetation's i.e. (trees, shrubs and herbs) and three to six plots were placed in each transect. At the result of sign survey, thirteen different categories of bear signs were recorded and encounter rate was calculated for each sign. A total of 1858 signs were observed during field surveys. Total (81%) coniferous species were recoded among trees, with the highest appearance of Pinus wallichiana (34.22%) and Spruce spp (27.76%), similarly broad leaves trees (18.56%) were also recoded from habitat plots. Most of the signs were encountered in bushy areas, whereas high number of Viburnum Spp (60.29%) was present. It is indicated that black bear prefers blend of Coniferous Trees, Viburnum and Ferns Species; probably because these plants provide enough food, protection, and meticulous shelter because more than 80% of habitat composed of these three species. Currently habitat destruction and increase in human population are the up-growing issues for wild animals (especially Asiatic black bear), which is highly sensitive to such problems. High levels of conservation efforts are recommended for the protection of black bear habitat and to avoid human interference in their territory.


Assuntos
Ursidae , Acetilcisteína , Animais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Paquistão , Árvores
5.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247018, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431914

RESUMO

The Rufous treepie (Dendrocitta vagabunda) belongs to family corvidae, order Passeriformes which includes about 100 species. The current study was conducted to gather information about the Population distribution and habitat analysis of D. vagabunda at District Abbottabad, Pakistan. The data were collected on monthly basis both morning and evening times (2018-2019). "The ''Point count Method" was used for population estimation and ''Quadrates Method" for habitat analysis of study area. The result shows an average month-wise population density of D. vagabunda was maximum at Jhangra 0.14±0.039/ha, whereas minimum at Havelian 0.11±0.022/ha. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) among monthly population densities of D. vagabunda, however, a significant difference (p<0.05) was found between morning and evening times population of the specie. The present study revealed that importance value index (IVI) of plants species at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 59.6±12.6, 50.1±6.9, 53.4±6.3, 66.8±10 and 60.1±7.7. Likewise, the frequency of shrubs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 33.3±4.2, 45±9.4, 46.7±8.2, 55.6±22.2 and 37.5±8.5. Similarly, the frequency of herbs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 40.4±6.0, 37.5±5.6, 53.3±7.4, 48.5±5.2 and 46.9±7.4 respectively. Our results show the study area as suitable habitat for D. vagabunda.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Animais , Paquistão , Densidade Demográfica
6.
Psychol Trauma ; 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138613

RESUMO

Objectives: To examine differences in potentially traumatic events (PTEs), probable PTSD, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) and heterosexual Vietnam Era veterans. Method: Data are from the 2016-2017 Vietnam Era Health Retrospective Observational study survey (n = 18,866; 45% response rate). PTEs were defined using the 10-item Brief Trauma Questionnaire and a dichotomous item about whether respondents witnessed sexual assault during military service. Current probable PTSD was measured with the Primary Care PTSD Screen, and mental and physical HRQoL was assessed with the SF-8™. Multivariable regression analyses were first adjusted for sociodemographic and military-related characteristics, and then with PTEs as a count variable ranging from 0-11. Survey weights accounted for the complex sampling design and nonresponse. Results: Approximately 1.5% of veterans were LGB. Compared to heterosexual veterans, LGB veterans were more likely to report exposure to natural disasters, childhood physical abuse, adulthood physical assault, and sexual assault, and they were less likely to report combat exposure, witnessing someone being seriously injured or killed, or witnessing sexual assault while in the military. Compared to heterosexual veterans, LGB veterans had greater odds of current probable PTSD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.50, 95% CI [1.04, 2.16]) and poorer mental HRQoL (B = -1.70, SE = .72, p = .018). PTEs attenuated sexual orientation differences in probable PTSD (aOR = 1.27, 95% CI [.82, 1.97]) and poorer mental HRQoL (B = -1.22, SE = .67, p = .067). Conclusions: Among Vietnam Era veterans, PTEs differ based on sexual orientation, and contribute to LGB veterans' greater prevalence of current probable PTSD and poorer mental HRQoL relative to heterosexual veterans. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

7.
Surgery ; 170(3): 925-931, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overuse and misuse of opioids is a continuing crisis. The most common reason for children to receive opioids is postoperative pain, and they are often prescribed more than needed. The amount of opioids prescribed varies widely, even for minor ambulatory procedures. This study uses a large national sample to describe filled opioid prescriptions to preteen patients after all ambulatory surgical procedures and common standard procedures. METHODS: We analyzed Truven Health MarketScan data for July 2012 through December 2016 to perform descriptive analyses of opioid fills by age and geographic area, change over time, second opioid fills in opioid-naïve patients, and variation in the types and amount of medication prescribed for 18 common and standard procedures in otolaryngology, urology, general surgery, ophthalmology, and orthopedics. RESULTS: Over 10% of preteen children filled perioperative opioid prescriptions for ambulatory surgery in the period 2012 to 2016. The amount prescribed varied widely (median 5 days' supply, IQR 3-8, range 1-90), even for the most minor procedures, for example, frenotomy (median 4 days' supply, IQR 2-5, range 1-60). Codeine fills were common despite safety concerns. Second opioid prescriptions were filled by opioid-naïve patients after almost all procedures studied. The rate of prescribing declined significantly over time and varied substantially by age and across census regions. CONCLUSIONS: We identified opioid prescribing outside of the norms of standard practice in all of the specialties studied. Standardizing perioperative opioid prescribing and developing guidelines on appropriate prescribing for children may reduce the opioids available for misuse and diversion.

8.
J Natl Med Assoc ; 113(4): 431-435, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863490

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Student-run free clinics (SRFCs) primarily service the uninsured and are a unique way for medical students to gain hands-on exposure to ophthalmology. The free clinic model takes many different forms- some with episodic and longitudinal models-- and this is mirrored in corresponding eye services. OBJECTIVE: To describe SRFC ophthalmology services nationwide. DESIGN: This was a telephone survey study administered from June through July of 2018. SETTING: This study surveyed medical school SRFC clinics across the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Survey request was sent to 19 SRFCs previously identified as having ophthalmology services via internet search. Fourteen SRFCs (73%) participated; participants were either student clinic leaders or medical directors. One respondent no longer had a distinct eye clinic so was excluded from relevant results. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE: Characteristics of ophthalmology SRFCs including participants, frequency of sessions, common diagnoses treated, and challenges encountered were assessed through this survey. RESULTS: On average, each SRFC provided 5.15 hours per month of ophthalmology services. The mean number of medical students involved per session was 8.7. Lack of infrastructure to ensure adequate patient follow-up and faculty recruiting were cited as the main challenges in providing ophthalmology services. Most SRFC leaders indicated exposure to ophthalmology and practice with the exam as the main experiences that students sought and achieved. The most common conditions treated were refractive error (92.3%) and diabetic retinopathy (69.2%). CONCLUSION: There are a small number of SRFCs that have ophthalmology services, and they share common features in terms of participants, staffing, and, barriers to sustainability. Ophthalmology services at SRFCs offer a unique venue for medical students to gain exposure to an under-represented field in medical school curricula. The growth of this critical venue for medical student training could be enhanced by recruitment strategies aimed at ophthalmology faculty with a strong interest in service and teaching.

10.
Psychiatr Q ; 92(3): 1093-1107, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587260

RESUMO

The successful treatment of depressive disorders critically depends on adherence to prescribed treatment regimens. Despite increasing rates of antidepressant medication prescription, adherence to the full treatment course remains poor. Rates of antidepressant non-adherence are higher for uninsured patients and members of some marginalized racial and ethnic communities due to factors such as inequities in healthcare and access to insurance. Among patients treated in a free, student-run and faculty-supervised clinic serving uninsured patients in a majority Hispanic community in East Harlem, adherence rates are lower than those observed in patients with private or public New York State health insurance coverage. A prior study of adherence in these patients revealed that difficulty in obtaining medications from an off-site hospital pharmacy was a leading factor that patients cited for non-adherence. To alleviate this barrier to obtaining prescriptions, we tested the effectiveness of on-site, in-clinic medication dispensing for improving antidepressant medication adherence rates among uninsured patients. We found that dispensing medications directly to patients in clinic was associated with increased visits at which patients self-reported proper adherence and increased overall adherence rates. Furthermore, we found evidence that higher rates of antidepressant medication adherence were associated with more favorable treatment outcomes. All patients interviewed reported increased satisfaction with on-site dispensing. Overall, this study provides promising evidence that on-site antidepressant dispensing in a resource-limited setting improves medication adherence rates and leads to more favorable treatment outcomes with enhanced patient satisfaction.

11.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 83-91, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153327

RESUMO

Abstract Current study assessed the impact of Lantana camara invasion on native plant diversity in Pothohar region of Pakistan. The approach used for study was random samplings and comparisons of diversity indices [number of species (S), abundance (N), species richness (R), evenness (Jꞌ), Shannon diversity index (Hꞌ) and Simpson index of dominance (λ)] with two categorical factors i.e., invaded and non-invaded (control). Control plots harboured by an average of 1.74 more species/10m2. The control category was diverse (Hꞌ=2.56) than invaded category (Hꞌ=1.56). The higher value of species richness in control plots shows heterogeneous nature of communities and vice versa in invaded plots. At multivariate scale, ordination (nMDS) and ANOSIM showed significant magnitude of differences between invaded and control plots at all sites. The decrease in studied diversity indices in invaded over control sites indicated that plant communities become less productive due to Lantana invasion.


Resumo O presente estudo avaliou o impacto da invasão de Lantana camara na diversidade de plantas nativas na região de Pothohar, no Paquistão. A abordagem utilizada para o estudo foram a amostragem aleatória e a comparação de índices de diversidade, como número de espécies (S), abundância (N), riqueza de espécies (R), equitabilidade (Jꞌ), índice de diversidade de Shannon (Hꞌ) e índice de dominância de Simpson (λ), com dois fatores categóricos, ou seja, invadidos e não invadidos (controle). As parcelas não invadidas tinham, em média, 1,74 espécie a mais / 10 m2 que parcelas invadidas. A categoria controle foi mais diversa (Hꞌ = 2,56) do que a categoria invadida (Hꞌ = 1,56). O maior valor da riqueza de espécies em parcelas de controle mostra a natureza heterogênea das comunidades, e vice-versa, em parcelas invadidas. Na escala multivariada, ordenação (nMDS) e ANOSIM mostraram magnitude significativa das diferenças entre as parcelas invadidas e controle em todos os locais. A diminuição nos índices de diversidade estudados em locais invadidos por controle indicou que as comunidades de plantas se tornam menos produtivas por causa da invasão de Lantana.

13.
J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr ; 15(4): 348-355, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33384253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is the standard imaging modality used to assess the left atrial appendage (LAA) after transcatheter device occlusion. Cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) offers an alternative non-invasive modality in these patients. We aimed to conduct a comparison of the two modalities. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive systematic review of the current literature pertaining to CCTA to establish its usefulness during follow-up for patients undergoing LAA device closure. Studies that reported the prevalence of inadequate LAA closure on both CCTA and TEE were further evaluated in a meta-analysis. 19 studies were used in the systematic review, and six studies were used in the meta-analysis. RESULTS: The use of CCTA was associated with a higher likelihood of detecting LAA patency than the use of TEE (OR, 2.79, 95% CI 1.34-5.80, p â€‹= â€‹0.006, I2 â€‹= â€‹70.4%). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of peridevice gap ≥5 â€‹mm (OR, 3.04, 95% CI 0.70-13.17, p â€‹= â€‹0.13, I2 â€‹= â€‹0%) between the two modalities. Studies that reported LAA assessment in early and delayed phase techniques detected a 25%-50% higher prevalence of LAA patency on the delayed imaging. CONCLUSION: CCTA can be used as an alternative to TEE for LAA assessment post occlusion. Standardized CCTA acquisition and interpretation protocols should be developed for clinical practice.

14.
Braz J Biol ; 81(1): 83-91, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236291

RESUMO

Current study assessed the impact of Lantana camara invasion on native plant diversity in Pothohar region of Pakistan. The approach used for study was random samplings and comparisons of diversity indices [number of species (S), abundance (N), species richness (R), evenness (Jꞌ), Shannon diversity index (Hꞌ) and Simpson index of dominance (λ)] with two categorical factors i.e., invaded and non-invaded (control). Control plots harboured by an average of 1.74 more species/10m2. The control category was diverse (Hꞌ=2.56) than invaded category (Hꞌ=1.56). The higher value of species richness in control plots shows heterogeneous nature of communities and vice versa in invaded plots. At multivariate scale, ordination (nMDS) and ANOSIM showed significant magnitude of differences between invaded and control plots at all sites. The decrease in studied diversity indices in invaded over control sites indicated that plant communities become less productive due to Lantana invasion.


Assuntos
Lantana , Paquistão , Plantas
15.
Food Nutr Bull ; 41(4): 399-423, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity (FI) is an important public health issue for US veterans. For many veterans, civilian life is fraught with service-incurred health issues and socioeconomic challenges, each risk factors for FI. The FI literature on veterans is limited due to insufficient coverage of the topic's complexity and the methods used to study it in this population. No published analysis has evaluated how FI has been examined in US veterans. OBJECTIVES: We assessed how FI has been examined in US military veterans by identifying (1) the major content areas, or domains, studied in association with FI and (2) the existing research gaps. METHODS: A scoping literature review was conducted to map the main research domains of the FI literature and identify knowledge gaps. Electronic database and hand searches identified potentially relevant studies (n = 61). Data extraction, utilizing a standardized set of design parameters, was completed. Duplicate removal and application of inclusion/exclusion criteria resulted in the studies (n = 21) selected for critical review. RESULTS: Eight research domains were determined: FI prevalence, health status, dietary practices, health care utilization, economic instability, homelessness/housing instability, food program participation, and community/emergency preparedness-the most dominant was health status and the least dominant were social determinants (ie, homelessness/housing instability, food program participation). Research on validity and usability of FI assessment methods in veterans was virtually absent. Military service factors, longitudinal effects, FI among women, intervention effectiveness, and other areas lacked sufficient inquiry. CONCLUSION: Research is required on lesser examined content areas and methodology to optimize surveillance and policy for veteran FI.


Assuntos
Insegurança Alimentar , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Status Econômico , Feminino , Assistência Alimentar/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(12): 6, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027505

RESUMO

Purpose: Affecting children by age 3, primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) can cause debilitating vision loss by the developmental impairment of aqueous drainage resulting in high intraocular pressure (IOP), globe enlargement, and optic neuropathy. TEK haploinsufficiency accounts for 5% of PCG in diverse populations, with low penetrance explained by variable dysgenesis of Schlemm's canal (SC) in mice. We report eight families with TEK-related PCG, and provide evidence for SVEP1 as a disease modifier in family 8 with a higher penetrance and severity. Methods: Exome sequencing identified coding/splice site variants with an allele frequency less than 0.0001 (gnomAD). TEK variant effects were assayed in construct-transfected HEK293 cells via detection of autophosphorylated (active) TEK protein. An enucleated eye from an affected member of family 8 was examined via histology. SVEP1 expression in developing outflow tissues was detected by immunofluorescent staining of 7-day mouse anterior segments. SVEP1 stimulation of TEK expression in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) was measured by TaqMan quantitative PCR. Results: Heterozygous TEK loss-of-function alleles were identified in eight PCG families, with parent-child disease transmission observed in two pedigrees. Family 8 exhibited greater disease penetrance and severity, histology revealed absence of SC in one eye, and SVEP1:p.R997C was identified in four of the five affected individuals. During SC development, SVEP1 is secreted by surrounding tissues. SVEP1:p.R997C abrogates stimulation of TEK expression by HUVECs. Conclusions: We provide further evidence for PCG caused by TEK haploinsufficiency, affirm autosomal dominant inheritance in two pedigrees, and propose SVEP1 as a modifier of TEK expression during SC development, affecting disease penetrance and severity.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Genes Modificadores/genética , Hidroftalmia/genética , Receptor TIE-2/genética , Idoso , Animais , Western Blotting , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Células HEK293/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidroftalmia/diagnóstico , Hidroftalmia/fisiopatologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Linhagem , Penetrância , Fosforilação , Isoformas de Proteínas , Receptor TIE-2/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(3): 565-573, July-Sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132399

RESUMO

Abstract Due to increased number of herbicide resistant weeds, it is needed to explore the allelopathic potential of plants as an alternative. The research was conducted to investigate allelopathic effects of Carica papaya L. leaf powder and aqueous extract on seeds as well as pre-germinated seeds of Avena fatua L., Helianthus annuus L., Rumex dentatus L., Zea mays L. and Triticum aestivum L. on filter paper and soil in Weed Management Program Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Protection at PARC Institute of Advanced Studies in Agriculture, National Agriculture Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. Germination percentage (%), radicle length (cm) and plumule length (cm) were parameters observed for 'Plant leaf powder bioassay' and 'Aqueous extract method'. Most significant growth inhibition was observed in A. fatua seedlings in filter paper method. A. fatua radicle length was reduced by C. papaya aqueous extract (80%) and leaf powder (89%) bioassays. Plumule length was reduced under the influence of aqueous extract (57-73%) and powdered material (59-77%). The inhibitory effects on other test species were in sequence of H. annuus followed by Z. mays and R. dentatus. The aqueous extract showed non-significant effect on wheat seed germination, radicle and plumule growth. It is suggested that C. papaya aqueous extract can be used as source of weed management in wheat crop.


Resumo Devido ao aumento do número de ervas daninhas resistentes aos herbicidas, é necessário explorar o potencial alelopático das plantas como uma alternativa. A pesquisa foi conduzida com o objetivo de investigar os efeitos alelopáticos do pó foliar de Carica papaya e do extrato aquoso das sementes, bem como das sementes pré-germinadas de Avena fatua, Helianthus annuus, Rumex dentatus, Zea mays e Triticum aestivum em papel de filtro e solo no Laboratório do Programa de Manejo de Ervas Daninhas, Departamento de Plantas e Proteção Ambiental do Instituto PARC de Estudos Avançados em Agricultura, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa Agrícola, Islamabad, Paquistão. A porcentagem de germinação (%), o comprimento radicular e o comprimento da plúmula (cm) foram os parâmetros observados para o 'Bioensaio de Pó de Folha de Planta' e o 'Método de Extração Aquoso'. A maior inibição do crescimento foi observada em mudas de A. fatua no método de papel de filtro. O comprimento radicular de A. fatua foi reduzido com os extratos aquosos de C. papaya (80%) e pó de folhas (89%). O comprimento das plúmulas foi reduzido sob a influência do extrato aquoso (57-73%) e material em pó (59-77%). Os efeitos inibitórios em outras espécies-teste foram na sequência de H. annuus seguido por Z. mays e R. dentatus. O extrato aquoso apresentou efeito não significativo na germinação das sementes de trigo, nos crescimentos radiculares e das plúmulas. Sugere-se que o extrato aquoso de C. papaya pode ser utilizado como fonte de manejo de plantas daninhas na cultura do trigo.

19.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although consensus-based guidelines support noninvasive stress testing prior to orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), the optimal screening strategy for assessment of coronary artery disease in patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) is unclear. This study sought to determine the relative predictive value of coronary risk factors, functional capacity, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) on major adverse cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in liver transplantation candidates. METHODS: Prior to listing for transplantation, 404 consecutive ESLD patients were referred to a University hospital for cardiovascular (CV) risk stratification. All subjects met at least one of the following criteria: inability to perform > 4 METs by history (62%), insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (53%), serum creatinine > 1.72 mg/dL (8%), history of MI, PCI or CABG (5%), stable angina (3%), cerebrovascular disease (1%), peripheral vascular disease (1%). Subjects underwent Technetium-99m SPECT with multislice coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) using exercise treadmill or standard adenosine stress in those unable to achieve 85% maximal heart rate (Siemens Symbia T16). Abnormal perfusion was defined as a summed stress score (SSS) ≥ 4. RESULTS: Of the 404 patients, 158 (age 59 ± 9 years; male 68%) subsequently underwent transplantation and were included in the primary analysis. Of those, 50 (32%) died after a mean duration follow-up of 5.4 years (maximal 10.9 years). Most deaths (78%) were attributed to noncardiovascular causes (malignancy, sepsis, renal failure). Of the 32 subjects with abnormal perfusion (20%), nine (6%) had a high-risk perfusion abnormality defined as a total perfusion defect size (PDS) ≥ 15% and/or an ischemic PDS ≥ 10%. Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrated abnormal perfusion was associated with increased CV mortality (generalized Wilcoxon, P = 0.014) but not all-cause death. Subjects with both abnormal perfusion and an inability to exercise > 4 METs had the lowest survival from all-cause death (P = 0.038). Abnormal perfusion was a strong independent predictor of CV death (adjusted HR 4.2; 95% CI 1.4 to 12.3; P = 0.019) and MACE (adjusted HR 7.7; 95% CI 1.4 to 42.4; P = 0.018) in a multivariate Cox regression model that included age, sex, diabetes, smoking and the ability to exercise > 4 METs. There was no association between CACS and the extent of perfusion abnormality, nor with outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Most deaths following OLT are noncardiovascular. Nonetheless, abnormal perfusion is prevalent in this high-risk population and a stronger predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than functional status. A combined assessment of functional status and myocardial perfusion identifies those at highest risk of all-cause death. (Exercise Capacity and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography in Liver Transplantation Candidates [ExSPECT]; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03864497).

20.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 20(1): 84, 2020 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the best norepinephrine bolus dose for management of hypotension are limited. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of two norepinephrine bolus doses in the rescue management of maternal hypotension during cesarean delivery. METHODS: This randomized, controlled trial included mothers scheduled for cesarean delivery with spinal anesthesia with a prophylactic norepinephrine infusion. Following spinal anaesthesia administration, a participant was considered hypotensive if systolic blood pressure was ≤80% compared to the baseline reading. Participants were allocated to receive either 6 mcg or 10 mcg norepinephrine bolus for the management of hypotensive episodes. The hemodynamic response after administration of norepinephrine bolus was recorded. The episode was considered successfully managed if systolic blood pressure returned to within 80% from the baseline reading within 2 min after norepinephrine bolus administration, and did not drop again within 6 min after the norepinephrine bolus. The primary outcome was the incidence of successful management of the first hypotensive episode. Other outcomes included systolic blood pressure, heart rate, incidence of maternal bradycardia, and reactive hypertension. RESULTS: One hundred and ten mothers developed hypotensive episodes and received norepinephrine boluses for management. The number of successfully managed first hypotensive episodes was 50/57 (88%) in the 6 mcg-treated episodes and 45/53 (85%) in the 10 mcg-treated episodes (p = 0.78). Systolic blood pressure was comparable after administration of either bolus dose. Heart rate was lower after administration of 10 mcg bolus compared to 6 mcg bolus, without significant bradycardia requiring atropine administration. The incidence of reactive hypertension was comparable between both groups. CONCLUSION: In mothers undergoing elective cesarean delivery under prophylactic norepinephrine infusion at 0.05 mcg/kg/min, there was no advantage to the use of 10 mcg norepinephrine bolus over 6 mcg norepinephrine bolus for the rescue management of first hypotensive episode. Neither of the 2 bolus doses reached a 100% success rate. The incidences of bradycardia and reactive hypertension were comparable between both norepinephrine doses. TRIAL REGISTRATION: At clinicaltrial.gov registry system on January 4, 2019 Clinical trial identifier: NCT03792906.


Assuntos
Cesárea/métodos , Hipotensão/tratamento farmacológico , Norepinefrina/administração & dosagem , Vasoconstritores/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Raquianestesia/efeitos adversos , Raquianestesia/métodos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Bradicardia/epidemiologia , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipotensão/etiologia , Incidência , Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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