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1.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 1, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adapting and translating already developed tools to different cultures is a complex process, but once done, it increases the validity of the construct to be measured. This study aimed to assess the 12 items WHODAS-2 and test its psychometric properties among road traffic injury victims in Ethiopia. This study aimed to translate the 12 items WHODAS- 2 interview-based tools into Amharic and examine the psychometric properties of the new version among road traffic injury victims. METHODS: The 12 items WHODAS 2 was first translated into Amharic by two experts. Back translation was done by two English experts. A group of experts reviewed the forward and backward translation. A total of 240 patients with road traffic injury completed the questionnaires at three selected Hospitals in Amhara Regional State. Internal consistency was; assessed using Chronbach's alpha, convergent, and divergent validity, which were; tested via factor analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA); was computed, and the model fit; was examined. RESULTS: The translated Amharic version 12 -items WHODAS-2 showed that good cross-cultural adaptation and internal consistency (Chronbach's α =0.88). The six factor structure best fits data (model fitness indices; CFI = 0.962, RMSEA = 0.042, RMR = 0.072, GFI = 0.961, chi-square value/degree of freedom = 1.42, TLI = 0.935 and PCLOSE = 0.68). Our analysis showed that from the six domains, mobility is the dominant factor explaining 95% of variability in disability. CONCLUSION: The 12 items interview-based Amharic version WHODAS-2; showed good cultural adaptation at three different settings of Amhara Regional State and can be used to measure dis-ability following a road traffic injury.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Avaliação da Deficiência , Etiópia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Traduções , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 13(1): 231, 2018 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30097809

RESUMO

Nanomaterials (NMs) are receiving remarkable attention due to their unique properties and structure. They vary from atoms and molecules along with those of bulk materials. They can be engineered to act as drug delivery vehicles to cross blood-brain barriers (BBBs) and utilized with better efficacy and safety to deliver specific molecules into targeted cells as compared to conventional system for neurological disorders. Depending on their properties, various metal chelators, gold nanoparticles (NPs), micelles, quantum dots, polymeric NPs, liposomes, solid lipid NPs, microparticles, carbon nanotubes, and fullerenes have been utilized for various purposes including the improvement of drug delivery system, treatment response assessment, diagnosis at early stage, and management of neurological disorder by using neuro-engineering. BBB regulates micro- and macromolecule penetration/movement, thus protecting it from many kinds of illness. This phenomenon also prevents drug delivery for the neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and primary brain tumors. For some neurological disorders (AD and PD), the environmental pollution was considered as a major cause, as observed that metal and/or metal oxide from different sources are inhaled and get deposited in the lungs/brain. Old age, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease are other factors for rapid deterioration of human health and onset of AD. In addition, gene mutations have also been examined to cause the early onset familial forms of AD. AD leads to cognitive impairment and plaque deposits in the brain leading to neuronal cell death. Based on these facts and considerations, this review elucidates the importance of frequently used metal chelators, NMs and/or NPs. The present review also discusses the current status and future challenges in terms of their application in drug delivery for neurological disease management.

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