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1.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 57(5): 133-138, 2016.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27784863

RESUMO

Azodicarbonamide (ADA) is used in some countries as a flour bleaching agent and a dough conditioner. However, ADA is prohibited for use as a food additive in Japan. Therefore, it is necessary to establish an efficient and sensitive method to determine ADA in wheat flour. A simple and practical procedure to analyze ADA in wheat flour and prepared flour mixes was developed. ADA was extracted from samples by ultrasonication with acetone. ADA in the solution was derivatized with triphenylphosphine (TPP). The ADA-TPP derivative was concentrated and cleaned up using a reversed-phase solid-phase extraction cartridge, and the ADA-TPP derivative was analyzed using HPLC for determination and LC-MS/MS for identification. Good linearity was achieved over the concentration range of 0.25-100 ppm ADA in wheat flour and prepared flour mixes. The mean recoveries from wheat flour and prepared flour mixes fortified at the levels of 1 and 10 ppm ranged from 86.9 to 101.0%, and the coefficients of variation ranged from 1.9 to 3.4%.


Assuntos
Compostos Azo/análise , Farinha/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Triticum/química , Compostos Azo/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Aditivos Alimentares/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Organofosforados , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
2.
Chemosphere ; 149: 84-90, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26855210

RESUMO

The effects of surface physicochemical properties of functionalized polystyrene latex (PSL) nanoparticles (NPs) and model filamentous fungi Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus nidulans cultivated in different environment (aqueous and atmospheric environment) on the colloidal behavior and cytotoxicity were investigated in different isotonic solutions (154 mM NaCl and 292 mM sucrose). When the liquid cultivated fungal cells were exposed to positively charged PSL NPs in 154 mM NaCl solution, the NPs were taken into A. oryzae, but not A. nidulans. Atomic force microscopy revealed that the uptake of NPs was more readily through the cell wall of A. oryzae because of its relatively softer cell wall compared with A. nidulans. In contrast, the positively charged PSL NPs entirely covered the liquid cultivated fungal cell surfaces and induced cell death in 292 mM sucrose solution because of the stronger electrostatic attractive force between the cells and NPs compared with in 154 mM NaCl. When the agar cultivated fungal cells were exposed to the positively charged PSL NPs, both fungal cells did not take the NPs inside the cells. Contact angle measurement revealed that the hydrophobin on the agar cultivated cell surfaces inhibited the uptake of NPs because of its relatively more hydrophobic cell surface compared with the liquid cultivated cells.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Soluções Isotônicas , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Nanopartículas/química , Poliestirenos/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Testes de Toxicidade
3.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 55(1): 13-8, 2014.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24598222

RESUMO

A simple and rapid dialysis method was developed for the extraction and purification of four artificial sweeteners, namely, sodium saccharin (Sa), acesulfame potassium (AK), aspartame (APM), and dulcin (Du), which are present in various foods. Conventional dialysis uses a membrane dialysis tube approximately 15 cm in length and is carried out over many hours owing to the small membrane area and owing to inefficient mixing. In particular, processed cereal products such as cookies required treatment for 48 hours to obtain satisfactory recovery of the compounds. By increasing the tube length to 55 cm and introducing efficient mixing by inversion at half-hour intervals, the dialysis times of the four artificial sweeteners, spiked at 0.1 g/kg in the cookie, were shortened to 4 hours. Recovery yields of 88.9-103.2% were obtained by using the improved method, whereas recovery yields were low (65.5-82.0%) by the conventional method. Recovery yields (%) of Sa, AK, APM, and Du, spiked at 0.1 g/kg in various foods, were 91.6-100.1, 93.9-100.1, 86.7-100.0 and 88.7-104.7 using the improved method.


Assuntos
Aspartame/isolamento & purificação , Diálise/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Compostos de Fenilureia/isolamento & purificação , Sacarina/isolamento & purificação , Edulcorantes/isolamento & purificação , Tiazinas/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 49(5): 339-46, 2008.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19029785

RESUMO

An extraction and analytical method was developed for determination of the content and profiles of anthocyanins in commercial dietary supplements containing blueberry extract. Dietary supplements were refluxed with hydrochloric acid-methanol solution, and spectrophotometric assay was performed to evaluate the total anthocyanidin content in extracted solutions as delphinidin, which is one of the anthocyanidins in blueberry extract. Twenty compounds (15 anthocyanins and 5 anthocyanidins) in extracted solutions were separated by HPLC analysis with gradient elution using formic acid and methanol-acetonitrile as the mobile phase, and each peak was confirmed by LC/MS analysis. The proposed method was applied to 25 kinds of commercial dietary supplements, and one supplement whose profile was different from that of the fresh bilberry extract was found.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas
5.
J Chromatogr A ; 1154(1-2): 423-8, 2007 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17433340

RESUMO

A method for the determination of cyclamate in food was developed using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) with indirect ultraviolet (UV) detection. A 5-10 g sample in 0.1 mol/L hydrochloric acid was homogenized and made up to a volume of 50 mL with 0.1 mol/L hydrochloric acid. After the sample was centrifuged, 25 mL of supernatant was loaded into an Oasis HLB SPE cartridge. The cartridge was washed with 2 mL of demineralized water followed by 2 mL of 50% aqueous methanol, and cyclamate was eluted with 4.5 mL of 50% aqueous methanol. The eluate was added to a solution of sodium propionate (internal standard) for CE analysis. The cyclamate in the eluate was electrophoresed on a fused-silica capillary using 1 mmol/L hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide and 10 mmol/L potassium sorbate as a running buffer. Detection and reference wavelengths of cyclamate determined with a UV detector were 300 and 254 nm, respectively. The calibration curves for cyclamate showed good linearity in the range of 2-1000 microg/mL and the limits of detection in beverage, fruit in syrup, jam, pickles and confectionary are sample dependent and ranged from 5-10 microg/g. The recovery of cyclamate added at a level of 200 microg/g to various kinds of foods was 93.3-108.3% and the relative standard deviation was less than 4.9% (n=3). A number of commercial samples were analyzed using the proposed method. Cyclamate was detected in one waume, two pickles, and two sunflower seeds. The quantitative values determined with CE correlated to those from high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (the detected values of cyclamate in a sunflower seed measured by CE and HPLC were 3.40 g/kg and 3.51 g/kg, respectively). This analytical method for cyclamate using CE is especially suitable for use in the field.


Assuntos
Ciclamatos/análise , Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Aditivos Alimentares , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Extração em Fase Sólida , Incerteza
6.
J AOAC Int ; 89(4): 1042-7, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16915843

RESUMO

A method for the determination of Cinchona extract (whose main components are the alkaloids cinchonine, cinchonidine, quinidine, and quinine) in beverages by liquid chromatography was developed. A beverage with an alcohol content of more than 10% was loaded onto an OASIS HLB solid-phase extraction cartridge, after it was adjusted to pH 10 with 28% ammonium hydroxide. Other beverages were centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 5 min, and the supernatant was loaded onto the cartridge. The cartridge was washed with water followed by 15% methanol, and the Cinchona alkaloids were eluted with methanol. The Cinchona alkaloids in the eluate were chromatographed on an L-column ODS (4.6 mm id x 150 mm) with methanol and 20 mmol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate (3 + 7) as the mobile phase. Cinchona alkaloids were monitored with an ultraviolet (UV) detector at 230 nm, and with a fluorescence detector at 405 nm for cinchonine and cinchonidine and 450 nm for quinidine and quinine (excitation at 235 nm). The calibration curves for Cinchona alkaloids with the UV detector showed good linearity in the range of 2-400 microg/mL. The detection limit of each Cinchona alkaloid, taken to be the concentration at which the absorption spectrum could be identified, was 2 microg/mL. The recovery of Cinchona alkaloids added at a level of 100 microg/g to various kinds of beverages was 87.6-96.5%, and the coefficients of variation were less than 3.3%. A number of beverage samples, some labeled to contain bitter substances, were analyzed by the proposed method. Quinine was detected in 2 samples of carbonated beverage.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Alcaloides de Cinchona/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Calibragem , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fosfatos/análise , Compostos de Potássio/análise , Quinina/análise , Padrões de Referência , Espectrofotometria , Fatores de Tempo , Raios Ultravioleta
7.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 46(5): 228-33, 2005 Oct.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16305179

RESUMO

Suitable liquid chromatography/mass spetrometry (LC/MS) conditions were examined for Amaranth, Red 2G (R2G), Azo Rubine (Azo), Fast Red E (FRE) and Brilliant Blue FCF, which were detected in Akasu, a red vinegar made in Hong Kong from sake lees, on both thin layer chromatography (TLC) and photodiode array high-performance liquid chromatography (PDA-HPLC). Molecular-related ions for each dye were detected with excellent sensitivity by LC/MS using electro-spray ionization with negative ion mode, capillary voltage 3.00 kV, cone voltage 50 V and desolvation temperature 400 degrees C. LC/MS analysis of refined Akasu under these conditions enabled us to obtain clear mass spectra of R2G, Azo and FRE, which were present at trace levels in the Akasu. The results were consistent with those from TLC and PDA-HPLC. These experiments suggested that LC/MS analysis is applicable for confirmation of dyes in food.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Corantes/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Corante Amaranto/análise , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada
8.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 46(3): 93-8, 2005 Jun.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16042295

RESUMO

Hajikami (ginger pickled in vinegar) is often used as a relish for grilled fish, and it often contains coloring agents. We detected Rose Bengal (R105) and two unknown dyes in some Hajikami by thin layer chromatography. In this study, we tried to characterize these unknown dyes by HPLC with photodiode array detection (PDA-HPLC), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). PDA-HPLC analysis showed that the spectra of the unknown dyes resembled that of R105, suggesting the molecular structures of these two dyes are similar to that of R105. Furthermore, LC/MS analysis suggested that the these dyes are R105 in which one or two iodines are replaced by hydrogen. Finally, the two dyes were determined by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR to be 4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-3',6'-dihydroxy-2',7'-diiodo spiro[isobenzofuran- 1 (3H),9'-[9H]xanthen]-3-one disodium salt and 4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-3',6'-dihydroxy-2',7'-diiodo spiro[isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'[9H]xanthen]-3-one disodium salt.


Assuntos
Corantes/química , Análise de Alimentos , Gengibre/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Corantes/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Rosa Bengala/análise
9.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 45(3): 150-5, 2004 Jun.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15468935

RESUMO

A method for the determination of 12 synthetic food dyes (Amaranth, Erythrosine, Allura Red AC, New Coccine, Phloxine, Rose Bengal, Acid Red, Tartrazine, Sunset Yellow FCF, Fast Green FCF, Brilliant Blue FCF, Indigo Carmine) in food was developed using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with photodiode array detection. The dyes were extracted with water and 0.5% ammonia-ethanol (1:1) mixture, and cleaned up using solid-phase extraction (Sep-Pak Plus tC18). The dyes were eluted with methanol from the cartridge. The dyes were separated by CE on a bubble cell fused-silica capillary (72 cm to the detector, 75 microm i.d.) using 20% acetonitrile in a mixture of 10 mmol/L potassium phosphate, monobasic and 5 mmol/L sodium carbonate (pH 10.0) as the running buffer. Identifications of the dyes were performed on the basis of the migration time and the absorbance spectrum of each peak. The coefficients of variation of the migration times and the peak areas were 0.28-0.62% and 1.84-4.30%, respectively (n = 5). The identification limits using the absorbance spectra of the dyes were 10 microg/mL for Brilliant Blue FCF and Fast Green FCF, and 5 microg/mL for the other 10 dyes. The recoveries of the 12 dyes from pickles, soft drinks and candies at the level of 10 microg/g were 70.0-101.5%. The method was applied to the analysis of dyes in foods. The dyes detected by CE were in agreement with those detected by paper chromatography.


Assuntos
Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Corantes de Alimentos/análise , Alcatrões/análise , Corantes de Alimentos/isolamento & purificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 45(6): 332-8, 2004 Dec.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15794092

RESUMO

The modified Rankine colorimetric method for measuring sulfite added to food as a food additive has a low determination limit and is little influenced by interfering substances from foods. However, it can give erroneous results for foods containing Liliaceae Allium. So, four different methods, alkaline titration, a colorimetric method, ion chromatography and qualitative analysis with potassium iodate-starch paper, were examined. It was found that the sodium azide used in the colorimetric method forms sulfur dioxide during bubbling and heating. The proposed colorimetric method can be applied to food containing sulfur compounds, if sodium azide is omitted and 1% triethanolamine solution is used as an absorbent instead of 0.1 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution.


Assuntos
Colorimetria/métodos , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Sulfitos/análise , Compostos de Enxofre/química , Etanolaminas , Hidróxidos , Liliaceae , Azida Sódica , Soluções , Dióxido de Enxofre
11.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 44(5): 220-6, 2003 Oct.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14733136

RESUMO

The concentrations of 7 non-volatile amines, tyramine (Tym), histamine (Him), phenethylamine (Phm), putrescine (Put), cadaverine (Cad), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) in the liquid part of "moromi" mash during soy sauce fermentation were studied. These amines, except for him and Cad, were detected during fermentation by the conventional production method in the laboratory. Put and Spd were detected at the beginning, and Tym, Phm and Spm appeared later; these 5 amines increased gradually during the fermentation. Put, Spd, Spm and Cad were present in the raw starting material for soy sauce; thus, Tym and Phm were produced by the fermentation. When "moromi" mash was added to liquid medium and cultivated, Tym was detected in some "moromi" mash and the other amines were not detected. Tym-producing bacterial strains were isolated from the liquid culture media of Tym-positive "moromi" mash. The Tym-producing strain was a gram-positive coccus. The conditions for production of amines by Tym-producing bacterial strains were examined. These strains grew and produced tyramine under various conditions, which may occur during soy sauce fermentation. Namely, Tym was produced at pH 5-10, at salt concentrations of less than 8%, under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. During soy sauce fermentation, it is assumed that Tym would be produced by these strains during the early stages of soy sauce aging within a short period when the salt concentration and pH conditions are optimal for growth. Based on the bacteriological properties, the strains were identified as Enterococcus faecium. With the exception of Phm and Him, which did not exist in the starting raw material, non-volatile amines (including Put, Cad, Spd and Spm) were not produced and microorganisms producing them are not believed to be present during "moromi" fermentation.


Assuntos
Alimentos de Soja , Tiramina/biossíntese , Bactérias/metabolismo , Aminas Biogênicas/biossíntese , Fermentação
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