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1.
Zebrafish ; 18(6): 363-368, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34935496

RESUMO

B chromosomes are additional dispensable elements to the standard chromosomal set of an organism. In most cases, their transmission differs from Mendelian patterns, leading to their accumulation or extinction. The present study aimed to describe, for the first time, the transmission pattern of B chromosome in a population of Psalidodon paranae through directed crosses, as well as to analyze the populational dynamics of B chromosome. Our results revealed the possible elimination of B chromosome in crossings where only females were B-carriers, with a mean transmission rate (kB) of 0.149; however, kB was significantly higher in crossings involving male B-carriers (kB = 0.328-0.450). Moreover, we observed an increase in the frequency of B chromosomes in the natural population of P. paranae in the last two decades. These apparently contradictory results can make sense if the B chromosome provides adaptive advantages to their carriers. Here, we observed a differential transmission of B chromosomes in each sex of parental individuals, with higher transmission rates in crossing involving males B-carriers, in addition to describe the temporal changes of B chromosome frequency in P. paranae.


Assuntos
Characidae , Caraciformes , Animais , Characidae/genética , Caraciformes/genética , Cromossomos , Feminino , Masculino , Peixe-Zebra/genética
2.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 116: 12-18, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965526

RESUMO

Triploid induction is a promising biotechnique that could be used to enhance aquaculture yields in the near future. However, studies conducted with several fish species have demonstrated that the presence of an extra set of chromosomes may result in deleterious health effects. Furthermore, studies of fish immune responses still need to be conducted before these specimens can be readily commercialized. In the study presented herein, we evaluated the effects of triploid induction on hematology, erythrocyte morphometry and morphology, phagocytosis, and the expression levels of IL-1ß and TGF-ß using specimens of the Neotropical species, Astyanax altiparanae. In general, the cell counts of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and neutrophils in triploid fish were lower than those in diploid fish. The erythrocytes of triploid fish were larger than those found in diploid fish, but also demonstrated considerably higher frequencies of cellular and nuclear abnormalities. Although not statistically significant, triploid induction resulted in a phagocytic capacity (PC) 20% lower than that found with diploid fish. No notable differences were observed in phagocytic index (PI). Gene expression levels for the cytokine IL-1 were lower in tissues from the head kidney, liver, and spleen of triploid fish with respect to diploid fish. Gene expression levels of TGF-ß were lower only in the spleen of triploids compared to diploids. In conclusion, triploid induction resulted in A. altiparanae specimens with immune impairments and potentially lower resistances to disease and low-quality environments.


Assuntos
Characidae , Imunidade Inata , Triploidia , Animais , Characidae/sangue , Characidae/genética , Characidae/imunologia , Eritrócitos , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Testes Hematológicos , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Leucócitos/imunologia , Masculino , Fagocitose , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética
3.
Zygote ; 29(5): 372-376, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818341

RESUMO

Triploidization plays an important role in aquaculture and surrogate technologies. In this study, we induced triploidy in the matrinxã fish (Brycon amazonicus) using a heat-shock technique. Embryos at 2 min post fertilization (mpf) were heat shocked at 38°C, 40°C, or 42°C for 2 min. Untreated, intact embryos were used as a control. Survival rates during early development were monitored and ploidy status was confirmed using flow cytometry and nuclear diameter analysis of erythrocytes. The hatching rate reduced with heat-shock treatment, and heat-shock treatments at 42°C resulted in no hatching events. Optimal results were obtained at 40°C with 95% of larvae exhibiting triploidy. Therefore, we report that heat-shock treatments of embryos (2 mpf) at 40°C for 2 min is an effective way to induce triploid individuals in B. amazonicus.


Assuntos
Caraciformes , Triploidia , Animais , Aquicultura , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Humanos , Larva
4.
Genet Mol Biol ; 44(2): e20200003, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769429

RESUMO

Supernumerary, or B, chromosomes are present in several eukaryotes, including characid fish of the genus Psalidodon. Notably, Psalidodon paranae carries the most studied B chromosome variant, a macro-B chromosome. The origin of this element was determined to be an isochromosome; however, data regarding its inheritance remain unavailable due to methodological barriers such as the lack of an efficient, non-invasive, and rapid protocol for identifying B-carrying individuals that would enable the design of efficient crossing experiments. Thus, in this study, we primarily aimed was to develop two non-invasive and fast (approximately 2 h) methods to identify the presence of B chromosomes in live specimens of P. paranae based on satellite DNA (satDNA) sequences known to be present in this element. The methods include fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase nuclei and relative gene quantification of satDNAs using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Our results reveal the efficiency of quick-fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction for identifying B-carrying individuals using the proposed satDNA sequences and open up new possibilities to study B chromosomes.

5.
Zygote ; 29(1): 82-86, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969784

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate different post-shock temperatures for tetraploid induction in the yellowtail tetra Astyanax altiparanae. Newly fertilized eggs were divided into four groups, three were submitted to heat shock (40°C for 2 min) at 24 min post-fertilization (mpf) and another group remained without shock (control). Groups submitted to temperature shock were further separated at the following temperatures: 22°C, 26°C and 28°C. Survival among embryonic development was counted and at hatching the ploidy was analyzed by flow cytometry. The results showed that the post-shock temperature affects the parameters analyzed and, therefore, must be considered for optimization of the production of tetraploid in A. altiparanae. Those data are innovative and could be used in future studies of basic biology in this species.


Assuntos
Characidae , Tetraploidia , Animais , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Ploidias , Temperatura
6.
Zygote ; 29(1): 20-26, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012305

RESUMO

Rivulidae comprises a family of fish largely distributed in Brazil that includes 201 species, of which 125 are considered endangered. This fact emphasizes the need for development of conservation strategies including studies on genetics and reproduction. In this paper, we describe aspects of biology and reproduction of the rivuliid species Hypsolebias sertanejo. We outline the reproductive behaviour of this species under laboratory conditions, analyze ploidy status by flow cytometry, describe reproductive behaviour and performance and test dry and wet incubation of eggs. Although H. sertanejo showed well known patterns of reproductive behaviour, we verified many peculiarities inherent to its reproductive biology. As expected, most individuals were diploid (87.71%), however 14.29% were considered mosaics. Although no sterility was observed within mosaics, infertility of these fish was not fully evaluated. Hatching rate of the eggs collected was very low following both dry and wet incubation (5.04 and 3.79%, respectively). These results provide interesting information regarding the reproductive success of this species, and suggest that chromosomal abnormalities described may reduce the survival of H. sertanejo under natural conditions, limiting the perpetuation of this species, and emphasizing the need for more preservation efforts, including artificial propagation and gene banking.


Assuntos
Ciprinodontiformes , Animais , Brasil , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Ciprinodontiformes/fisiologia , Diploide , Reprodução/fisiologia
7.
Cryobiology ; 95: 68-71, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505625

RESUMO

Flow cytometry is a valuable tool in biomedical and animal sciences. However, equipment used for such analysis presents limitations at field conditions, suggesting then preservation procedures for future analysis at laboratory conditions. In this study, freezing at low (-20 °C), ultra-low (-80 °C) and cryogenic temperatures (-196 °C, i.e. liquid nitrogen) were used as preservation procedures of fish tissue. Samples were maintained in 0.9% NaCl or lysing solution, and stored at the temperatures above for 0 (fresh control), 60, 120 and 180 days of storage. After storage, the samples were thawed and proceeded to flow cytometric analysis. Storage at low temperatures (-20 °C), both in lysing and 0.9% NaCl, exhibited poor results when analyzed after 60, 120 and 180 days, showing noisy peaks, deviation in the DNA content and absence of peaks. Ultralow (-80 °C) and cryogenic (-196 °C) temperatures, both in lysing solution and 0.9% NaCl, showed good results and high quality of histograms. Both storage procedures gave similar histograms and DNA content in comparison with control group (fresh) even after 60, 120 and 180 days of storage, exhibiting the main peak at 2C content from diploid cells and a secondary peak at 4C derived from dividing cells. In conclusion, samples may be stored for 180 days at -80 °C and -196 °C in both, 0.9% NaCl or lysing solution. As cryogenic temperatures in liquid nitrogen permits indefinite storage, this procedure should be used for long-term preservation.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Criopreservação , Animais , Criopreservação/métodos , Citometria de Fluxo , Congelamento , Temperatura
8.
Comp Cytogenet ; 14(2): 231-242, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32537093

RESUMO

Astyanax Baird et Girard, 1854, is one of the largest genera in the family Characidae and comprises 177 valid species. This genus has been the focus of cytogenetic studies primarily owing to the presence of B chromosomes and high karyotypic diversity among different populations. The intense genetic variability in Astyanax is one of the factors responsible for the occurrence of species complexes, which are groups (1) with certain difficulties in establishing common genetic pools or (2) belonging to different cryptic species. To evaluate cytogenetic marker inheritance and the possibility of the identification of these hybrids, this study aimed to describe cytogenetic hybrids from three strains of species of the genera Astyanax and Hyphessobrycon Eigenmann, 1908. A. lacustris Lütken, 1875, A. schubarti Britski, 1964, A. fasciatus Cuvier, 1819, and H. anisitsi Eigenmann, 1907 were used to generate three hybrid lineages. The diploid number, heterochromatin sites, and ribosomal genes (18S and 5S rDNA) of the parental strains and the hybrids were analyzed. The results indicated that the three hybrid lineages had cytogenetic markers of both parents, presenting Mendelian inheritance. However, differences in distribution of heterochromatic blocks were observed between the hybrids and the parent strains. Our results allowed the identification of the hybrid strains based on the cytogenetic markers applied, reinforcing the efficiency of cytogenetic markers as tools for identification and indicating that such events may increase the karyotypic diversity in the genera Astyanax and Hyphessobrycon.

10.
Zygote ; 28(1): 37-44, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603066

RESUMO

A histological characterization of gonadal development in the tetra Astyanax bimaculatus was performed, aimed at determining its reproductive cycle in streams localized inside the Amazonian forest. Collections were carried out monthly from August 2017 to July 2018 at the Zoobotânica Foundation of Marabá, PA. Collected specimens were weighed and measured, and their gonads and liver were removed and weighed to calculate gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indexes. Gonads were fixed and treated for routine histology for light microscopy. Materials were stained with toluidine blue and haematoxylin and eosin. The Amazonian A. bimaculatus species presented two reproductive periods in the year, one at the end of the winter season and another during the summer. Females showed an asynchronous development of their oocytes and only two reproductive phases of development were observed during the whole period 'developing' and 'spawning capable'. Males presented cystic spermatogenesis, with an anastomosing tubular testis containing spermatogonia spread along the germinal epithelium (unrestricted spermatogonial). These morphological characteristics are considered phylogenetically more primitive. Male specimens were observed to have five different phases during the period: immature, initial maturation, mid maturation, final maturation and regression. The huge fluctuations in Amazonian streams was observed, in which water volumes varied considerably across seasons, culminating even in total drought. In spite of this, A. bimaculatus could be found during all seasons, showing its impressive reproductive adaptation to its conditions.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/fisiologia , Oogênese/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Maturidade Sexual , Espermatogênese/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Masculino , Rios , Estações do Ano
11.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(3): e166205, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1122181

RESUMO

In freshwater fish with external fertilization, sperm sampling can be contaminated with urine, which triggers motility and gives rise to decreased fertilization success. The maintenance of freshwater fish in hyperosmotic conditions may reduce urine production and improve sperm quality. Thus, the aim of this work was to verify if acute exposure to various NaCl concentrations improves sperm quality in the yellowtail tetra Astyanax altiparanae. Spermiation was induced using a single dose of carp pituitary gland (5 mg kg-1) and the males were maintained at various NaCl concentrations: NaCl 0.00% (control), NaCl 0.45% (hypoosmotic), NaCl 0.9% (isosmotic) and NaCl 1.0% (hyperosmotic) for 6 h at 26 °C. Sperm was collected and verified for activation by urine and motility traits. At 0.00%, 0.45%, and 0.90%, the sperm was motile just after sampling, indicating activation by urine. Surprisingly, at hyperosmotic conditions, no activation was observed. Other sperm and motility parameters did not show any statistical differences, including sperm viability (P = 0.7083), concentration (P = 0.9030), total motility (P = 0.6149), VCL (curvilinear velocity; P = 0.1216), VAP (average path velocity; P = 0.1231) and VSL (straight-line velocity; P = 0.1340). Our results indicate that acute maintenance at hyperosmotic conditions eliminates sperm activation by urine and maintains sperm quality. Such a new procedure is interesting for both basic and applied sciences, including reproductive practice in fish.(AU)


Em peixes de água doce com fertilização externa, a amostragem de espermatozoides pode ser contaminada pela urina, o que desencadeia motilidade e gera menor sucesso na fertilização. A manutenção de peixes de água doce em condições hiperosmóticas pode reduzir a produção de urina e melhorar a qualidade do esperma. Assim, o presente trabalho foi delineado para verificar se a exposição aguda a várias concentrações de NaCl melhora a qualidade do esperma no tetra-amarelo Astyanax altiparanae. A espermiação foi induzida usando uma dose única de hipófise da carpa (5 mg kg-1) e os machos foram mantidos em várias concentrações de NaCl: NaCl 0,00% (controle), NaCl 0,45% (hipoosmótico), NaCl 0,9% (isosmótico) e NaCl 1,0% (hiperosmótico) por seis horas a 26 °C. O esperma foi colhido e verificado quanto à ativação por urina e traços de motilidade. Em 0,00%, 0,45%, 0,90% os espermatozóides eram móveis logo após a amostragem, indicando ativação pela urina. Surpreendentemente, em condições hiperosmóticas, nenhuma ativação foi observada. Outros parâmetros espermáticos e de motilidade não mostraram diferenças estatísticas, incluindo viabilidade espermática (P = 0,7083), concentração (P = 0,9030), motilidade total (P = 0,6149), VCL (Velocidade Curvilinear; P = 0,1216), VMD (Velocidade Média de Deslocamento; P = 0,1230) e VLR (Velocidade em linha Reta; P = 0,1340). Nossos resultados indicam que a manutenção aguda em condições hiperosmóticas elimina a ativação do esperma pela urina e mantém a qualidade do esperma. Esse novo procedimento é interessante para as ciências básicas e aplicadas, incluindo a prática reprodutiva em peixes.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Osmose , Salinidade , Análise do Sêmen/métodos , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Characidae/fisiologia , Motilidade Espermática
13.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19160638, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011529

RESUMO

Abstract Lafoensia pacari A. St. Hill has been used in traditional medicine as an anti-ulcerogenic and anti-inflammatory. Although there is an ethnopharmacological indication for cancer treatment, only a few studies have demonstrated its possible anticancer activity. Thus, the aims of this study were: (1) to evaluate the antineoplastic effect of L. pacari ethanolic extract (LPE) in lung carcinoma cells, (2) to determine the mode of action of LPE and (3) to identify the substances present in LPE. Human and murine lung cancer cell lines were grown in vitro and treated with different concentrations of LPE. Cell cycle and caspase-3 activity assays were performed in order to verify the mode of action. LC-ESI-MS screening was performed to detect the compounds present in LPE. LPE showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect, where neoplastic cells were more sensitive than non-neoplastic. The LPE induced sub-G1 cell cycle arrest in cancer cells suggesting cell death, which was confirmed as apoptosis by the activation of caspase-3. The LC-ESI-MS analysis indicated a high level of procyanidins, which could be responsible for the antineoplastic effect of LPE. Thus, we concluded that a Lafoensia pacari extract, rich in procyanidins, is cytotoxic against lung cancer cells through activation of caspase-3-dependent apoptosis.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Técnicas In Vitro/instrumentação , Ciclo Celular , Caspase 3
14.
Zygote ; 26(6): 471-475, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419996

RESUMO

SummaryIn this study we analyzed whether the in vivo storage of oocytes (time after ovulation until fertilization) affects the survival and the ploidy status of the yellowtail tetra Astyanax altiparanae. Fish were induced to spawn and, after ovulation, a small aliquot was stripped and immediately fertilized (positive control group). Subsequently, aliquots (~150 oocytes) were stripped and fertilized at various time points of 60, 120, 180 or 240 min. Developmental stages, abnormalities, survival and the ploidy status of the hatched larvae were examined. As expected, in the control group, 100% of the larvae were diploid. Conversely, triploid individuals were observed just at the 60 min treatment time point (0.6%). In vivo storage of oocytes also influenced the survival rates (P < 0.05); the 180 and 240 min samples, respectively, presented lower survival rates at gastrula (50.10±6.26% and 40.92±5.32%), and somite (17.80±5.14% and 4.41±2.76%) stages and lower hatching rates (12.01±4.04% and 4.41±2.76%). A higher percentage (99.27±0.40%) of normal larvae and only a few abnormal larvae (0.73±0.40%) were observed in the control group (P = 0.0000). This observation did not differ from that observed at the 60 min treatment point (P = 0.9976). A significant increase in the percentage of abnormalities was observed in the other treatments, and, after 240 min, the highest percentage of abnormal larvae was seen (P=0.0024; 83.33±16.67%). In conclusion, we showed that oocyte ageing had a significant effect on survival and may affect the ploidy status in A. atiparanae.


Assuntos
Characidae , Oócitos/citologia , Oócitos/fisiologia , Ploidias , Preservação Biológica/métodos , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Citometria de Fluxo , Larva/genética , Masculino , Oócitos/patologia
15.
Zygote ; 26(5): 408-416, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30370880

RESUMO

SummaryPolyspermy was initiated by microinjecting a multiple number of sperm into the activated and dechorionated eggs of dojo loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Teleostei: Cobitidae). A 10-nl sperm suspension from an albino (recessive trait) male (105, 106, 107 or 108 sperm ml -1) was microinjected into eggs from a wild-type female. Although the rates of embryos developing into the blastula stage in the injection group at the highest sperm concentration were similar to that of the control group, the hatching rates of the injection group were much lower. A large proportion of embryos that developed from the injected eggs was haploid and were mosaics containing haploid cells. Most of the haploid and mosaic embryos inherited only paternally derived alleles in the microsatellite markers (i.e. androgenesis was initiated by injecting multiple sperm). In contrast, some haploid embryos contained both paternal and maternal alleles despite haploidy, suggesting that they were mosaics consisting of cells with either paternal or maternal inheritance. The injected eggs displayed diploid, hypotriploid and triploid cells, all of which included both maternally and paternally derived alleles. One albino tetraploid with only paternal alleles was also observed from the injected eggs. These results suggested that part of the sperm microinjected into the ooplasm should form a male pronucleus/pronuclei, which could develop by androgenesis or could fuse with the female pronucleus/pronuclei. Therefore, microinjection of multiple sperm should be considered a potential technique to induce androgenesis and polyploidy.


Assuntos
Cipriniformes/embriologia , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Poliploidia , Espermatozoides , Animais , Blástula/citologia , Blástula/fisiologia , Embrião não Mamífero/fisiologia , Feminino , Haploidia , Masculino , Microinjeções , Repetições de Microssatélites , Óvulo/fisiologia
17.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 44(6): 1469-1485, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29707740

RESUMO

This review discusses the new biotechnological tools that are arising and promising for conservation and enhancement of fish production, mainly regarding the endangered and the most economically important species. Two main techniques, in particular, are available to avoid extinction of endangered fish species and to improve the production of commercial species. Germ cell transplantation technology includes a number of approaches that have been studied, such as the transplantation of embryo-to-embryo blastomere, embryo-to-embryo differentiated PGC, larvae to larvae and embryo differentiated PGC, transplantation of spermatogonia from adult to larvae or between adults, and oogonia transplantation. However, the success of germ cell transplantation relies on the prior sterilization of fish, which can be performed at different stages of fish species development by means of several protocols that have been tested in order to achieve the best approach to produce a sterile fish. Among them, fish hybridization and triploidization, germline gene knockdown, hyperthermia, and chemical treatment deserve attention based on important results achieved thus far. This review currently used technologies and knowledge about surrogate technology and fish sterilization, discussing the stronger and the weaker points of each approach.


Assuntos
Peixes/fisiologia , Células Germinativas/citologia , Células Germinativas/transplante , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/veterinária , Animais , Biotecnologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Reprodução
18.
Zygote ; 26(2): 135-148, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29589574

RESUMO

SummaryThe aim of this study was to describe the effect of temperature on the fertilization, early developmental stages, and survival rate of two Neotropical catfishes Pimelodus maculatus and Pseudopimelodus mangurus. After fertilization, the eggs were incubated at 22°C, 26°C, and 30°C, which resulted in fertilization rates of 96.95 ± 1.79%, 98.74 ± 0.76%, and 98.44 ± 0.19% for P. maculatus and 96.10 ± 1.58%, 98.00 ± 0.63%, and 94.60 ± 2.09% for P. mangurus, respectively. For P. maculatus, hatching occurred after 22 h 30 min post-fertilization at 22°C, 16 h 30 min at 26°C, and 11 h 20 min at 30°C, and the hatching rates were 43.87 ± 7,46%, 57.57 ± 17.49%, and 53.63 ± 16.27%, respectively. For P. mangurus, hatching occurred after 28 h 30 min post-fertilization at 22°C and 17 h 30 min at 26°C with respective hatching rates of 45.4 ± 21.02% and 68.1 ± 12.67%. For this species, all embryos incubated at 30°C died before hatching. Additionally, for P. maculatus, the larvae from the lower (22°C) and higher temperatures (30°C) presented increased abnormality rates, as observed in the head, tail and yolk regions. The lowest abnormality rate was detected at 26°C, which was considered the optimal incubation temperature for both species. The developed protocol enables the manipulation of embryonic development, which is important for the application of reproductive biotechniques, including chimerism and chromosome-set manipulation. The data obtained here are also important for the surrogate propagation of this species as P. mangurus was recently categorized as an endangered fish species.


Assuntos
Blástula/citologia , Peixes-Gato/embriologia , Animais , Blástula/fisiologia , Tamanho Celular , Embrião não Mamífero , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Feminino , Fertilização , Larva , Masculino , Oócitos/fisiologia , Temperatura
19.
Zygote ; 26(1): 89-98, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29334036

RESUMO

In fish, many factors can affect reproduction during in vitro fertilization, therefore determination of the factors that affect affecting gamete quality is needed. However, few studies have focused on gamete quality and the ploidy status. This study was conducted to elucidate whether oocyte storage can affect ploidy status, survival, and embryo viability in the characid species Astyanax altiparanae. Oocytes were stored in Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 26°C, then aliquots were fertilized immediately after extrusion (control) and also after 60, 120, 180, and 240 min of storage. Fertilization and hatching rates were measured, and the developmental stages were analyzed at each stage before describing the main abnormalities. Ploidy status was analyzed by flow cytometry and blood smear. In the control group, 100% of the samples were diploid. After treatment for 60 min, 95.56 ± 4.44% samples were diploid and 4.44 ± 4.44% were triploid. After 120 min, 94.44 ± 9.62% of the samples was diploid and 5.56 ± 5.56% were triploid; 100% of the samples were diploid after 180 min and, after 240 min, there was no survival. In other treatments, the highest percentage of hatching was after 60 min (88.93 ± 5.15%; P = 0.015), and treatment with 180 min storage resulted in the highest percentage of abnormal larvae (95.76 ± 12.67%; P = 0.012). These results show that oocyte storage can affect ploidy status and may be an interesting parameter for analysis in studies on chromosome set manipulation and micromanipulation.


Assuntos
Characidae/embriologia , Oócitos/fisiologia , Ploidias , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Larva , Masculino , Oócitos/ultraestrutura
20.
Theriogenology ; 108: 239-244, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29253667

RESUMO

This work was aimed at developing an effective procedure to obtain sterile ideal host fish in mass scale with no endogenous germ cells in the germinal epithelium, owning permanent stem-cell niches able to be colonized by transplanted germ cells in surrogate technology experiments. Thus, triploids, diploid hybrids, and triploid hybrids were produced. To obtain hybrid offspring, oocytes from a single Astyanax altiparanae female were inseminated by sperm from five males (A. altiparanae, A. fasciatus, A. schubarti, Hyphessobrycon anisitsi, and Oligosarcus pintoi). Triploidization was conducted by inhibition of the second polar body release using heat shock treatment at 40 °C for 2 min. At 9-months of age, the offspring from each crossing was histologically evaluated to access the gonadal status of the fish. Variable morphological characteristics of the gonads were found in the different hybrids offspring: normal gametogenesis, gametogenesis without production of gametes, sterile specimens holding germ cells, and sterile specimens without germ cells, which were considered "ideal hosts". However, only in the hybrid derived from crossing between A. altiparanae and A. fasciatus, 100% of the individuals were completely sterile. Among them 83.3% of the male did not present germ cells inside germinal epithelium, having only somatic cells in the gonad. The other 16.7% also presented spermatogonia inside the niches. Such a methodology allows the production of sterile host in mass scale, opening new insights for application of surrogate technologies.


Assuntos
Peixes/fisiologia , Gametogênese , Células Germinativas/transplante , Ploidias , Animais , Cruzamento/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Feminino , Peixes/genética , Maturidade Sexual , Esterilização Reprodutiva/métodos , Esterilização Reprodutiva/veterinária
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