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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978590

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We herein report the treatment outcome of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) at Kyushu University Hospital, the total number of OPSCC cases, and changes in the proportion of human papilloma virus (HPV)-related carcinomas over time. METHOD: We performed a retrospective analysis of 237 cases treated for OPSCC at Kyushu University Hospital between 2013 and 2019. We performed HPV-mRNA in situ hybridization and p16 immunohistochemistry. RESULT: This study included 197 males (82.1%) and 40 females (17.9%). The disease-specific, progression-free and overall survival (OS) were 69%, 62% and 61%, respectively, over the decade-long study period. p16-Immunohistochemistory and highrisk HPV mRNA in situ hybridization were positive in 114 (48.1%) and 105 (44.3%) cases, respectively. The number of HPV-related OPSCC cases increased according to an annual analysis. HPV+ cases had a significantly better prognosis than HPV- cases. In addition, p16+/HPV- cases had a significantly worse prognosis than p16+/HPV+ cases (OS: p = 0.0484). HPV+ OPSCC cases were associated with a younger age (< 60 years old) (p = 0.0429), non-smoker (p = 0.0001), lateral tumor site (< 0.00001), lymphoid metastasis (< 0.0001) and low clinical stage (< 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The frequency of HPV-related OPSCC cases is increasing in Japan as well as worldwide, and such cases are characterized by no smoking habit, a young age, and a good prognosis. Even in p16+ OPSCC, HPV- cases had a poor prognosis, suggesting the importance of accurate HPV determination. To determine the intensity of treatment for HPV-related and non-related OPSCC, it is necessary to accumulate cases for the accurate HPV determination and comparison of treatment effects.

2.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985048

RESUMO

High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in conjunctival and lacrimal sac squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) has been sporadically reported; however, its prevalence, clinicopathologic significance and surrogate markers have not been fully elucidated. Here, we attempted to clarify these questions in Japanese patients with conjunctiva and lacrimal sac SCCs. We retrospectively collected 51 conjunctival SCC and 7 lacrimal sac SCC samples and analyzed them for (1) transcriptionally active high-risk HPV infection using messenger RNA in situ hybridization and (2) protein expressions of p16 and Rb using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Among a total of 58 cases, 25 (43.1%) and 16 (27.6%) tumors were positive for p16-IHC and HPV in situ hybridization, respectively. Ten (19.6%) of the 51 conjunctival SCCs, especially in the palpebral conjunctiva, and 6 (85.7%) of the 7 lacrimal sac SCCs were positive for high-risk HPV. High-risk HPV infection was significantly associated with younger patients, nonkeratinizing SCC histology, p16-positivity and partial loss of Rb expression, but not with recurrence risk. Notably, p16-IHC was not a perfect surrogate marker for high-risk HPV infection; only 64% (16/25) of p16-positive tumors were positive for high-risk HPV. In contrast, the p16+/Rb partial loss pattern was exclusively correlated with high-risk HPV-positivity. The results suggest that the combination of p16 and Rb expression patterns by IHC could be a useful method to predict high-risk HPV infection in conjunctival and lacrimal sac SCCs. HPV infection may be of less prognostic value in this field of cancers.

3.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have previously reported the effectiveness and safety of nivolumab in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) in real-world clinical practice in Japan. Here, we report long-term outcomes from this study in the overall population and subgroups stratified by subsequent chemotherapy. METHODS: In this multicenter, retrospective observational study, Japanese patients with recurrent or metastatic (R/M) HNC receiving nivolumab were followed up for 2 years. Effectiveness endpoints included overall survival (OS), OS rate, progression-free survival (PFS), and PFS rate. Safety endpoints included the incidence of immune-related adverse events (irAEs). RESULTS: Overall, 256 patients received a median of 6.0 doses (range: 1-52) of nivolumab over a median duration of 72.5 days (range: 1-736). Median OS was 9.5 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.2-12.0] and median PFS was 2.1 months (95% CI 1.8-2.7). A significant difference between 2-year survivors (n = 62) and non-2-year survivors was observed by median age (P = 0.0227) and ECOG PS (P = 0.0001). Of 95 patients who received subsequent chemotherapy, 54.7% received paclitaxel ± cetuximab. The median OS and PFS from the start of paclitaxel ± cetuximab were 6.9 months (95% CI 5.9-11.9) and 3.5 months (95% CI 2.3-5.5), respectively. IrAEs were reported in 17.2% of patients. Endocrine (7.0%) and lung (4.3%) disorders were the most common irAEs; kidney disorder (n = 1) was newly identified in this follow-up analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Results demonstrated the long-term effectiveness of nivolumab and potential effectiveness of subsequent chemotherapy in patients with R/M HNC in the real-world setting. Safety was consistent with that over the 1-year follow-up.

4.
Eur J Radiol ; 144: 109980, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601323

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to differentiate basal cell adenomas (BCAs) from other parotid tumors. METHOD: A total of 136 patients with histologically proven parotid gland tumors (13 BCAs, 66 pleomorphic adenomas [PAs], 30 Warthin tumors [WTs], and 27 parotid cancers [PCs]) who underwent a cervical MRI study between December 2011 and March 2019 were retrospectively enrolled. The MRI findings of the tumors were evaluated by two board-certified radiologists. RESULTS: All 13 of the BCAs showed smooth margins, while 19 of the 27 PCs showed irregular margins (p < 0.0001). Eleven BCAs had some cystic components, and five were cyst-dominant. The BCAs had significantly more cystic components than the PAs (p = 0.0077). The mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the BCAs was 1.21 ± 0.20 × 10-3 mm2/sec, which was equivalent to that of the PCs (1.12 ± 0.25 × 10-3 mm2/sec, p = 0.76), significantly lower than that of the PAs (1.61 ± 0.32 × 10-3 mm2/sec, p < 0.0001), and significantly higher than that of the WTs (0.81 ± 0.19 × 10-3 mm2/sec, p = 0.0004). The plateau time-intensity curve (TIC) was the most common type for both BCAs and PCs, seen in 8 of 12 BCAs and 21 of 26 PCs, with no significant difference between these groups (p = 0.34). CONCLUSIONS: BCA should be considered a possibility when a parotid lesion has smooth margins with an entire capsule and includes a cystic component, even if the TIC and diffusion-weighted MR images suggest a malignant pattern.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Neoplasias Parotídeas , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Glândula Parótida/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Parotídeas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Pathol Res Pract ; 227: 153646, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649052

RESUMO

Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE) outside the thyroid gland is extremely rare. Here we report two cases of CASTLE of the major salivary gland. The tumors occurred in the parotid gland of a 31-year-old female (Case 1) and in the submandibular gland of a 40-year-old female (Case 2). Both tumors showed a lobulated growth pattern, and were histologically composed of a nested or sheet-like proliferation of carcinoma cells with round- to oval-shaped nuclei, distinct nucleoli and pale eosinophilic cytoplasm, accompanied by various degrees of lymphocytic infiltration. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the tumors were positive for pan-cytokeratin, p40, CD5, CD117 and bcl-2. In addition, PD-L1 expression was seen in 10-90% of tumor cells. After the initial surgery, Case 1 remained tumor-free for 20 months, while Case 2 suffered lymph node recurrence at 4 months, followed by lung metastasis, which was treated with chemoradiotherapy and anti-PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, resulting in a partial response. The present findings indicate that an extrathyroid counterpart of CASTLE can occur as a primary salivary gland neoplasm. Salivary CASTLEs seem to show a wide range of biological behavior, and long-term follow-up may be needed. Immune checkpoint inhibitor targeting PD-1 might become a promising treatment option in patients with CASTLE; however, further study with a larger number of cases is necessary to establish the optimal therapeutic strategy and prognostic factors for this rare cancer.

6.
Immunol Invest ; : 1-17, 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486463

RESUMO

Although immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have emerged as new therapeutic options for refractory cancer, they are only effective in select patients. Tumor antigen-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccine therapy activates tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, making it an important immunotherapeutic strategy. Salivary ductal carcinoma (SDC) carries a poor prognosis, including poor long-term survival after metastasis or recurrence. In this study, we reported a case of refractory metastatic SDC that was treated with a tumor lysate-pulsed DC vaccine followed by a single injection of low-dose nivolumab, and a durable complete response was achieved. We retrospectively analyzed the immunological factors that contributed to these long-lasting clinical effects. First, we performed neoantigen analysis using resected metastatic tumor specimens obtained before treatment. We found that the tumor had 256 non-synonymous mutations and 669 class I high-affinity binding neoantigen peptides. Using synthetic neoantigen peptides and ELISpot analysis, we found that peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes cryopreserved before treatment contained pre-existing neoantigen-specific T cells, and the cells obtained after treatment exhibited greater reactivity to neoantigens than those obtained before treatment. Our results collectively suggest that the rapid and long-lasting effect of this combination therapy in our patient may have resulted from the presence of pre-existing neoantigen-specific T cells and stimulation and expansion of those cells following tumor lysate-pulsed DC vaccine and ICI therapy.

7.
Case Rep Oncol ; 14(2): 1097-1102, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326748

RESUMO

Re-irradiation with X-rays and particle beams can be used to treat localized recurrence of unresectable head and neck cancer after initial irradiation therapy. However, re-irradiation therapy increases the risk of severe and late sequelae by 4-to 8-fold. It can also result in fatal outcomes, such as rupture of the carotid artery and cerebral necrosis or abscess. A 41-year-old woman was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal. The patient was initially treated with X-ray irradiation. However, the patient underwent re-irradiation with heavy particle beams and neutron rays for a recurrent tumor. The patient developed necrosis of the skull base involving the facial skin and temporal bone 2 months after the last session of re-irradiation therapy. The tissue in the parapharyngeal and masticatory regions also became completely necrotic, resulting in extensive exposure of the brain parenchyma. Although the patient underwent conservative and surgical treatment, necrosis of the tissue progressed, and a large part of the brain was exposed. Approximately 2.5 years later, although the brain is still exposed, the patient is alive without disease. Although the tumor had subsided and long-term survival was achieved, our patient developed serious osteoradionecrosis of the skull base with extensive brain exposure. For patients who are not candidates for surgery, re-irradiation alone is an option, albeit with poor prospects. This approach should be discussed with the patient while balancing the potential survival gain against the burden of treatment and the risk of complications.

8.
Mod Pathol ; 34(11): 1966-1978, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218257

RESUMO

The antitumor efficacies of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and the usefulness of potential predictive markers such as programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, density of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and microsatellite instability (MSI) in sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SNSCC) have not been fully elucidated. We retrospectively analyzed 131 SNSCCs with immunohistochemistry for PD-L1 expression, TIL subpopulations and loss of mismatch repair (MMR) proteins as a surrogate for MSI-high. We also comprehensively evaluated the mutual relationships among these immuno-markers, high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene status, and KRAS mutation. PD-L1 expression (tumor proportion score ≥ 1%) was detected in 60 (45.8%) SNSCC cases and was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS) (p = 0.0240). High density of cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8)-positive TILs was significantly associated with better progression-free survival (PFS) (p = 0.0368), and high density of forkhead box protein P3-positive TILs was significantly associated with better PFS and OS (p = 0.0007 and 0.0143, respectively). With respect to the combination of CD8 + TIL and PD-L1 expression, the high-CD8/PD-L1-negative group showed the most favorable prognosis, whereas the low-CD8/PD-L1-positive group showed the worst prognosis. MMR loss was detected in 3 (2.3%) of the 131 cases. HPV infection (6.1%), EGFR mutation (14.5%), EGFR copy number gain (26%), and MMR loss were essentially mutually exclusive; patients in these molecular groups showed significant differences in prognosis but not in the degree of PD-L1 expression or TILs. Among the nine ICI-treated patients, three (33.3%) were responders, and the EGFR-wild type cases (n = 7) showed better clinical responses to an ICI compared to the EGFR-mutant cases (n = 2). Among the patients with residual/recurrent EGFR-wild type tumors (n = 43), ICI treatment significantly improved OS (p = 0.0281). The results suggest that the evaluation of immuno-markers and molecular subclassification may be helpful for prognostic prediction and selecting an individualized therapeutic strategy for patients with SNSCC.

9.
Surg Today ; 51(12): 1932-1937, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032927

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with liver metastasis of head-and-neck carcinoma and esophageal carcinoma are generally not treated with hepatic resection, but there are no established standard treatment methods. We report 11 cases of hepatic resection for liver metastasis of head-and-neck carcinoma or esophageal carcinoma performed at 5 Japanese institutions. METHODS: The subjects of this retrospective analysis were 11 patients who underwent hepatic resection for metastatic liver tumors, originating from head-and-neck carcinoma in 5 and from esophageal cancer in 6, between January, 2010 and March, 2020 RESULTS: There were nine men and two women (median age, 64 years; range 40-72 years). The primary disease was esophageal carcinoma in six patients and pharyngeal carcinoma in five patients. All cancers were squamous cell carcinoma. The time from the initial treatment to the diagnosis of liver metastasis was 15.3 months and the 1-year and 3-year overall survival rates after hepatic resection were 72% and 32%, respectively. The overall and disease-free survival rates after hepatic resection were significantly higher for patients who underwent hepatic resection more than 12 months after the initial treatment than for those who underwent hepatic resection within 12 months after the initial treatment (p = 0.0172 and p = 0.0120, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Liver resection may prolong the survival of patients with liver metastases controlled for more than 12 months after the initial treatment of head and neck or esophageal carcinoma.

10.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 26(6): 1049-1056, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To examine the effect of prior use of cetuximab and neck dissection on the effectiveness of nivolumab, we conducted a large-scale subgroup analysis in Japanese patients with recurrent/metastatic head and neck cancer. METHODS: Data on the effectiveness of nivolumab were extracted from patient medical records. All patients were analyzed for effectiveness by prior cetuximab use. In the analyses for prior neck dissection, only patients with locally advanced disease were included. RESULTS: Of 256 patients analyzed, 155 had received prior cetuximab. Nineteen of 50 patients with local recurrence underwent neck dissection. The objective response rate was 14.7 vs 17.2% (p = 0.6116), median progression-free survival was 2.0 vs 3.1 months (p = 0.0261), and median overall survival was 8.4 vs 12 months (p = 0.0548) with vs without prior cetuximab use, respectively. The objective response rate was 23.1 vs 25.9% (p = 0.8455), median progression-free survival was 1.8 vs 3.0 months (p = 0.6650), and median overall survival was 9.1 vs 9.9 months (p = 0.5289) with vs without neck dissection, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the use of nivolumab for patients with recurrent/metastatic head and neck cancer regardless of prior cetuximab use or neck dissection history. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: UMIN-CTR (UMIN000032600), Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03569436).

12.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 1455613211013084, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909487

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Early detection of hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is important for both an improved prognosis and less-invasive treatment. We retrospectively analyzed the detection rates of early hypopharyngeal SCCs according to the evaluation methods and the clinical management of early hypopharyngeal SCCs. METHODS: Sixty-eight patients with early hypopharyngeal SCC who were diagnosed were reviewed. RESULTS: The number of early hypopharyngeal cancer patients with asymptomatic or synchronous or metachronous esophageal cancer examined by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with narrow-band imaging (NBI) was significantly higher than those examined by laryngopharyngeal endoscopy with NBI. The 3-year disease-specific survival rates according to T classification were as follows: Tis, 100%; T1, 100%; T2, 79.8%; and overall, 91.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Early-stage hypopharyngeal SCC can be cured by minimally invasive transoral surgery or radiotherapy. Observation of the pharynx using NBI in patients with a history of head and neck cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, or pharyngeal discomfort is very important, and routinely examining the pharynx with NBI, even in patients undergoing endoscopy for screening purposes, is recommended.

13.
Laryngoscope ; 131(8): 1782-1789, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538330

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the temporal bone is an extremely rare condition. This rarity has led to a delay in the establishment of a standard treatment protocol and adequate staging system. Identification of prognostic markers of this disease from a variety of fields is desirable in the establishment of treatment guidelines for temporal bone SCC. The aim of this study is to assess the prognostic role of inflammation-based prognostic scores in cases of temporal bone SCC. STUDY DESIGN: Case reries with chart review. METHODS: A total of 71 cases of primary malignancy eligible for curative treatment at a single tertiary medical institute were retrospectively analyzed. Univariate and multivariate regression analyzes were used to investigate the association between the inflammation-based scores and 5-year overall survival. RESULTS: Univariate Cox regression analyzes showed that a high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, high platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, low lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio, a Glasgow prognostic score of 2, and the systemic inflammation score of 2 were significantly associated with a poor prognosis, as well as a classification of T4 stage, presence of cervical lymph node metastasis, high white blood cell counts, and high C-reactive protein levels. The multivariate analysis showed that a clinical stage of T4 and a systemic inflammation score of 2 were independent prognostic markers. CONCLUSIONS: Inflammation-based prognostic markers are associated with the survival of patients with temporal bone SCC, as well as other head and neck SCCs. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:1782-1789, 2021.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/sangue , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cranianas/sangue , Osso Temporal , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
Auris Nasus Larynx ; 48(3): 502-510, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632582

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this multicenter retrospective cohort study was to compare efficacy and subsequent postoperative treatment between transoral robotic surgery (TORS) and any non-robotic transoral surgery in Japanese patients with early oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), hypopharyngeal SCC (HPSCC), or supraglottic SCC (SGSCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical information and surgical outcomes were compared between patients with early-stage OPSCC, HPSCC, and SGSCC who underwent TORS (TORS cohort) and those who underwent non-robotic transoral surgery, including transoral videolaryngoscopic surgery (TOVS), endoscopic laryngopharyngeal surgery (ELPS), and transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) (non-robotic cohort). The data of the Head and Neck Cancer Registry of Japan (registry cohort) were used to validate the comparison. The main outcomes were the presence of positive margins under pathology and the requirement for postoperative therapy, including radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients in the TORS cohort, 236 patients in the non-robotic cohort, and 1,228 patients in the registry cohort were eligible for this study. Patients in the TORS cohort were more likely to have oropharyngeal tumor disease and T2/3 disease than those in the other cohorts (P<0.001 and P=0.052, respectively). The TORS cohort had significantly fewer patients with positive surgical margins than the non-robotic cohort (P=0.018), as well as fewer patients who underwent postoperative treatment, although the difference was not significant (P=0.069). In the subgroup analysis of patients with OPSCC, a total of 57 patients in the TORS cohort, 73 in the non-robotic cohort, and 171 in the registry cohort were eligible for the present study. Patients with OPSCC who underwent TORS were more likely to have lateral wall lesions than those in the other cohorts (P=0.003). The TORS cohort also had significantly fewer patients with positive surgical margins than the non-robotic cohort (P=0.026), and no patients in the TORS cohort underwent any postoperative treatment for OPSCC, although the difference was not significant (P=0.177). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that TORS leads to fewer positive surgical margins than non-robotic transoral surgeries. The clinical significance of TORS may be further validated through the results of all-case surveillance for patients who underwent TORS running in Japan in the future.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Laringoscopia , Terapia a Laser , Masculino , Margens de Excisão , Microcirurgia , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia
15.
Histopathology ; 79(3): 358-369, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450095

RESUMO

AIMS: p16 is a sensitive surrogate marker for transcriptionally active high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), but it is not sufficient in all clinical settings. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the p16 and Rb expression status in 177 OPSCC cases by immunohistochemistry and the presence of transcriptionally active HR-HPV infection by mRNA in-situ hybridisation. The 177 cases were divided into p16+ /HPV+ (n = 105, 59.3%), p16+ /HPV- (n = 8, 4.5%) and p16- /HPV- (n = 64, 36.2%) groups. The p16+ /HPV- and p16- /HPV- groups had a trend towards worse overall survival (OS) or significantly worse OS than the p16+ /HPV+ group (n = 105) (P = 0.0610, P = 0.0004, respectively). We divided the Rb status into preserved expression (> 90%, n = 68), partial loss (PL) (10-90%, n = 97) and complete loss (CL) (< 10%, n = 12). Among the HPV-positive cases (n = 105), the Rb pattern was typically PL (n = 97, 92.4%) and rarely CL (n = 8, 7.6%), but never preserved expression (0%). In contrast, among the HPV-negative cases (n = 72), the Rb pattern was typically preserved expression (n = 68, 94.4%) and rarely CL (n = 4, 5.6%), but never PL (0%). Compared to p16 alone, the combination of p16 overexpression and Rb-PL/CL showed equally excellent sensitivity (each 100%) and improved specificity (97.2 versus 88.9%) and positive predictive values (98.1 versus 92.9%). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the combined use of p16 and Rb immunohistochemistry could be a reliable, cost-effective method to predict HR-HPV infection in OPSCCs; however, HPV specific testing is necessary on inconclusive cases. We propose a diagnostic algorithm for practical use of these markers.

16.
Auris Nasus Larynx ; 48(4): 751-757, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461854

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to clarify sequential volumetric changes of anterolateral thigh (ALT) flaps transferred to head and neck lesions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed volumetric changes in fat and muscle of 22 ALT flaps. We assessed "true" flap volume using the water-displacement method intraoperatively. Postoperative flap volume was assessed using three-dimensional volume-calculating software. RESULTS: The average duration until the entire flap volume decreased to its minimal size was 8.7 months. After 8.7 months, entire flap volume decreased to 47.4% of its initial intraoperative volume. The fat volume decreased to 62.5%, and the muscle volume decreased to 30.2%. The rate of muscle volume decrease was significantly larger than that of fat volume decrease (p<0.005). The only significant factor which affected entire flap volume decrease was the recipient site where the ALT flap was transferred (oral and pharyngeal lesions) (p=0.001), and the factor that affected fat volume decrease was postoperative body-weight loss (p=0.046). CONCLUSION: To minimize the influence of postoperative ALT flap volume decrease, an ALT flap should mainly comprise fatty tissue, and its size should be 1.6-times larger (100/62.5) than the ideal volume intraoperatively. Maintaining the body weight is crucial to avoid ALT flap volume decrease.

17.
Anticancer Res ; 41(1): 71-79, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genetic basis of sinonasal inverted papilloma (SNIP)-derived squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has not yet been well characterized. AIM: To characterize the genetic abnormalities of SNIP and SNIP-derived SCC and to uncover their differences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mutations of 409 genes were analyzed using amplicon targeted sequencing in a total of six papilloma/carcinoma samples from four patients with SNIP-derived SCC. RESULTS: The genes that were mutated in multiple cases were epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (3/6), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) (3/6), lysine methyltransferase 2D (KMT2D) (3/6), tumor protein p53 (TP53) (3/6), neurofibromin 1 (NF1) (3/6), phosphodiesterase 4D interacting protein (PDE4DIP) (3/6), cytochrome P450 family 2 subfamily D member 6 (CYP2D6) (2/6), fms-related receptor tyrosine kinase 4 (FLT4) (2/6) and myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9) (2/6). Of the two cases analyzed in the papilloma-oncology carcinoma pair, one did not have any common mutations; the other showed a staged functional deletion of TP53 during the process of malignant transformation from SNIP to SCC. CONCLUSION: CDKN2A, KMT2D, NF1, PDE4DIP, CYP2D6, FLT4, and MYH9 were identified as candidate novel SNIP-derived SCC-related genes.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/complicações , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Genômica , Oncogenes , Papiloma Invertido/complicações , Papiloma Invertido/genética , Neoplasias dos Seios Paranasais/complicações , Neoplasias dos Seios Paranasais/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
18.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 26(3): 494-506, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To fill the data gap between clinical trials and real-world settings, this study assessed the overall effectiveness and safety of nivolumab in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) during Japanese real-world clinical practice. METHODS: This was a multicenter, retrospective study in Japanese patients with recurrent or metastatic HNC who received nivolumab for the first time between July and December 2017. Data on the clinical use, effectiveness, and safety of nivolumab were extracted from patient medical records. RESULTS: Overall, 256 patients were enrolled in this study. The median duration of nivolumab treatment was 72.5 days, with patients receiving a median of 6.0 (range 1-27) doses. Median overall survival (OS) was 9.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.2-12.0) months and the estimated 12-month OS rate was 43.2%. The objective response rate (ORR) was 15.7% overall and 21.1%, 7.1%, and 13.6% in patients with primary nasopharynx, maxillary sinus, and salivary gland tumors, respectively, who had been excluded from CheckMate 141. Grade ≥ 3 immune-related adverse events occurred in 5.9% of patients. No new safety signals were identified compared with adverse events noted in CheckMate 141. CONCLUSIONS: The effectiveness and safety of nivolumab in real-world clinical practice are consistent with data from the CheckMate 141 clinical trial. Therapeutic response was also observed in the groups of patients excluded from CheckMate 141. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: UMIN-CTR (UMIN000032600), Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03569436).


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Japão , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
Oral Oncol ; 113: 105129, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug-induced interstitial lung disease (DI-IP) is one of the most serious adverse reactions associated with the use of anticancer drugs. DI-IP prevalence among molecular-targeting drugs and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) is relatively high in Japanese patients. To assess the risk of cetuximab and/or nivolumab-related IP is important. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The medical records of 138 patients with recurrent and/or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma treated with cetuximab-containing chemotherapy and/or nivolumab monotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: The incidence of DI-IP with R/M HNSCC was 7.2%. DI-IP occurred more frequently in patients treated with cetuximab-containing chemotherapy following nivolumab monotherapy than in patients with other regimens. However, tumor suppression was detected in all patients treated with cetuximab-containing chemotherapy following nivolumab monotherapy, and two achieved a complete response. CONCLUSIONS: Although patients treated with cetuximab-containing chemotherapy following nivolumab showed dramatic efficacy, careful monitoring should be recommended.


Assuntos
Cetuximab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/induzido quimicamente , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Cetuximab/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Nivolumabe/farmacologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 45(1): 108-118, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868526

RESUMO

Sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SNSCC) is sometimes associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and inverted sinonasal papilloma or oncocytic sinonasal papilloma. Frequent mutations of EGFR and KRAS are reported in inverted sinonasal papilloma-related sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (ISP-SCC) and oncocytic sinonasal papilloma-related SNSCC, respectively. Here, we attempted to determine the prevalence and the prognostic significances of these alterations in SNSCC. We retrospectively collected 146 SNSCCs, including 14 ISP-SCCs, and comprehensively analyzed the HR-HPV infection by human papillomavirus (HPV)-RNA in situ hybridization, EGFR gene copy number gain (CNG) by chromogenic in situ hybridization, and gene mutations in EGFR and KRAS by Sanger sequencing. HR-HPV was detected in 11 cases (7.5%), whereas all 14 ISP-SCCs were negative. EGFR mutations were present in 21 (14.7%) of 143 SNSCCs, including 13/14 (92.9%) ISP-SCCs and 8/129 (6.2%) non-ISP-SCCs (P<0.0001). The majority of EGFR mutations were exon 20 insertions, with the remainder composed of deletions and single-nucleotide substitutions in exons 19 and 20. All of 142 SNSCCs harbored no KRAS mutation. EGFR CNG was detected in 41 (28.1%) of 146 SNSCCs; all of them were HPV negative and 3 had EGFR mutations. Collectively, EGFR mutation, EGFR CNG, and HR-HPV were essentially mutually exclusive, and each subgroup had distinct clinicopathologic features. The HPV-negative/EGFR-mutant group, the HPV-negative/EGFR CNG-positive group, and the triple-negative group had significantly worse prognoses than the HPV-positive group (P=0.0265, 0.0264, and 0.0394, respectively). In conclusion, EGFR mutation may play a pathogenetically important role in some populations of SNSCCs, especially ISP-SCCs. The molecular subclassification of SNSCCs may contribute to prognostic prediction and molecular-targeted precision medicine.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/virologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Neoplasias dos Seios Paranasais/genética , Neoplasias dos Seios Paranasais/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos
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