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1.
J Surg Res ; 183(2): 678-85, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23465433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial contractile depression develops 4 to 24 h after major burn injury. We have reported previously that in a rat burn injury model (≈40% of total body surface area burn), mesenteric lymph duct ligation (LDL) prior to burn prevented myocardial dysfunction. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are not well understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Left ventricular myocytes were isolated from sham burn (control), sham burn with LDL (sham + LDL), burn, and burn with LDL (burn + LDL) rats at 4 and 24 h after burn or sham burn. Electrophysiological techniques were used to study myocyte size, contractility and L-type Ca2+ channel current (ICa). Further studies examined changes in the messenger RNA expression levels of pore-forming subunit of the L-type Ca(2+) channel, α1C, and its auxiliary subunits, ß1, ß2, ß3, and α2δ1, which modulate the abundance of the ICa in post-burn hearts. RESULTS: Depressed myocyte contractility (≈20%) developed during 4 to 24 h post-burn compared with control, sham + LDL, or burn + LDL groups, a pattern of changes consistent with whole heart studies. There was no significant alteration in myocyte size. The ICa density was significantly decreased (≈30%) at 24 h post-burn, whereas the messenger RNA expression levels of Ca(2+) channel gene were not significantly altered at 4 and 24 h after burn injury. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the post-burn contractile phenotype in vivo was also present in isolated myocytes in vitro, but cellular remodeling was not a major factor. The results also suggest that changes in ICa regulation, but not from Ca(2+) channel gene modification, may be a key element involved in post-burn contractile depression and the beneficial effects of LDL.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/complicações , Coração/fisiopatologia , Sistema Linfático/fisiopatologia , Mesentério/fisiopatologia , Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Animais , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/fisiologia , Tamanho Celular , Técnicas In Vitro , Ligadura , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
2.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 111(3): 799-807, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21700891

RESUMO

Myocardial contractile dysfunction develops following trauma-hemorrhagic shock (T/HS). We have previously shown that, in a rat fixed pressure model of T/HS (mean arterial pressure of 30-35 mmHg for 90 min), mesenteric lymph duct ligation before T/HS prevented T/HS-induced myocardial contractile depression. To determine whether T/HS lymph directly alters myocardial contractility, we examined the functional effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of mesenteric lymph collected from rats undergoing trauma-sham shock (T/SS) or T/HS on both isolated cardiac myocytes and Langendorff-perfused whole hearts. Acute application of T/HS lymph (0.1-2%), but not T/SS lymph, induced dual inotropic effects on myocytes with an immediate increase in the amplitude of cell shortening (1.4 ± 0.1-fold) followed by a complete block of contraction. Similarly, T/HS lymph caused dual, positive and negative effects on cellular Ca²âº transients. These effects were associated with changes in the electrophysiological properties of cardiac myocytes; T/HS lymph initially prolonged the action potential duration (action potential duration at 90% repolarization, 3.3 ± 0.4-fold), and this was followed by a decrease in the plateau potential and membrane depolarization. Furthermore, intravenous infusion of T/HS lymph, but not T/SS lymph, caused myocardial contractile dysfunction at 24 h after injection, which mimicked actual T/HS-induced changes; left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and the maximal rate of LVDP rise and fall (±dP/dt(max)) were decreased and inotropic response to Ca²âº was blunted. However, the contractile responsiveness to ß-adrenergic receptor stimulation in the T/HS lymph-infused hearts remained unchanged. These results suggest that T/HS lymph directly causes negative inotropic effects on the myocardium and that T/HS lymph-induced changes in myocyte function are likely to contribute to the development of T/HS-induced myocardial dysfunction.


Assuntos
Linfa/metabolismo , Sistema Linfático/metabolismo , Contração Miocárdica , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Choque Hemorrágico/complicações , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Sinalização do Cálcio , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Mesentério , Perfusão , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Choque Hemorrágico/metabolismo , Choque Hemorrágico/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/metabolismo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Pressão Ventricular
3.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 106(1): 57-65, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19008486

RESUMO

Clinical and experimental studies have shown that trauma combined with hemorrhage shock (T/HS) is associated with myocardial contractile dysfunction. However, the initial events triggering the cardiac dysfunction are not fully elucidated. Thus we tested the hypothesis that factors carried in intestinal (mesenteric) lymph contribute to negative inotropic effects in rats subjected to a laparotomy (T) plus hemorrhagic shock (HS; mean arterial blood pressure of 30-40 Torr for 90 min) using a Langendorff isolated heart preparation. Left ventricular (LV) function was assessed 24 h after trauma plus sham shock (T/SS) or T/HS by recording the LV developed pressure (LVDP) and the maximal rate of LVDP rise and fall ( +/- dP/dt(max)) in five groups of rats: 1) naive noninstrumented rats, 2) rats subjected to T/SS, 3) rats subjected to T/HS, 4) rats subjected to T/SS with mesenteric lymph duct ligation (T/SS+LDL), or 5) rats subjected to T/HS+LDL. Cardiac function was comparable in hearts from naive, T/SS, and T/SS+LDL rats. Both LVDP and +/- dP/dt(max) were significantly depressed after T/HS. The T/HS hearts also manifested a blunted responsiveness to increases in coronary flow rates and Ca(2+), and this was prevented by LDL preceding T/HS. Although electrocardiograms were normal under physiological conditions, when the T/HS hearts were perfused with low Ca(2+) levels ( approximately 0.5 mM), prolonged P-R intervals and second-degree plus Wenckebach-type atrioventricular blocks were observed. No such changes occurred in the control or T/HS+LDL hearts. The effects of T/HS were similar to those of the Ca(2+) channel antagonist diltiazem, indicating that an impairment of cellular Ca(2+) handling contributes to T/HS-induced cardiac dysfunction. In conclusion, gut-derived factors carried in mesenteric lymph are responsible for acute T/HS-induced cardiac dysfunction.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Cardiopatias/prevenção & controle , Linfa/metabolismo , Vasos Linfáticos/cirurgia , Contração Miocárdica , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Choque Hemorrágico/cirurgia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Circulação Coronária , Diltiazem/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletrocardiografia , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Cardiopatias/metabolismo , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Ligadura , Masculino , Mesentério , Contração Miocárdica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Choque Hemorrágico/complicações , Choque Hemorrágico/metabolismo , Choque Hemorrágico/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Ventricular
4.
J Clin Invest ; 119(1): 203-12, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19065046

RESUMO

Transcriptional upregulation of the proapoptotic BCL2 family protein NIX limits red blood cell formation and can cause heart failure by inducing cell death, but the requisite molecular events are poorly defined. Here, we show complementary mechanisms for NIX-mediated cell death involving direct and ER/sarcoplasmic reticulum-mediated (ER/SR-mediated) mitochondria disruption. Endogenous cardiac NIX and recombinant NIX localize both to the mitochondria and to the ER/SR. In genetic mouse models, cardiomyocyte ER/SR calcium stores are proportional to the level of expressed NIX. Whereas Nix ablation was protective in a mouse model of apoptotic cardiomyopathy, genetic correction of the decreased SR calcium content of Nix-null mice restored sensitivity to cell death and reestablished cardiomyopathy. Nix mutants specific to ER/SR or mitochondria activated caspases and were equally lethal, but only ER/SR-Nix caused loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential. These results establish a new function for NIX as an integrator of transcriptional and calcium-mediated signals for programmed cell death.


Assuntos
Morte Celular/fisiologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Ratos , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Retículo Sarcoplasmático/metabolismo , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio do Retículo Sarcoplasmático/genética , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio do Retículo Sarcoplasmático/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
5.
Int J Clin Exp Med ; 1(2): 171-80, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19079671

RESUMO

Acute injury-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction occurs even in young and otherwise healthy individuals after major injuries, and significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality in patients with pre-existent cardiac diseases as well as in patients who develop multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Recent studies indicate that post-injury acute cardiac failure is the result of an exaggerated cardiac inflammatory response resulting in an inflammatory cardiomyopathy characterized by decreased cardiac contractility. Over the past decade, many of the effector molecules involved in this process have been identified as having some involvement in generating a myocardial inflammatory response. However, less is known about the agents and processes involved in triggering this inflammation-induced decrease in cardiac contractility. Consequently, in this review, the concept of the heart responding to major injury like an innate immune organ will be presented, the various effector molecules and mechanisms leading to myocyte contractile dysfunction will be reviewed and data indicating that the acute cardiac contractile dysfunction observed after trauma is due to gut-derived intestinal lymph factors will be reviewed.

6.
Circ Res ; 101(11): 1164-74, 2007 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17901358

RESUMO

Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3, a negative regulator of cardiac hypertrophy, is inactivated in failing hearts. To examine the histopathological and functional consequence of the persistent inhibition of GSK-3beta in the heart in vivo, we generated transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of dominant negative GSK-3beta (Tg-GSK-3beta-DN) and tetracycline-regulatable wild-type GSK-3beta. GSK-3beta-DN significantly reduced the kinase activity of endogenous GSK-3beta, inhibited phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B epsilon, and induced accumulation of beta-catenin and myeloid cell leukemia-1, confirming that GSK-3beta-DN acts as a dominant negative in vivo. Tg-GSK-3beta-DN exhibited concentric hypertrophy at baseline, accompanied by upregulation of the alpha-myosin heavy chain gene and increases in cardiac function, as evidenced by a significantly greater Emax after dobutamine infusion and percentage of contraction in isolated cardiac myocytes, indicating that inhibition of GSK-3beta induces well-compensated hypertrophy. Although transverse aortic constriction induced a similar increase in hypertrophy in both Tg-GSK-3beta-DN and nontransgenic mice, Tg-GSK-3beta-DN exhibited better left ventricular function and less fibrosis and apoptosis than nontransgenic mice. Induction of the GSK-3beta transgene in tetracycline-regulatable wild-type GSK-3beta mice induced left ventricular dysfunction and premature death, accompanied by increases in apoptosis and fibrosis. Overexpression of GSK-3beta-DN in cardiac myocytes inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced apoptosis, and the antiapoptotic effect of GSK-3beta-DN was abrogated in the absence of myeloid cell leukemia-1. These results suggest that persistent inhibition of GSK-3beta induces compensatory hypertrophy, inhibits apoptosis and fibrosis, and increases cardiac contractility and that the antiapoptotic effect of GSK-3beta inhibition is mediated by myeloid cell leukemia-1. Thus, downregulation of GSK-3beta during heart failure could be compensatory.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose , Cardiomegalia/etiologia , Cardiotônicos , Regulação para Baixo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Fibrose/etiologia , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides , Contração Miocárdica , Proteínas de Neoplasias/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/fisiologia
7.
J Biol Chem ; 282(45): 33181-91, 2007 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17855351

RESUMO

Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine kinase having multiple functions and consisting of two isoforms, GSK-3alpha and GSK-3beta. Pressure overload increases expression of GSK-3alpha but not GSK-3beta. Despite our wealth of knowledge about GSK-3beta, the function of GSK-3alpha in the heart is not well understood. To address this issue, we made cardiac-specific GSK-3alpha transgenic mice (Tg). Left ventricular weight and cardiac myocyte size were significantly smaller in Tg than in non-Tg (NTg) mice, indicating that GSK-3alpha inhibits cardiac growth. After 4 weeks of aortic banding (transverse aortic constriction (TAC)), increases in left ventricular weight and myocyte size were significantly smaller in Tg than in NTg, indicating that GSK-3alpha inhibits cardiac hypertrophy. More severe cardiac dysfunction developed in Tg after TAC. Increases in fibrosis and apoptosis were greater in Tg than in NTg after TAC. Among signaling molecules screened, ERK phosphorylation was decreased in Tg. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of GSK-3alpha, but not GSK-3beta, inhibited ERK in cultured cardiac myocytes. Knockdown of GSK-3alpha increased ERK phosphorylation, an effect that was inhibited by PD98059, rottlerin, and protein kinase Cepsilon (PKCepsilon) inhibitor peptide, suggesting that GSK-3alpha inhibits ERK through PKC-MEK-dependent mechanisms. Knockdown of GSK-3alpha increased protein content and reduced apoptosis, effects that were abolished by PD98059, indicating that inhibition of ERK plays a major role in the modulation of cardiac growth and apoptosis by GSK-3alpha. In conclusion, up-regulation of GSK-3alpha inhibits cardiac growth and pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy but increases fibrosis and apoptosis in the heart. The anti-hypertrophic and pro-apoptotic effect of GSK-3alpha is mediated through inhibition of ERK.


Assuntos
Cardiomegalia/metabolismo , Cardiomegalia/patologia , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/antagonistas & inibidores , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , Coração/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Apoptose , Pressão Sanguínea , Cardiomegalia/fisiopatologia , Células Cultivadas , Fibrose/genética , Fibrose/metabolismo , Fibrose/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/genética , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Quinase C-delta/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase C-épsilon/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Ratos , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/metabolismo
8.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 323(1): 186-91, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17626797

RESUMO

Ca2+ signaling plays an important role in endothelial cell (EC) functions including the regulation of barrier integrity. Recently, the endogenous lipid derivative, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), has emerged as an important modulator of EC barrier function. We investigated the role of endogenously generated S1P in Ca2+ metabolism and barrier function in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) stimulated by thrombin, histamine, or other agonists. Barrier function was assessed by dextran diffusion through HUVEC monolayers, and Ca2+ transients were measured using a fluoroprobe. Thrombin or histamine increased Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Ca2+ entry through store-operated channels (SOCs) that was accompanied by increased EC permeability. Inhibition of S1P synthesis by a specific sphingosine kinase inhibitor (SKI) decreased thrombin or histamine-induced increased permeability and decreased Ca2+ entry via SOC in a concentration-dependent fashion. SKI had minuscule effects on thrombin or histamine-induced Ca2+ release from ER. SKI also inhibited thapsigargin or ionomycin-induced Ca2+ entry via SOC without affecting Ca2+ release from the ER. In contrast to the effects of endogenously generated S1P, when S1P was administered externally, it initiated Ca2+ release from ER similar to thrombin and histamine while decreasing EC permeability. These observations indicate that after agonist-induced conditions, endogenously generated S1P functions as a positive modulator of Ca2+ entry via SOC and a mediator of increased cell permeability. In contrast, extracellular exposure to S1P has different signaling mechanisms and effects. Thus, the potential dual roles of endogenous and exogenous S1P on EC function need to be considered in pharmacological studies targeting sphingosine metabolism.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio/fisiologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais , Lisofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Lisofosfolipídeos/fisiologia , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Histamina/farmacologia , Humanos , Permeabilidade , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/antagonistas & inibidores , Esfingosina/metabolismo , Esfingosina/fisiologia , Trombina/farmacologia
9.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 292(5): H2475-84, 2007 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17237243

RESUMO

Major burn injury results in impairment of left ventricular (LV) contractile function. There is strong evidence to support the involvement of gut-derived factor(s) transported in mesenteric lymph in the development of burn-related contractile dysfunction; i.e., mesenteric lymph duct ligation (LDL) prevents burn-related contractile depression. However, the cellular mechanisms for altered myocardial contractility of postburn hearts are largely unknown, and the cellular basis for the salutary effects of LDL on cardiac function have not been investigated. We examined contractility, Ca(2+) transients, and L-type Ca(2+) currents (I(Ca)) in LV myocytes isolated from four groups of rats: 1) sham burn, 2) sham burn with LDL (sham + LDL), 3) burn ( approximately 40% of total body surface area burn), and 4) burn with LDL (burn + LDL). Myocytes isolated from hearts at 24 h postburn had a depressed contractility ( approximately 20%) at baseline and blunted responsiveness to elevation of bath Ca(2+). Myocyte contractility was comparable in sham + LDL and sham burn hearts. LDL completely prevented burn-related changes in myocyte contractility. Mechanistically, the decrease in contractility in myocytes from postburn hearts occurred with a decrease in the amplitude of Ca(2+) transients ( approximately 20%) without changes in resting Ca(2+) or Ca(2+) content of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. On the other hand, I(Ca) density was decreased ( approximately 30%) in myocytes from postburn hearts, with unaltered voltage-dependent properties. Thus burn-related myocardial contractile dysfunction is linked with depressed myocyte contractility associated with a decrease in I(Ca) density. These findings also provide strong evidence that mesenteric lymph is involved in the onset of burn-related cardiomyocyte dysfunction.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/prevenção & controle , Queimaduras/fisiopatologia , Linfa/metabolismo , Mesentério/metabolismo , Contração Miocárdica , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/prevenção & controle , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Animais , Queimaduras/complicações , Células Cultivadas , Masculino , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia
10.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 290(2): H778-85, 2006 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16214841

RESUMO

Gut-derived factors in intestinal lymph have been shown to trigger myocardial contractile dysfunction. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms remain unclear. We examined the effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of mesenteric lymph collected from rats with 40% burn injury (burn lymph) on excitation-contraction coupling in rat ventricular myocytes. Burn lymph (0.1-5%), but not control mesenteric lymph from sham-burn animals, induced dual positive and negative inotropic effects depending on the concentrations used. At lower concentrations (<0.5%), burn lymph increased the amplitude of myocyte contraction (1.6 +/- 0.3-fold; n = 12). At higher concentrations (>0.5%), burn lymph initially enhanced myocyte contraction, which was followed by a block of contraction. These effects were partially reversible on washout. The initial positive inotropic effect was associated with a prolongation of action potential duration (measured at 90% repolarization, 2.5 +/- 0.6-fold; n = 10), leading to significant increases in the net Ca2+ influx (1.7 +/- 0.1-fold; n = 8). There were no significant changes in the resting membrane potential. The negative inotropic effect was accompanied by a decrease in the action potential plateau (overshoot decrease by 69 +/- 10%; n = 4) and membrane depolarization. Voltage-clamp experiments revealed that the positive inotropic effects of burn lymph were due to an inhibition of the transient outward K+ currents that prolong action potential duration, and the inhibitory effects were due to a concentration-dependent inhibition of Ca2+ currents that lead to a reduction of action potential plateau. These burn lymph-induced changes in cardiac myocyte Ca2+ handling can contribute to burn-induced contractile dysfunction and ultimately to heart failure.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/metabolismo , Linfa/fisiologia , Mesentério/metabolismo , Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Função Ventricular , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio/fisiologia , Condutividade Elétrica , Masculino , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
11.
J Clin Invest ; 115(11): 3045-56, 2005 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16276415

RESUMO

Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptors activate both conventional heterotrimeric G protein-dependent and unconventional G protein-independent mechanisms. We investigated how these different mechanisms activated by AT1 receptors affect growth and death of cardiac myocytes in vivo. Transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of WT AT1 receptor (AT1-WT; Tg-WT mice) or an AT1 receptor second intracellular loop mutant (AT1-i2m; Tg-i2m mice) selectively activating G(alpha)q/G(alpha)i-independent mechanisms were studied. Tg-i2m mice developed more severe cardiac hypertrophy and bradycardia coupled with lower cardiac function than Tg-WT mice. In contrast, Tg-WT mice exhibited more severe fibrosis and apoptosis than Tg-i2m mice. Chronic Ang II infusion induced greater cardiac hypertrophy in Tg-i2m compared with Tg-WT mice whereas acute Ang II administration caused an increase in heart rate in Tg-WT but not in Tg-i2m mice. Membrane translocation of PKCepsilon, cytoplasmic translocation of G(alpha)q, and nuclear localization of phospho-ERKs were observed only in Tg-WT mice while activation of Src and cytoplasmic accumulation of phospho-ERKs were greater in Tg-i2m mice, consistent with the notion that G(alpha)q/G(alpha)i-independent mechanisms are activated in Tg-i2m mice. Cultured myocytes expressing AT1-i2m exhibited a left and upward shift of the Ang II dose-response curve of hypertrophy compared with those expressing AT1-WT. Thus, the AT1 receptor mediates downstream signaling mechanisms through G(alpha)q/G(alpha)i-dependent and -independent mechanisms, which induce hypertrophy with a distinct phenotype.


Assuntos
Bradicardia/genética , Subunidades alfa Gi-Go de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Subunidades alfa Gq-G11 de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/genética , Mutação , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/deficiência , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/genética , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Bradicardia/metabolismo , Bradicardia/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Eletrocardiografia , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Fibrose/genética , Fibrose/metabolismo , Subunidades alfa Gi-Go de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/deficiência , Subunidades alfa Gi-Go de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Subunidades alfa Gq-G11 de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/deficiência , Subunidades alfa Gq-G11 de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/metabolismo , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Fenótipo , Proteína Quinase C-épsilon/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/metabolismo
12.
Circ Res ; 97(5): 457-64, 2005 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16051885

RESUMO

In conscious dogs with severe left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (H) (doubling of LV/body weight), which developed gradually over 1 to 2 years after aortic banding, baseline LV function was well compensated. The LV was able to generate twice the LV systolic pressure without an increase in LV end-diastolic pressure, or decrease in LV dP/dt or LV wall thickening. However, LV myocytes isolated from LVH dogs exhibited impaired contraction at baseline and in response to Ca2+. There was no change in L-type Ca2+ channel current (ICa) density but the ability of ICa to trigger Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was reduced. Immunoblot analysis revealed a 68% decrease in SERCA2a, and a 35% decrease in the number of ryanodine receptors (RyR2), with no changes in protein level of calsequestrin, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger or phospholamban (PLB), but with both RyR2 and PLB hyperphosphorylated. Spontaneous Ca2+ sparks in LVH cells were found to have prolonged duration but similar intensities despite the reduced SR Ca2+ load. A higher Ca2+ spark rate was observed in LVH cells, but this is inconsistent with the reduced SR Ca2+ content. However, Ca2+ waves were found to be less frequent, slower and were more likely to be aborted in Ca2+-challenged LVH cells. These paradoxical observations could be accounted for by a nonuniform SR Ca2+ distribution, RyR2 hyperphosphorylation in the presence of decreased global SR Ca2+ load. We conclude that severe LVH with compensation masks cellular and subcellular Ca2+ defects that remain likely contributors to the limited contractile reserve of LVH.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/metabolismo , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio/análise , Diástole , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Contração Miocárdica , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio do Retículo Sarcoplasmático , Função Ventricular Esquerda
13.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 288(2): H650-9, 2005 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15471984

RESUMO

Regulation of ionic channels plays a pivotal role in controlling cardiac function. Here we show that the Rho family of small G proteins regulates L-type Ca2+ currents in ventricular cardiomyocytes. Ventricular myocytes isolated from transgenic (TG) mice that overexpress the specific GDP dissociation inhibitor Rho GDI-alpha exhibited significantly decreased basal L-type Ca2+ current density (approximately 40%) compared with myocytes from nontransgenic (NTG) mice. The Ca2+ channel agonist BAY K 8644 and the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol increased Ca2+ currents in both NTG and TG myocytes to a similar maximal level, and no changes in mRNA or protein levels were observed in the Ca2+ channel alpha1-subunits. These results suggest that the channel activity but not the expression level was altered in TG myocytes. In addition, the densities of inward rectifier and transient outward K+ currents were unchanged in TG myocytes. The amplitudes and rates of basal twitches and Ca2+ transients were also similar between the two groups. When the protein was delivered directly into adult ventricular myocytes via TAT-mediated protein transduction, Rho GDI-alpha significantly decreased Ca2+ current density, which supports the idea that the defective Ca2+ channel activity in TG myocytes was a primary effect of the transgene. In addition, expression of a dominant-negative RhoA but not a dominant-negative Rac-1 or Cdc42 also significantly decreased Ca2+ current density, which indicates that inhibition of Ca2+ channel activity by overexpression of Rho GDI-alpha is mediated by inhibition of RhoA. This study points to the L-type Ca2+ channel activity as a novel downstream target of the RhoA signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/fisiologia , Inibidores de Dissociação do Nucleotídeo Guanina/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Proteína rhoA de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Bovinos , Feminino , Inibidores de Dissociação do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia , Canais de Potássio/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Proteína cdc42 de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Proteína cdc42 de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Proteínas rac1 de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Proteínas rac1 de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Inibidores da Dissociação do Nucleotídeo Guanina rho-Específico , Proteína rhoA de Ligação ao GTP/genética
14.
FASEB J ; 18(7): 857-9, 2004 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15033930

RESUMO

Recent studies suggest that RhoA and Rac1 mediate hypertrophic signals in cardiac myocyte hypertrophy. However, effects on cardiac function caused by inhibition of their activity in the heart have yet to be evaluated. Cardiac-specific inhibition of Rho family protein activities was achieved by expressing Rho GDIalpha, an endogenous specific GDP dissociation inhibitor for Rho family proteins, using the alpha-myosin heavy-chain promoter. Increased expression of Rho GDIalpha led to atrial arrhythmias and mild ventricular hypertrophy in adult mice (4-7 months). However, left ventricular systolic and diastolic function was largely preserved before and after the development of cardiac hypertrophy, indicating that Rho GTPases are not required to maintain ventricular contractile function under basal physiological condition. Electrocardiography and intracardiac electrophysiological studies revealed first-degree atrioventricular (AV) block in the transgenic heart at 1 week of age, which further progressed into second-degree AV block at 4 weeks of age before the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Expression of connexin 40 dramatically decreased from 1 week to 4 weeks of age in the transgenic heart, which may contribute in part to the conduction defects in the transgenic mice. This study provides novel evidence for an important role of Rho GTPases in regulating AV conduction.


Assuntos
Nó Atrioventricular/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/enzimologia , Inibidores de Dissociação do Nucleotídeo Guanina/fisiologia , Bloqueio Cardíaco/etiologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/fisiopatologia , Bovinos , Conexina 43/biossíntese , Conexina 43/genética , Conexinas/biossíntese , Conexinas/genética , Progressão da Doença , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Inibidores de Dissociação do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Átrios do Coração/anormalidades , Bloqueio Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Heterozigoto , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Transgenes , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP/fisiologia , Inibidor alfa de Dissociação do Nucleotídeo Guanina rho , Inibidores da Dissociação do Nucleotídeo Guanina rho-Específico
15.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 286(6): H2219-28, 2004 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14962828

RESUMO

Mammalian hibernators exhibit remarkable resistance to low body temperature, whereas non-hibernating (NHB) mammals develop ventricular dysfunction and arrhythmias. To investigate this adaptive change, we compared contractile and electrophysiological properties of left ventricular myocytes isolated from hibernating (HB) woodchucks (Marmota monax) and control NHB woodchucks. The major findings of this study were the following: 1) the action potential duration in HB myocytes was significantly shorter than in NHB myocytes, but the amplitude of peak contraction was unchanged; 2) HB myocytes had a 33% decreased L-type Ca2+ current (I(Ca)) density and twofold faster I(Ca) inactivation but no change in the current-voltage relationship; 3) there were no changes in the density of inward rectifier K+ current, transient outward K+ current, or Na+/Ca2+ exchange current, but HB myocytes had increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ content as estimated from caffeine-induced Na+/Ca2+ exchange current values; 4) expression of the L-type Ca2+ channel alpha(1C)-subunit was decreased by 30% in HB hearts; and 5) mRNA and protein levels of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2a (SERCA2a), phospholamban, and the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger showed a pattern that is consistent with functional measurements: SERCA2a was increased and phospholamban was decreased in HB relative to NHB hearts with no change in the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Thus reduced Ca2+ channel density and faster I(Ca) inactivation coupled to enhanced sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release may underlie shorter action potentials with sustained contractility in HB hearts. These changes may account for natural resistance to Ca2+ overload-related ventricular dysfunction and point to an important cardioprotective mechanism during true hibernation.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Coração/fisiologia , Hibernação/fisiologia , Marmota/fisiologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Cafeína/farmacologia , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/metabolismo , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio/metabolismo , Frequência Cardíaca , Miocárdio/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Inibidores de Fosfodiesterase/farmacologia , Potássio/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/metabolismo , Retículo Sarcoplasmático/metabolismo , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio do Retículo Sarcoplasmático , Sódio/metabolismo
16.
Shock ; 20(5): 458-64, 2003 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14560111

RESUMO

Although gut-derived mesenteric lymph from animals with thermal injury appears to lead to myocardial contractile dysfunction, the cellular mechanisms remain unclear. We examined the direct effects of intestinal lymph on excitation-contraction coupling in rat ventricular myocytes. Lymph from rats receiving burn injury (burn lymph), but not from sham-burned rats, rapidly enhanced myocyte contraction and the amplitude of Ca2+ transient; the average percentage of shortening was increased from 5.5 +/- 0.3% to 10.5 +/- 0.9%. 90% and the Ca2+ transients increased by 80% +/- 20%. Burn lymph had no effect on the amplitude of L-type Ca2+ current (ICa) or the inward rectifier K+ current, but the transient outward K+ currents (Ito) were reduced significantly by burn lymph. Inhibition of Ito was not altered by an alpha1-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonist, prazosin, indicating that the block was not mediated via alpha1-AR signaling pathway. Action potential (AP) duration, measured at 50% and 90% repolarization, was prolonged by burn lymph. Stimulation of myocytes with AP voltage-clamp waveforms derived from prolonged AP induced by burn lymph revealed a 1.7-fold increase in Ca2+ influx via ICa compared with the Ca2+ influx induced by control AP. Blocking of Ito by 4-aminopyridine prolonged AP duration and increased Ca2+ transients, mimicking the effects of burn lymph. Burn lymph did not affect Na+/Ca2+ exchange currents or caffeine-induced SR Ca2+ release. Thus, acute exposure of normal cardiac myocytes to burn lymph increases Ca2+ transients by a prolongation of AP as a result of a reduction of Ito with no intrinsic change in ICa or exchanger. The electrophysiological changes are similar to those that occur during compensated cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting a common mechanistic link between burn lymph- and hypertrophy-induced cardiac dysfunction.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Queimaduras/fisiopatologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Ácido Egtázico , Ácido Egtázico/análogos & derivados , Linfa/fisiologia , Mesentério/fisiopatologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , 4-Aminopiridina/farmacologia , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cafeína/farmacologia , Canais de Cálcio Tipo T/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais de Cálcio Tipo T/fisiologia , Ácido Egtázico/farmacologia , Eletrofisiologia , Lítio/farmacologia , Masculino , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Potássio/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais de Potássio/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Retículo Sarcoplasmático/química , Retículo Sarcoplasmático/fisiologia , Trocador de Sódio e Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Trocador de Sódio e Cálcio/fisiologia
17.
J Biol Chem ; 278(48): 47622-8, 2003 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-13129932

RESUMO

Transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of active Akt (TG) not only exhibit hypertrophy but also show enhanced left ventricular (LV) function. In 3-4-month-old TG, heart/body weight was increased by 60% and LV ejection fraction was elevated (84 +/- 2%, p < 0.01) compared with nontransgenic littermates (wild type (WT)) (73 +/- 1%). An increase in isolated ventricular myocyte contractile function (% contraction) in TG compared with WT (6.1 +/- 0.2 versus 3.5 +/- 0.2%, p < 0.01) was associated with increased Fura-2 Ca2+ transients (396 +/- 50 versus 250 +/- 24 nmol/liter, p < 0.05). The rate of relaxation (+dL/dt) was also enhanced in TG (214 +/- 15 versus 98 +/- 18 microm/s, p < 0.01). L-type Ca2+ current (ICa) density was increased in TG compared with WT (-9.0 +/- 0.3 versus 7.2 +/- 0.3 pA/pF, p < 0.01). Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase 2a (SERCA2a) protein levels were increased (p < 0.05) by 6.6-fold in TG, which could be recapitulated in vitro by adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Akt in cultured adult ventricular myocytes. Conversely, inhibiting SERCA with either ryanodine or thapsigargin affected myocyte contraction and relaxation and Ca2+ channel kinetics more in TG than in WT. Thus, myocytes from mice with overexpressed Akt demonstrated enhanced contractility and relaxation, Fura-2 Ca2+ transients, and Ca2+ channel currents. Furthermore, increased protein expression of SERCA2a plays an important role in mediating enhanced LV function by Akt. Up-regulation of SERCA2a expression and enhanced LV myocyte contraction and relaxation in Akt-induced hypertrophy is opposite to the down-regulation of SERCA2a and reduced contractile function observed in many other forms of LV hypertrophy.


Assuntos
Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/química , Adenoviridae/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/química , Animais , Western Blotting , Peso Corporal , Cálcio/metabolismo , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio/química , Calsequestrina/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação para Baixo , Ecocardiografia , Eletrofisiologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Fura-2/farmacologia , Hipertrofia , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Cinética , Lisofosfolipase/química , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Células Musculares/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Ratos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Rianodina/farmacologia , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/química , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio do Retículo Sarcoplasmático , Tapsigargina/química , Tapsigargina/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo , Transfecção , Transgenes , Regulação para Cima
18.
Cardiovasc Res ; 59(3): 649-57, 2003 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14499866

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The calcineurin pathway has been involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy, yet it remains unknown whether calcineurin activity can be regulated in myocardium independently from hypertrophy and cardiac load. METHODS: To test that hypothesis, we measured calcineurin activity in a rat model of infrarenal aortic constriction (IR), which affects neurohormonal pathways without increasing cardiac afterload. RESULTS: In this model, there was no change in arterial pressure over the 4-week experimental period, and the left ventricle/body weight ratio did not increase. At 2 weeks after IR, calcineurin activity was increased 1.8-fold (P<0.05) and remained elevated at 4 weeks (1.7-fold, P<0.05). Similarly, the cardiac activity of calcium calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) was increased significantly after IR, which confirms a regulation of Ca(2+)-dependent enzymes in this model. In cardiac myocytes, the increased activity of calcineurin was accompanied by a significant decrease in L-type Ca(2+) channel activity (I(Ca)) and contraction velocity (-dL/dt). Cardiac denervation prevented the activation of calcineurin after IR, which demonstrates that a neurohormonal mechanism is responsible for the changes in enzymatic activity. In addition, cardiac denervation suppressed the effects of IR on I(Ca) and -dL/dt, which shows that calcineurin activation is related to altered contractility. However, action potential duration, the densities of inward rectifier K(+) currents (I(K1)), and outward K(+) currents (I(to) and I(K)) were not altered in IR myocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Calcineurin can be activated in the heart through a neural stimulus, which induces alterations in Ca(2+) currents and contractility. These effects occur in the absence of myocyte hypertrophy, electrophysiological changes in action potential, and K(+) channel currents.


Assuntos
Estenose Aórtica Subvalvar/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Contração Miocárdica , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Animais , Aorta Abdominal , Estenose Aórtica Subvalvar/fisiopatologia , Fator Natriurético Atrial/genética , Denervação Autônoma , Calcineurina/análise , Sinalização do Cálcio , Eletrofisiologia , Immunoblotting , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
19.
Circ Res ; 93(4): 364-71, 2003 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12869393

RESUMO

In a genetically engineered mouse line with disruption of type 5 adenylyl cyclase (AC5-/-), a major cardiac isoform, there was no compensatory increase in other isoforms of AC in the heart. Both basal and isoproterenol (ISO)-stimulated AC activities were decreased by 30% to 40% in cardiac membranes. The reduced AC activity did not affect cardiac function (left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]) at baseline. However, increases in LVEF after ISO were significantly attenuated in AC5-/- (P<0.05, n=11). Paradoxically, conscious AC5-/- mice had a higher heart rate compared with wild-type (WT) mice (613+/-8 versus 523+/-11 bpm, P<0.01, n=14 to 15). Muscarinic agonists decreased AC activity, LVEF, and heart rate more in WT than in AC5-/-. In addition, baroreflex-mediated, ie, neuronally regulated, bradycardia after phenylephrine was also attenuated in AC5-/-. The carbachol-activated outward potassium current (at -40 mV) normalized to cell capacitance in AC5-/- (2.6+/-0.4 pA/pF, n=16) was similar to WT (2.9+/-0.3 pA/pF, n=27), but calcium (Ca2+)-mediated inhibition of AC activity and Ca2+ channel function were diminished in AC5-/-. Thus, AC5-/- attenuates sympathetic responsiveness and also impairs parasympathetic and Ca2+-mediated regulation of the heart, indicating that those actions are not only regulated at the level of the receptor and G-protein but also at the level of type 5 AC.


Assuntos
Adenilil Ciclases/genética , Cálcio/farmacologia , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Miocárdio/enzimologia , Sistema Nervoso Parassimpático/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiologia , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Adenilil Ciclases/metabolismo , Animais , Atropina/farmacologia , Ligação Competitiva , Western Blotting , Cálcio/metabolismo , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Canais de Cálcio/fisiologia , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Genótipo , Coração/inervação , Coração/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Isoproterenol/farmacologia , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Camundongos Knockout , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/farmacologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio/fisiologia , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/metabolismo , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Verapamil/farmacologia
20.
J Clin Invest ; 111(10): 1463-74, 2003 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12750396

RESUMO

Activation of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (Mst1) by genotoxic compounds is known to stimulate apoptosis in some cell types. The importance of Mst1 in cell death caused by clinically relevant pathologic stimuli is unknown, however. In this study, we show that Mst1 is a prominent myelin basic protein kinase activated by proapoptotic stimuli in cardiac myocytes and that Mst1 causes cardiac myocyte apoptosis in vitro in a kinase activity-dependent manner. In vivo, cardiac-specific overexpression of Mst1 in transgenic mice results in activation of caspases, increased apoptosis, and dilated cardiomyopathy. Surprisingly, however, Mst1 prevents compensatory cardiac myocyte elongation or hypertrophy despite increased wall stress, thereby obscuring the use of the Frank-Starling mechanism, a fundamental mechanism by which the heart maintains cardiac output in response to increased mechanical load at the single myocyte level. Furthermore, Mst1 is activated by ischemia/reperfusion in the mouse heart in vivo. Suppression of endogenous Mst1 by cardiac-specific overexpression of dominant-negative Mst1 in transgenic mice prevents myocyte death by pathologic insults. These results show that Mst1 works as both an essential initiator of apoptosis and an inhibitor of hypertrophy in cardiac myocytes, resulting in a previously unrecognized form of cardiomyopathy.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Cardiomegalia/etiologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/etiologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Alcaloides , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzofenantridinas , Cardiomegalia/patologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/patologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/fisiopatologia , Caspase 3 , Caspases/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Genes Dominantes , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Isquemia Miocárdica/genética , Isquemia Miocárdica/metabolismo , Isquemia Miocárdica/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/genética , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/patologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Oxazóis/farmacologia , Fenantridinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução Genética
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