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1.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(537)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238576

RESUMO

We developed a tissue-engineered vascular graft (TEVG) for use in children and present results of a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved clinical trial evaluating this graft in patients with single-ventricle cardiac anomalies. The TEVG was used as a Fontan conduit to connect the inferior vena cava and pulmonary artery, but a high incidence of graft narrowing manifested within the first 6 months, which was treated successfully with angioplasty. To elucidate mechanisms underlying this early stenosis, we used a data-informed, computational model to perform in silico parametric studies of TEVG development. The simulations predicted early stenosis as observed in our clinical trial but suggested further that such narrowing could reverse spontaneously through an inflammation-driven, mechano-mediated mechanism. We tested this unexpected, model-generated hypothesis by implanting TEVGs in an ovine inferior vena cava interposition graft model, which confirmed the prediction that TEVG stenosis resolved spontaneously and was typically well tolerated. These findings have important implications for our translational research because they suggest that angioplasty may be safely avoided in patients with asymptomatic early stenosis, although there will remain a need for appropriate medical monitoring. The simulations further predicted that the degree of reversible narrowing can be mitigated by altering the scaffold design to attenuate early inflammation and increase mechano-sensing by the synthetic cells, thus suggesting a new paradigm for optimizing next-generation TEVGs. We submit that there is considerable translational advantage to combined computational-experimental studies when designing cutting-edge technologies and their clinical management.

2.
Crit Care Med ; 48(6): 881-889, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301844

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare survival outcomes and intra-arrest arterial blood pressures between children receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation for bradycardia and poor perfusion and those with pulseless cardiac arrests. DESIGN: Prospective, multicenter observational study. SETTING: PICUs and cardiac ICUs of the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network. PATIENTS: Children (< 19 yr old) who received greater than or equal to 1 minute of cardiopulmonary resuscitation with invasive arterial blood pressure monitoring in place. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of 164 patients, 96 (59%) had bradycardia and poor perfusion as the initial cardiopulmonary resuscitation rhythm. Compared to those with initial pulseless rhythms, these children were younger (0.4 vs 1.4 yr; p = 0.005) and more likely to have a respiratory etiology of arrest (p < 0.001). Children with bradycardia and poor perfusion were more likely to survive to hospital discharge (adjusted odds ratio, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.10-4.83; p = 0.025) and survive with favorable neurologic outcome (adjusted odds ratio, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.04-4.67; p = 0.036). There were no differences in diastolic or systolic blood pressures or event survival (return of spontaneous circulation or return of circulation via extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation). Among patients with bradycardia and poor perfusion, 49 of 96 (51%) had subsequent pulselessness during the cardiopulmonary resuscitation event. During cardiopulmonary resuscitation, these patients had lower diastolic blood pressure (point estimate, -6.68 mm Hg [-10.92 to -2.44 mm Hg]; p = 0.003) and systolic blood pressure (point estimate, -12.36 mm Hg [-23.52 to -1.21 mm Hg]; p = 0.032) and lower rates of return of spontaneous circulation (26/49 vs 42/47; p < 0.001) than those who were never pulseless. CONCLUSIONS: Most children receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation in ICUs had an initial rhythm of bradycardia and poor perfusion. They were more likely to survive to hospital discharge and survive with favorable neurologic outcomes than patients with pulseless arrests, although there were no differences in immediate event outcomes or intra-arrest hemodynamics. Patients who progressed to pulselessness after cardiopulmonary resuscitation initiation had lower intra-arrest hemodynamics and worse event outcomes than those who were never pulseless.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195895

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterize contemporary use of inhaled nitric oxide in pediatric acute respiratory failure and to assess relationships between clinical variables and outcomes. We sought to study the relationship of inhaled nitric oxide response to patient characteristics including right ventricular dysfunction and clinician responsiveness to improved oxygenation. We hypothesize that prompt clinician responsiveness to minimize hyperoxia would be associated with improved outcomes. DESIGN: An observational cohort study. SETTING: Eight sites of the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network. PATIENTS: One hundred fifty-one patients who received inhaled nitric oxide for a primary respiratory indication. MEASUREMENTS: Clinical data were abstracted from the medical record beginning at inhaled nitric oxide initiation and continuing until the earliest of 28 days, ICU discharge, or death. Ventilator-free days, oxygenation index, and Functional Status Scale were calculated. Echocardiographic reports were abstracted assessing for pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular dysfunction, and other cardiovascular parameters. Clinician responsiveness to improved oxygenation was determined. MAIN RESULTS: One hundred thirty patients (86%) who received inhaled nitric oxide had improved oxygenation by 24 hours. PICU mortality was 29.8%, while a new morbidity was identified in 19.8% of survivors. Among patients who had echocardiograms, 27.9% had evidence of pulmonary hypertension, 23.1% had right ventricular systolic dysfunction, and 22.1% had an atrial communication. Moderate or severe right ventricular dysfunction was associated with higher mortality. Clinicians responded to an improvement in oxygenation by decreasing FIO2 to less than 0.6 within 24 hours in 71% of patients. Timely clinician responsiveness to improved oxygenation with inhaled nitric oxide was associated with more ventilator-free days but not less cardiac arrests, mortality, or additional morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Clinician responsiveness to improved oxygenation was associated with less ventilator days. Algorithms to standardize ventilator management may improve signal to noise ratios in future trials enabling better assessment of the effect of inhaled nitric oxide on patient outcomes. Additionally, confining studies to more selective patient populations such as those with right ventricular dysfunction may be required.

4.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 52, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS is responsible for the deaths of one million people every year. Although mathematical modeling has provided many insights into the dynamics of HIV infection, there is still a lack of accessible tools for researchers unfamiliar with modeling techniques to apply them to their own clinical data. RESULTS: Here we present ushr, a free and open-source R package that models the decline of HIV during antiretroviral treatment (ART) using a popular mathematical framework. ushr can be applied to longitudinal data of viral load measurements, and provides processing tools to prepare it for computational analysis. By mathematically fitting the data, important biological parameters can then be estimated, including the lifespans of short and long-lived infected cells, and the time to reach viral suppression below a defined detection threshold. The package also provides visualization and summary tools for fast assessment of model results. CONCLUSIONS: ushr enables researchers without a strong mathematical or computational background to model the dynamics of HIV using longitudinal clinical data. Increasing accessibility to such methods may facilitate quantitative analysis across a broader range of independent studies, so that greater insights on HIV infection and treatment dynamics may be gained.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Software , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Carga Viral
5.
Resuscitation ; 149: 127-133, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088254

RESUMO

AIM: The mathematical method used to calculate chest compression (CC) rate during cardiopulmonary resuscitation varies in the literature and across device manufacturers. The objective of this study was to determine the variability in calculated CC rates by applying four published methods to the same dataset. METHODS: This study was a secondary investigation of the first 200 pediatric cardiac arrest events with invasive arterial line waveform data in the ICU-RESUScitation Project (NCT02837497). Instantaneous CC rates were calculated during periods of uninterrupted CCs. The defined minimum interruption length affects rate calculation (e.g., if an interruption is defined as a break in CCs ≥ 2 s, the lowest possible calculated rate is 30 CCs/min). Average rates were calculated by four methods: 1) rate with an interruption defined as ≥ 1 s; 2) interruption ≥ 2 s; 3) interruption ≥ 3 s; 4) method #3 excluding top and bottom quartiles of calculated rates. American Heart Association Guideline-compliant rate was defined as 100-120 CCs/min. A clinically important change was defined as ±5 CCs/min. The percentage of events and epochs (30 s periods) that changed Guideline-compliant status was calculated. RESULTS: Across calculation methods, mean CC rates (118.7-119.5/min) were similar. Comparing all methods, 14 events (7%) and 114 epochs (6%) changed Guideline-compliant status. CONCLUSION: Using four published methods for calculating CC rate, average rates were similar, but 7% of events changed Guideline-compliant status. These data suggest that a uniform calculation method (interruption ≥ 1 s) should be adopted to decrease variability in resuscitation science.

6.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 83(5): 522-529, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interventions aiming for an HIV cure would benefit from rapid elimination of virus after the onset of antiretroviral therapy (ART), by keeping the latent HIV reservoir small. SETTING: We investigated HIV suppression in 312 perinatally infected infants starting ART within 6 months after birth from the EPPICC (European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration). METHODS: To better understand kinetic differences in HIV suppression among infants, we investigated their individual viral load (VL) decay dynamics. We identified VL decay patterns and determined times to viral suppression (TTS). For infants with strictly declining VLs (n = 188), we used parameter fitting methods to estimate baseline VLs, decay rates, and TTS. We subsequently identified the parameters determining TTS by linear modeling. RESULTS: The majority of infants suppress HIV VL after the onset of ART. Some children experienced a long TTS due to an "erratic" VL decay pattern. We cannot exclude that this is partly due to treatment complications and subsequent treatment changes, but these children were characterized by significantly lower CD4 percentages (CD4%) at start of treatment compared with those with a "clean" VL decline. Focusing on this "clean" subset, the TTS could be predicted by mathematical modeling, and we identified baseline VL and CD4% as the major factors determining the TTS. CONCLUSIONS: As VL steeply increases and CD4% constantly decreases in untreated HIV-infected infants, the progression of an HIV infection is largely determined by these 2 factors. To prevent a further disease progression, treatment should be initiated early after contracting HIV, which consequently shortens TTS.

7.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(D1): D682-D688, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691826

RESUMO

The Ensembl (https://www.ensembl.org) is a system for generating and distributing genome annotation such as genes, variation, regulation and comparative genomics across the vertebrate subphylum and key model organisms. The Ensembl annotation pipeline is capable of integrating experimental and reference data from multiple providers into a single integrated resource. Here, we present 94 newly annotated and re-annotated genomes, bringing the total number of genomes offered by Ensembl to 227. This represents the single largest expansion of the resource since its inception. We also detail our continued efforts to improve human annotation, developments in our epigenome analysis and display, a new tool for imputing causal genes from genome-wide association studies and visualisation of variation within a 3D protein model. Finally, we present information on our new website. Both software and data are made available without restriction via our website, online tools platform and programmatic interfaces (available under an Apache 2.0 license) and data updates made available four times a year.

8.
Hosp Pediatr ; 10(1): 61-69, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Chart reviews are frequently used for research, care assessments, and quality improvement activities despite an absence of data on reliability and validity. We aim to describe a structured chart review methodology and to establish its validity and reliability. METHODS: A generalizable structured chart review methodology was designed to evaluate causes of morbidity or mortality and to identify potential therapeutic advances. The review process consisted of a 2-tiered approach with a primary review completed by a site physician and a short secondary review completed by a central physician. A total of 327 randomly selected cases of known mortality or new morbidities were reviewed. Validity was assessed by using postreview surveys with a Likert scale. Reliability was assessed by percent agreement and interrater reliability. RESULTS: The primary reviewers agreed or strongly agreed in 94.9% of reviews that the information to form a conclusion about pathophysiological processes and therapeutic advances could be adequately found. They agreed or strongly agreed in 93.2% of the reviews that conclusions were easy to make, and confidence in the process was 94.2%. Secondary reviewers made modifications to 36.6% of cases. Duplicate reviews (n = 41) revealed excellent percent agreement for the causes (80.5%-100%) and therapeutic advances (68.3%-100%). κ statistics were strong for the pathophysiological categories but weaker for the therapeutic categories. CONCLUSIONS: A structured chart review by knowledgeable primary reviewers, followed by a brief secondary review, can be valid and reliable.

9.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 2477, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787936

RESUMO

Accurate and comprehensive annotation of genomic sequences underpins advances in managing plant disease. However, important plant pathogens still have incomplete and inconsistent gene sets and lack dedicated funding or teams to improve this annotation. This paper describes a collaborative approach to gene curation to address this shortcoming. In the first instance, over 40 members of the Botrytis cinerea community from eight countries, with training and infrastructural support from Ensembl Fungi, used the gene editing tool Apollo to systematically review the entire gene set (11,707 protein coding genes) in 6-7 months. This has subsequently been checked and disseminated. Following this, a similar project for another pathogen, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, also led to a completely redefined gene set. Currently, we are working with the Zymoseptoria tritici community to enable them to achieve the same. While the tangible outcome of these projects is improved gene sets, it is apparent that the inherent agreement and ownership of a single gene set by research teams as they undergo this curation process are consequential to the acceleration of research in the field. With the generation of large data sets increasingly affordable, there is value in unifying both the divergent data sets and their associated research teams, pooling time, expertise, and resources. Community-driven annotation efforts can pave the way for a new kind of collaboration among pathogen research communities to generate well-annotated reference data sets, beneficial not just for the genome being examined but for related species and the refinement of automatic gene prediction tools.

10.
Elife ; 82019 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742553

RESUMO

Laboratory mice develop populations of circulating memory CD4+ T cells in the absence of overt infection. We have previously shown that these populations are replenished from naive precursors at high levels throughout life (Gossel et al., 2017). However, the nature, relative importance and timing of the forces generating these cells remain unclear. Here, we tracked the generation of memory CD4+ T cell subsets in mice housed in facilities differing in their 'dirtiness'. We found evidence for sequential naive to central memory to effector memory development, and confirmed that both memory subsets are heterogeneous in their rates of turnover. We also inferred that early exposure to self and environmental antigens establishes persistent memory populations at levels determined largely, although not exclusively, by the dirtiness of the environment. After the first few weeks of life, however, these populations are continuously supplemented by new memory cells at rates that are independent of environment.

11.
J Immunol ; 203(10): 2561-2569, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685700

RESUMO

In recent years, tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM) have emerged as essential components of immunological memory. Following antigenic challenge, TRM remain in nonlymphoid tissues and defend against re-exposure. Although accumulating evidence suggests important roles for TRM in mediating protective immunity, fundamental aspects of the population biology of TRM remain poorly understood. In this article, we discuss how results from different systems shed light on the ecological dynamics of TRM in mice and humans. We highlight the importance of dissecting processes contributing to TRM maintenance, and how these might vary across phenotypically and spatially heterogeneous subsets. We also discuss how the diversity of TRM communities within specific tissues may evolve under competition and in response to antigenic perturbation. Throughout, we illustrate how mathematical models can clarify inferences obtained from experimental data and help elucidate the homeostatic mechanisms underpinning the ecology of TRM populations.

12.
PLoS Biol ; 17(10): e3000383, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661488

RESUMO

Thymic involution and proliferation of naive T cells both contribute to shaping the naive T-cell repertoire as humans age, but a clear understanding of the roles of each throughout a human life span has been difficult to determine. By measuring nuclear bomb test-derived 14C in genomic DNA, we determined the turnover rates of CD4+ and CD8+ naive T-cell populations and defined their dynamics in healthy individuals ranging from 20 to 65 years of age. We demonstrate that naive T-cell generation decreases with age because of a combination of declining peripheral division and thymic production during adulthood. Concomitant decline in T-cell loss compensates for decreased generation rates. We investigated putative mechanisms underlying age-related changes in homeostatic regulation of CD4+ naive T-cell turnover, using mass cytometry to profile candidate signaling pathways involved in T-cell activation and proliferation relative to CD31 expression, a marker of thymic proximity for the CD4+ naive T-cell population. We show that basal nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) phosphorylation positively correlated with CD31 expression and thus is decreased in peripherally expanded naive T-cell clones. Functionally, we found that NF-κB signaling was essential for naive T-cell proliferation to the homeostatic growth factor interleukin (IL)-7, and reduced NF-κB phosphorylation in CD4+CD31- naive T cells is linked to reduced homeostatic proliferation potential. Our results reveal an age-related decline in naive T-cell turnover as a putative regulator of naive T-cell diversity and identify a molecular pathway that restricts proliferation of peripherally expanded naive T-cell clones that accumulate with age.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linhagem da Célula/imunologia , Homeostase/imunologia , Timo/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento/genética , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Homeostase/genética , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Interleucina-7/genética , Interleucina-7/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Fosforilação , Molécula-1 de Adesão Celular Endotelial a Plaquetas/genética , Molécula-1 de Adesão Celular Endotelial a Plaquetas/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Timo/citologia , Timo/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Crit Care Med ; 47(11): 1627-1636, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369424

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to associate ventilation rates during in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation with 1) arterial blood pressure during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and 2) survival outcomes. DESIGN: Prospective, multicenter observational study. SETTING: Pediatric and pediatric cardiac ICUs of the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network. PATIENTS: Intubated children (≥ 37 wk gestation and < 19 yr old) who received at least 1 minute of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Arterial blood pressure and ventilation rate (breaths/min) were manually extracted from arterial line and capnogram waveforms. Guideline rate was defined as 10 ± 2 breaths/min; high ventilation rate as greater than or equal to 30 breaths/min in children less than 1 year old, and greater than or equal to 25 breaths/min in older children. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. Regression models using Firth penalized likelihood assessed the association between ventilation rates and outcomes. Ventilation rates were available for 52 events (47 patients). More than half of patients (30/47; 64%) were less than 1 year old. Eighteen patients (38%) survived to discharge. Median event-level average ventilation rate was 29.8 breaths/min (interquartile range, 23.8-35.7). No event-level average ventilation rate was within guidelines; 30 events (58%) had high ventilation rates. The only significant association between ventilation rate and arterial blood pressure occurred in children 1 year old or older and was present for systolic blood pressure only (-17.8 mm Hg/10 breaths/min; 95% CI, -27.6 to -8.1; p < 0.01). High ventilation rates were associated with a higher odds of survival to discharge (odds ratio, 4.73; p = 0.029). This association was stable after individually controlling for location (adjusted odds ratio, 5.97; p = 0.022), initial rhythm (adjusted odds ratio, 3.87; p = 0.066), and time of day (adjusted odds ratio, 4.12; p = 0.049). CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter cohort, ventilation rates exceeding guidelines were common. Among the range of rates delivered, higher rates were associated with improved survival to hospital discharge.

14.
Resuscitation ; 143: 57-65, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404636

RESUMO

AIM: Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is associated with survival following pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrest. The relationship between intra-arrest haemodynamics and neurological status among survivors of pediatric cardiac arrest is unknown. METHODS: This study represents analysis of data from the prospective multicenter Pediatric Intensive Care Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (PICqCPR) Study. Primary predictor variables were median DBP and median systolic blood pressure (SBP) over the first 10min of CPR. The primary outcome measure was "new substantive morbidity" determined by Functional Status Scale (FSS) and defined as an increase in the FSS of at least 3 points or increase of 2 in a single FSS domain. Univariable analyses were completed to investigate the relationship between new substantive morbidity and BPs during CPR. RESULTS: 244 index CPR events occurred during the study period, 77 (32%) CPR events met all inclusion criteria as well as having both DBP and FSS data available. Among 77 survivors, 32 (42%) had new substantive morbidity as measured by the FSS score. No significant differences were identified in DBP (median 30.5mmHg vs. 30.9mmHg, p=0.5) or SBP (median 76.3mmHg vs. 63.0mmHg, p=0.2) between patients with and without new substantive morbidity. Children who developed new substantive morbidity were more likely to have lower pre-arrest FSS than those that did not (median [IQR]: 7.5 [6.0-9.0] versus 9.0 [7.0-13.0], p=0.01). CONCLUSION: New substantive morbidity determined by FSS after a pediatric IHCA was associated with baseline functional status, but not DBP during CPR.

15.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 20(12): 1126-1136, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453988

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the association of diastolic blood pressure cutoffs (≥ 25 mm Hg in infants and ≥ 30 mm Hg in children) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation with return of spontaneous circulation and survival in surgical cardiac versus medical cardiac patients. Secondarily, we assessed whether these diastolic blood pressure targets were feasible to achieve and associated with outcome in physiology unique to congenital heart disease (single ventricle infants, open chest), and influenced outcomes when extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation was deployed. DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective, observational cohort analysis. SETTING: Tertiary PICU and cardiac ICUs within the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network. PATIENTS: Patients with invasive arterial catheters during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and surgical cardiac or medical cardiac illness category. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Hemodynamic waveforms during cardiopulmonary resuscitation were analyzed on 113 patients, 88 surgical cardiac and 25 medical cardiac. A similar percent of surgical cardiac (51/88; 58%) and medical cardiac (17/25; 68%) patients reached the diastolic blood pressure targets (p = 0.488). Achievement of diastolic blood pressure target was associated with improved survival to hospital discharge in surgical cardiac patients (p = 0.018), but not medical cardiac patients (p = 0.359). Fifty-three percent (16/30) of patients with single ventricles attained the target diastolic blood pressure. In patients with an open chest at the start of chest compressions, 11 of 20 (55%) attained the target diastolic blood pressure. In the 33 extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation patients, 16 patients (48%) met the diastolic blood pressure target with no difference between survivors and nonsurvivors (p = 0.296). CONCLUSIONS: During resuscitation in an ICU, with invasive monitoring in place, diastolic blood pressure targets of greater than or equal to 25 mm Hg in infants and greater than or equal to 30 mm Hg in children can be achieved in patients with both surgical and medical heart disease. Achievement of diastolic blood pressure target was associated with improved survival to hospital discharge in surgical cardiac patients, but not medical cardiac patients. Diastolic blood pressure targets were feasible to achieve in 1) single ventricle patients, 2) open chest physiology, and 3) extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation patients.

16.
Sci Immunol ; 4(38)2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444235

RESUMO

A dense population of embryo-derived Langerhans cells (eLCs) is maintained within the sealed epidermis without contribution from circulating cells. When this network is perturbed by transient exposure to ultraviolet light, short-term LCs are temporarily reconstituted from an initial wave of monocytes but thought to be superseded by more permanent repopulation with undefined LC precursors. However, the extent to which this process is relevant to immunopathological processes that damage LC population integrity is not known. Using a model of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, where alloreactive T cells directly target eLCs, we have asked whether and how the original LC network is ultimately restored. We find that donor monocytes, but not dendritic cells, are the precursors of long-term LCs in this context. Destruction of eLCs leads to recruitment of a wave of monocytes that engraft in the epidermis and undergo a sequential pathway of differentiation via transcriptionally distinct EpCAM+ precursors. Monocyte-derived LCs acquire the capacity of self-renewal, and proliferation in the epidermis matched that of steady-state eLCs. However, we identified a bottleneck in the differentiation and survival of epidermal monocytes, which, together with the slow rate of renewal of mature LCs, limits repair of the network. Furthermore, replenishment of the LC network leads to constitutive entry of cells into the epidermal compartment. Thus, immune injury triggers functional adaptation of mechanisms used to maintain tissue-resident macrophages at other sites, but this process is highly inefficient in the skin.

17.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1910: 747-766, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278684

RESUMO

Open-source software encourages computer programmers to reuse software components written by others. In evolutionary bioinformatics, open-source software comes in a broad range of programming languages, including C/C++, Perl, Python, Ruby, Java, and R. To avoid writing the same functionality multiple times for different languages, it is possible to share components by bridging computer languages and Bio* projects, such as BioPerl, Biopython, BioRuby, BioJava, and R/Bioconductor.In this chapter, we compare the three principal approaches for sharing software between different programming languages: by remote procedure call (RPC), by sharing a local "call stack," and by calling program to programs. RPC provides a language-independent protocol over a network interface; examples are SOAP and Rserve. The local call stack provides a between-language mapping, not over the network interface but directly in computer memory; examples are R bindings, RPy, and languages sharing the Java virtual machine stack. This functionality provides strategies for sharing of software between Bio* projects, which can be exploited more often.Here, we present cross-language examples for sequence translation and measure throughput of the different options. We compare calling into R through native R, RSOAP, Rserve, and RPy interfaces, with the performance of native BioPerl, Biopython, BioJava, and BioRuby implementations and with call stack bindings to BioJava and the European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite (EMBOSS).In general, call stack approaches outperform native Bio* implementations, and these, in turn, outperform "RPC"-based approaches. To test and compare strategies, we provide a downloadable Docker container with all examples, tools, and libraries included.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Linguagens de Programação , Software , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Interface Usuário-Computador , Navegador
18.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 3(3): 372-382, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294324

RESUMO

Abstract: Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a complication in children with chronic pediatric heart disease (CPHD). The influence of acute VTE risk factors and the health care burden associated with VTE in CPHD is unknown.Methods: Children <18 years of age with a CPHD diagnostic code were identified from the 2003-2013 MarketScan Commercial Databases. VTE diagnoses were identified either concomitantly with initial CPHD diagnoses or during a 6-month follow-up. The associations between demographic and clinical characteristics and VTE among children with CPHD, stratified by recent cardiac surgery, were assessed by multivariable logistic regression models. Estimates of health care utilization were compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests.Results: VTE events occurred in 957 of 120 884 children with CPHD (0.8%). In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in children with VTE. Single-ventricle physiology had the highest VTE rate (2.3%). All comorbid conditions were significantly associated with VTE, but the prevalence was highest in children with recent cardiac (11.1%) or noncardiac surgery (7.8%). The magnitude of association between noncardiac comorbidities and acquired acute cardiovascular conditions and VTE were larger for children without a recent cardiac surgery. Children with VTE had significantly higher health care utilization.Conclusions: VTE in CPHD is associated with significantly increased health care resource utilization and in-hospital mortality. All of the comorbid conditions examined were significantly associated with VTE, but a recent surgical procedure, especially cardiac surgery, conferred the highest VTE risk. Although confounding inherently limits observational studies, these findings provide practical information about the health care costs among patients with CPHD and VTE.

19.
Resuscitation ; 141: 88-95, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176666

RESUMO

AIM: In-hospital cardiac arrest occurs in >5000 children each year in the US and almost half will not survive to discharge. Animal data demonstrate that an immediate post-resuscitation burst of hypertension is associated with improved survival. We aimed to determine if systolic and diastolic invasive arterial blood pressures immediately (0-20 min) after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) are associated with survival and neurologic outcomes at hospital discharge. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of the Pediatric Intensive Care Quality of CPR (PICqCPR) study of invasively measured blood pressures during intensive care unit CPR. Patients were eligible if they achieved ROSC and had at least one invasively measured blood pressure within the first 20 min following ROSC. Post-ROSC blood pressures were normalized for age, sex and height. "Immediate hypertension" was defined as at least one systolic or diastolic blood pressure >90th percentile. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. RESULTS: Of 102 children, 70 (68.6%) had at least one episode of immediate post-CPR diastolic hypertension. After controlling for pre-existing hypotension, duration of CPR, calcium administration, and first documented rhythm, patients with immediate post-CPR diastolic hypertension were more likely to survive to hospital discharge (79.3% vs. 54.5%; adjusted OR = 2.93; 95%CI, 1.16-7.69). CONCLUSIONS: In this post hoc secondary analysis of the PICqCPR study, 68.6% of subjects had diastolic hypertension within 20 min of ROSC. Immediate post-ROSC hypertension was associated with increased odds of survival to discharge, even after adjusting for covariates of interest.

20.
Front Immunol ; 10: 598, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31024523

RESUMO

Initiation of adaptive immunity involves distinct migratory cell populations coming together in a highly dynamic and spatially organized process. However, we lack a detailed spatiotemporal map of these events due to our inability to track the fate of cells between anatomically distinct locations or functionally identify cell populations as migratory. We used photo-convertible transgenic mice (Kaede) to spatiotemporally track the fate and composition of the cell populations that leave the site of priming and enter the draining lymph node to initiate immunity. We show that following skin priming, the lymph node migratory population is principally composed of cells recruited to the site of priming, with a minor contribution from tissue resident cells. In combination with the YAe/Eα system, we also show that the majority of cells presenting antigen are CD103+CD11b+ dendritic cells that were recruited to the site of priming during the inflammatory response. This population has previously only been described in relation to mucosal tissues. Comprehensive phenotypic profiling of the cells migrating from the skin to the draining lymph node by mass cytometry revealed that in addition to dendritic cells, the migratory population also included CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells, and neutrophils. Taking our complex spatiotemporal data set, we then generated a model of cell migration that quantifies and describes the dynamics of arrival, departure, and residence times of cells at the site of priming and in the draining lymph node throughout the time-course of the initiation of adaptive immunity. In addition, we have identified the mean migration time of migratory dendritic cells as they travel from the site of priming to the draining lymph node. These findings represent an unprecedented, detailed and quantitative map of cell dynamics and phenotypes during immunization, identifying where, when and which cells to target for immunomodulation in autoimmunity and vaccination strategies.

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