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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(17): 10012-10021, 2017 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28727429

RESUMO

In this study, we explore observational, experimental, methodological, and practical aspects of the flux quantification of greenhouse gases from local point sources by using in situ airborne observations, and suggest a series of conceptual changes to improve flux estimates. We address the major sources of uncertainty reported in previous studies by modifying (1) the shape of the typical flight path, (2) the modeling of covariance and anisotropy, and (3) the type of interpolation tools used. We show that a cylindrical flight profile offers considerable advantages compared to traditional profiles collected as curtains, although this new approach brings with it the need for a more comprehensive subsequent analysis. The proposed flight pattern design does not require prior knowledge of wind direction and allows for the derivation of an ad hoc empirical correction factor to partially alleviate errors resulting from interpolation and measurement inaccuracies. The modified approach is applied to a use-case for quantifying CH4 emission from an oil field south of San Ardo, CA, and compared to a bottom-up CH4 emission estimate.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Gases , Efeito Estufa , Metano , Vento
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 530-531: 493-504, 2015 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25845306

RESUMO

The current United States (US) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for O3 (75 ppb) is expected to be revised to between 60 and 70 ppb. As the NAAQS becomes more stringent, characterizing the extent of O3 and precursors transported into the US is increasingly important. Given the high elevation, complex terrain, and location in the Intermountain West, the State of Nevada is ideally situated to intercept air transported into the US. Until recently, measurements of O3 and associated pollutants were limited to areas in and around the cities of Las Vegas and Reno. In 2011, the Nevada Rural Ozone Initiative began and through this project 13 surface monitoring sites were established. Also in 2011, the NASA Ames Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) began making routine aircraft measurements of O3 and other greenhouse gases in Nevada. The availability of aircraft and surface measurements in a relatively rural, remote setting in the Intermountain West presented a unique opportunity to investigate sources contributing to the O3 observed in Nevada. Our analyses indicate that stratosphere to troposphere transport, long-range transport of Asian pollution, and regional emissions from urban areas and wildfires influence surface observations. The complexity of sources identified here along with the fact that O3 frequently approaches the threshold being considered for a revised NAAQS indicate that interstate and international cooperation will be necessary to achieve compliance with a more stringent regulatory standard. Further, on a seasonal basis we found no significant difference between daily 1-h maximum O3 at surface sites, which ranged in elevation from 888 to 2307 m, and aircraft measurements of O3 <2500 m which suggests that similar processes influence daytime O3 across rural Nevada and indicates that column measurements from Railroad Valley, NV are useful in understanding these processes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ozônio/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Atmosfera/química , Modelos Químicos , Nevada
3.
J Phys Chem A ; 116(24): 5830-9, 2012 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22050372

RESUMO

Dilute mixtures of n-butanal, 3-methylbutanal, and 3,3-dimethylbutanal in synthetic air, different N(2)/O(2) mixtures, and pure nitrogen (up to 100 ppm) were photolyzed with fluorescent UV lamps (275-380 nm) at 298 K. The main photooxidation products were ethene (n-butanal), propene (3-methylbutanal) or i-butene (3,3-dimethylbutanal), CO, vinylalcohol, and ethanal. The photolysis rates and the absolute quantum yields were found to be dependent on the total pressure of synthetic air but not of nitrogen. At 100 Torr, the total quantum yield Φ(100) = 0.45 ± 0.01 and 0.49 ± 0.07, whereas at 700 Torr, Φ(700) = 0.31 ± 0.01 and 0.36 ± 0.03 for 3-methylbutanal and 3,3-dimethybutanal, respectively. Quantum yield values for n-butanal were reported earlier by Tadic et al. (J. Photochem. Photobiol. A2001143, 169-179) to be Φ(100) = 0.48 ± 0.02 and Φ(700) = 0.32 ± 0.01. Two decomposition channels were identified: the radical channel RCHO → R + HCO (Norrish type I) and the molecular channel CH(3)CH(CH(3))CH(2)CHO → CH(2)CHCH(3) + CH(2)═CHOH or CH(3)C(CH(3))(2)CH(2)CHO → CHC(CH(3))CH(3) + CH(2)═CHOH, (Norrish type II) having the absolute quantum yields of 0.123 and 0.119 for 3-methybutanal and 0.071 and 0.199 for 3,3-dimethylbutanal at 700 Torr of synthetic air. The product ethenol CH(2)═CHOH tautomerizes to ethanal. We have performed ab initio and density functional quantum (DFT) chemical computations of both type I and type II processes starting from the singlet and triplet excited states. We conclude that the Norrish type I dissociation produces radicals from both singlet and triplet excited states, while Norrish type II dissociation is a two-step process starting from the triplet excited state, but is a concerted process from the singlet state.

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