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1.
Mol Cell Biol ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685550

RESUMO

SMYD lysine methyltransferases target histones and non-histone proteins for methylation and are critical regulators of muscle development and implicated in neoplastic transformation. They are characterized by a split catalytic SET domain and an intervening MYND zinc finger domain, as well as an extended C-terminal domain. Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two SMYD proteins, Set5 and Set6, which share structural elements with the mammalian SMYD enzymes. Set5 is a histone H4 lysine 5, 8, and 12 methyltransferase, implicated in the regulation of stress responses and genome stability. While the SMYD proteins have diverse roles in cells, there are many gaps in our understanding of how these enzymes are regulated. Here, we performed mutational analysis of Set5, combined with phosphoproteomics, to identify regulatory mechanisms for its enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. Our results indicate that the MYND domain promotes Set5 chromatin association in cells and is required for its role in repressing subtelomeric genes. Phosphoproteomics revealed extensive phosphorylation of Set5 and phosphomimetic mutations enhance Set5 catalytic activity but diminish its ability to interact with chromatin in cells. These studies uncover multiple regions within Set5 that regulate its localization and activity and highlight potential avenues for understanding mechanisms controlling the diverse roles of SMYD enzymes.

2.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 308, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740662

RESUMO

Transcriptomics and candidate gene/protein expression studies have indicated several biological processes modulated by methylphenidate (MPH), widely used in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment. However, the lack of a differential proteomic profiling of MPH treatment limits the understanding of the most relevant mechanisms by which MPH exerts its pharmacological effects at the molecular level. Therefore, our aim is to investigate the MPH-induced proteomic alterations using an experimental design integrated with a pharmacogenomic analysis in a translational perspective. Proteomic analysis was performed using the cortices of Wistar-Kyoto rats, which were treated by gavage with MPH (2 mg/kg) or saline for two weeks (n = 6/group). After functional enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed proteins (DEP) in rats, the significant biological pathways were tested for association with MPH response in adults with ADHD (n = 189) using genome-wide data. Following MPH treatment in rats, 98 DEPs were found (P < 0.05 and FC < -1.0 or > 1.0). The functional enrichment analysis of the DEPs revealed 18 significant biological pathways (gene-sets) modulated by MPH, including some with recognized biological plausibility, such as those related to synaptic transmission. The pharmacogenomic analysis in the clinical sample evaluating these pathways revealed nominal associations for gene-sets related to neurotransmitter release and GABA transmission. Our results, which integrate proteomics and pharmacogenomics, revealed putative molecular effects of MPH on several biological processes, including oxidative stress, cellular respiration, and metabolism, and extended the results involving synaptic transmission pathways to a clinical sample. These findings shed light on the molecular signatures of MPH effects and possible biological sources of treatment response variability.

3.
ACS Infect Dis ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600437

RESUMO

Cutaneous leishmaniasis, the most common form of leishmaniasis, is endemic in several regions of the world, and if not treated properly, it can cause disfiguring scars on the skin. Leishmania spp. infection causes an inflammatory response in its host, and it modulates the host metabolism differently depending on the Leishmania species. Since Leishmania spp. has begun to develop resistance against current therapies, we believe efforts to identify new possibilities for treatment are critical for future control of the disease. Proteomics approaches such as isobaric labeling yield accurate relative quantification of protein abundances and, when combined with chemometrics/statistical analysis, provide robust information about protein modulation across biological conditions. Using a mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach and tandem mass tag labeling, we have investigated protein modulation in murine macrophages (in vitro model) and skin biopsies after exposure to Leishmania spp. (in vivo murine model). Infections induced by L. amazonensis (endemic in the New World) and L. major (endemic in the Old World) were compared to an inflammation model to search for Leishmania-specific and nonspecific protein modulation in the host. After protein extracts obtained from in vitro and in vivo experiments were digested, the resulting peptides were labeled with isobaric tags and analyzed by liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS). Several proteins that were found to be changed upon infection with Leishmania spp. provide interesting candidates for further investigation into disease mechanism and development of possible immunotherapies.

4.
Methods Enzymol ; 626: 89-113, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606094

RESUMO

Protein arginylation-enzymatic addition of the amino acid arginine (Arg) to proteins, mediated by arginyltransferase ATE1, has been discovered in 1963, but is still relatively poorly understood. Studies of arginylation present many technical challenges, which arise from the fact that Arg is a regular amino acid that also incorporates into proteins during translation. Thus, in vitro arginylation needs to be conducted in a strictly ribosome-free system, in highly controlled conditions. Identification of arginylated proteins is currently only possible by high precision mass spectrometry, which relies on very high mass accuracy of the instruments, specific ionization patterns during mass fragmentation, as well as multiple stringent steps of automated and manual validation. Below we describe the methods of in vitro arginylation and mass spectrometry analysis of arginylated proteins, developed by our groups during the last 15 years.

5.
J Proteome Res ; 18(11): 3885-3895, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502459

RESUMO

Cryptococcus gattii is the causative agent of cryptococcosis infection that can lead to pneumonia and meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. The molecular basis of the pathogenic process and impact on the host biochemistry are poorly understood and remain largely unknown. In this context, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed to investigate the response of the host during an infection caused by C. gattii. Lungs of experimentally infected rats were analyzed by shotgun proteomics to identify differentially expressed proteins induced by C. gattii clinical strain. The proteomic results were characterized using bioinformatic tools, and subsequently, the molecular findings were validated in cell culture and lungs of infected animals. A dramatic change was observed in protein expression triggered by C. gattii infection, especially related to energy metabolism. The main pathways affected include aerobic glycolysis cycle, TCA cycle, and pyrimidine and purine metabolism. Analyses in human lung fibroblast cells confirmed the altered metabolic status found in infected lungs. Thus, it is clear that C. gattii infection triggers important changes in energy metabolism leading to the activation of glycolysis and lactate accumulation in lung cells, culminating in a cancerlike metabolic status known as the Warburg effect. The results presented here provide important insights to better understand C. gattii molecular pathogenesis.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13542, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537845

RESUMO

Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are crucially involved in maintaining intracellular H2O2 homeostasis via their peroxidase activity. However, more recently, this class of proteins was found to also transmit oxidizing equivalents to selected downstream proteins, which suggests an important function of Prxs in the regulation of cellular protein redox relays. Using a pull-down assay based on mixed disulfide fishing, we characterized the thiol-dependent interactome of cytosolic Prx1a and mitochondrial Prx1m from the apicomplexan malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Here, 127 cytosolic and 20 mitochondrial proteins that are components of essential cellular processes were found to interact with PfPrx1a and PfPrx1m, respectively. Notably, our data obtained with active-site mutants suggests that reducing equivalents might also be transferred from Prxs to target proteins. Initial functional analyses indicated that the interaction with Prx can strongly impact the activity of target proteins. The results provide initial insights into the interactome of Prxs at the level of a eukaryotic whole cell proteome. Furthermore, they contribute to our understanding of redox regulatory principles and thiol-dependent redox relays of Prxs in subcellular compartments.

7.
Oncogene ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501520

RESUMO

Cancer cells are known to adopt aerobic glycolysis in order to fuel tumor growth, but the molecular basis of this metabolic shift remains largely undefined. O-GlcNAcase (OGA) is an enzyme harboring O-linked ß-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) hydrolase and cryptic lysine acetyltransferase activities. Here, we report that OGA is upregulated in a wide range of human cancers and drives aerobic glycolysis and tumor growth by inhibiting pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2). PKM2 is dynamically O-GlcNAcylated in response to changes in glucose availability. Under high glucose conditions, PKM2 is a target of OGA-associated acetyltransferase activity, which facilitates O-GlcNAcylation of PKM2 by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT). O-GlcNAcylation inhibits PKM2 catalytic activity and thereby promotes aerobic glycolysis and tumor growth. These studies define a causative role for OGA in tumor progression and reveal PKM2 O-GlcNAcylation as a metabolic rheostat that mediates exquisite control of aerobic glycolysis.

8.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538337

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the interdependence between risk factors associated with long-term intellectual development in individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). METHOD: The Tuberous Sclerosis 2000 Study is a prospective longitudinal study of individuals with TSC. In phase 1 of the study, baseline measures of intellectual ability, epilepsy, cortical tuber load, and mutation were obtained for 125 children (63 females, 62 males; median age=39mo). In phase 2, at an average of 8 years later, intellectual abilities were estimated for 88 participants with TSC and 35 unaffected siblings. Structural equation modelling was used to determine the risk pathways from genetic mutation through to IQ at phase 2. RESULTS: Intellectual disability was present in 57% of individuals with TSC. Individuals without intellectual disability had significantly lower mean IQ compared to unaffected siblings, supporting specific genetic factors associated with intellectual impairment. Individuals with TSC who had a slower gain in IQ from infancy to middle childhood were younger at seizure onset and had increased infant seizure severity. Structural equation modelling indicated indirect pathways from genetic mutation, to tuber count, to seizure severity in infancy, through to IQ in middle childhood and adolescence. INTERPRETATION: Early-onset and severe epilepsy in the first 2 years of life are associated with increased risk of long-term intellectual disability in individuals with TSC, emphasizing the importance of early and effective treatment or prevention of epilepsy. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: Intellectual disability was present in 57% of individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Those with TSC without intellectual disability had significantly lower mean IQ compared to unaffected siblings. Earlier onset and greater severity of seizures in the first 2 years were observed in individuals with a slower gain in intellectual ability. Risk pathways through seizures in the first 2 years predict long-term cognitive outcomes in individuals with TSC.

9.
Cell Tissue Res ; 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444576

RESUMO

In the present study, we describe the proteome of porcine cauda epididymis fluid and spermatozoa by means of Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT). Ten sexually mature healthy boars were surgically castrated and epididymides were dissected to obtain the cauda epididymal content. Polled protein extracts of cauda epididymal fluid (CEF) and spermatozoa (CESperm) were loaded in an Agilent 1100 quaternary HPLC and peptides eluted from the microcapillary column were electro-sprayed directly into a LTQ Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer. Using bioinformatics, identified proteins were classified by their molecular functions, involvement in biological processes and participation in relevant metabolic pathways associated with spermatozoa physiology, fertility potential and protection. A total of 645 proteins were identified in the CEF, with epididymal-specific lipocalin-5, beta-hexosaminidase subunit beta precursor and phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 4 being the most abundant proteins found. A total of 2886 proteins were identified in the CESperm proteome with 81 proteins being considered more abundant (spectral counts > 100). CEF and CESperm data were compared and 345 proteins were present in both proteomes. Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 4 precursor was the only protein found most abundant in both CEF and CESperm proteomes. Based on Gene Ontology analysis, we identified CEF and CESperm proteins associated with sperm protection against ROS and immune mediated response, glycosaminoglycan degradation, ubiquitin-proteasome system, metabolic process and maturation, modulation of acrosome reaction and ZP binding and oocyte penetration. These results provide a better comprehension about the molecular process and biological pathways involved in sperm epididymis maturation and establishment of the cauda epididymis sperm reservoir.

10.
Mass Spectrom Rev ; 38(6): 445-460, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407381

RESUMO

Progress in proteomics research has led to a demand for powerful analytical tools with high separation efficiency and sensitivity for confident identification and quantification of proteins, posttranslational modifications, and protein complexes expressed in cells and tissues. This demand has significantly increased interest in capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) in the past few years. This review provides highlights of recent advances in CE-MS for proteomics research, including a short introduction to top-down mass spectrometry and native mass spectrometry (native MS), as well as a detailed overview of CE methods. Both the potential and limitations of these methods for the analysis of proteins and peptides in synthetic and biological samples and the challenges of CE methods are discussed, along with perspectives about the future direction of CE-MS. @ 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev 00:1-16, 2019.

11.
Cell Rep ; 28(7): 1935-1947.e5, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412257

RESUMO

The brain processes information and generates cognitive and motor outputs through functions of spatially organized proteins in different types of neurons. More complete knowledge of proteins and their distributions within neuronal compartments in intact circuits would help in the understanding of brain function. We used unbiased in vivo protein labeling with intravitreal NHS-biotin for discovery and analysis of endogenous axonally transported proteins in the visual system using tandem mass spectrometric proteomics, biochemistry, and both light and electron microscopy. Purification and proteomic analysis of biotinylated peptides identified ∼1,000 proteins transported from retinal ganglion cells into the optic nerve and ∼575 biotinylated proteins recovered from presynaptic compartments of lateral geniculate nucleus and superior colliculus. Approximately 360 biotinylated proteins were differentially detected in the two retinal targets. This study characterizes axonally transported proteins in the healthy adult visual system by analyzing proteomes from multiple compartments of retinal ganglion cell projections in the intact brain.

12.
J Proteome Res ; 18(10): 3703-3714, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398040

RESUMO

Recent advances in genome editing technologies have enabled the insertion of epitope tags at endogenous loci with relative efficiency. We describe an approach for investigation of protein interaction dynamics of the AMP-activated kinase complex AMPK using a catalytic subunit AMPKα2 (PRKAA2 gene) as the bait, based on CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing coupled to stable isotope labeling in cell culture, multidimensional protein identification technology, and computational and statistical analyses. Furthermore, we directly compare this genetic epitope tagging approach to endogenous immunoprecipitations of the same gene under homologous conditions to assess differences in observed interactors. Additionally, we directly compared each enrichment strategy in the genetically modified cell-line with two separate endogenous antibodies. For each approach, we analyzed the interaction profiles of this protein complex under basal and activated states, and after implementing the same analytical, computational, and statistical analyses, we found that high-confidence protein interactors vary greatly with each method and between commercially available endogenous antibodies.

13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(32): 16086-16094, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320591

RESUMO

Exosomes are thought to be released by all cells in the body and to be involved in intercellular communication. We tested whether neural exosomes can regulate the development of neural circuits. We show that exosome treatment increases proliferation in developing neural cultures and in vivo in dentate gyrus of P4 mouse brain. We compared the protein cargo and signaling bioactivity of exosomes released by hiPSC-derived neural cultures lacking MECP2, a model of the neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome, with exosomes released by isogenic rescue control neural cultures. Quantitative proteomic analysis indicates that control exosomes contain multiple functional signaling networks known to be important for neuronal circuit development. Treating MECP2-knockdown human primary neural cultures with control exosomes rescues deficits in neuronal proliferation, differentiation, synaptogenesis, and synchronized firing, whereas exosomes from MECP2-deficient hiPSC neural cultures lack this capability. These data indicate that exosomes carry signaling information required to regulate neural circuit development.

14.
J Proteome Res ; 18(8): 2999-3008, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260318

RESUMO

The characterization of complex biological systems based on high-throughput protein quantification through mass spectrometry commonly involves differential expression analysis between replicate samples originating from different experimental conditions. Here we present Proteomics INTegrator (PINT), a new user-friendly Web-based platform-independent system to store, visualize, and query proteomics experiment results. PINT provides an extremely flexible query interface that allows advanced Boolean algebra-based data filtering of many different proteomics features such as confidence values, abundance levels or ratios, data set overlaps, sample characteristics, as well as UniProtKB annotations, which are transparently incorporated into the system. In addition, PINT allows developers to incorporate data visualization and analysis tools, such as PSEA-Quant and Reactome pathway analysis, for data set enrichment analysis. PINT serves as a centralized hub for large-scale proteomics data and as a platform for data analysis, facilitating the interpretation of proteomics results and expediting biologically relevant conclusions.

15.
Exp Parasitol ; 203: 8-18, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150653

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is an important human and veterinary pathogen and the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, a potentially severe disease especially in immunocompromised or congenitally infected humans. Current therapeutic compounds are not well-tolerated, present increasing resistance, limited efficacy and require long periods of treatment. On this context, searching for new therapeutic targets is crucial to drug discovery. In this sense, recent works suggest that N-myristoyltransferase (NMT), the enzyme responsible for protein myristoylation that is essential in some parasites, could be the target of new anti-parasitic compounds. However, up to date there is no information on NMT and the extent of this modification in T. gondii. In this work, we decided to explore T. gondii genome in search of elements related with the N-myristoylation process. By a bioinformatics approach it was possible to identify a putative T. gondii NMT (TgNMT). This enzyme that is homologous to other parasitic NMTs, presents activity in vitro, is expressed in both intra- and extracellular parasites and interacts with predicted TgNMT substrates. Additionally, NMT activity seems to be important for the lytic cycle of Toxoplasma gondii. In parallel, an in silico myristoylome predicts 157 proteins to be affected by this modification. Myristoylated proteins would be affecting several metabolic functions with some of them being critical for the life cycle of this parasite. Together, these data indicate that TgNMT could be an interesting target of intervention for the treatment of toxoplasmosis.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Toxoplasma/metabolismo , Aciltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Aciltransferases/efeitos dos fármacos , Aciltransferases/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Células Cultivadas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fibroblastos/parasitologia , Imunofluorescência , Prepúcio do Pênis/citologia , Prepúcio do Pênis/parasitologia , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Masculino , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Toxoplasma/classificação , Toxoplasma/enzimologia , Toxoplasma/genética
16.
Nat Cell Biol ; 21(6): 743-754, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160708

RESUMO

Chromatin assembled with the histone H3 variant CENP-A is the heritable epigenetic determinant of human centromere identity. Using genome-wide mapping and reference models for 23 human centromeres, CENP-A binding sites are identified within the megabase-long, repetitive α-satellite DNAs at each centromere. CENP-A is shown in early G1 to be assembled into nucleosomes within each centromere and onto 11,390 transcriptionally active sites on the chromosome arms. DNA replication is demonstrated to remove ectopically loaded, non-centromeric CENP-A. In contrast, tethering of centromeric CENP-A to the sites of DNA replication through the constitutive centromere associated network (CCAN) is shown to enable precise reloading of centromere-bound CENP-A onto the same DNA sequences as in its initial prereplication loading. Thus, DNA replication acts as an error correction mechanism for maintaining centromere identity through its removal of non-centromeric CENP-A coupled with CCAN-mediated retention and precise reloading of centromeric CENP-A.


Assuntos
Proteína Centromérica A/genética , Centrômero/genética , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Replicação do DNA/genética , Cromatina/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Fase G1/genética , Células HeLa , Histonas/genética , Humanos , Nucleossomos/genética
17.
J Proteome Res ; 18(7): 2693-2694, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120765
18.
Nucleus ; 10(1): 126-143, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142202

RESUMO

The double membrane nuclear envelope (NE), which is contiguous with the ER, contains nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) - the channels for nucleocytoplasmic transport, and the nuclear lamina (NL) - a scaffold for NE and chromatin organization. Since numerous human diseases linked to NE proteins occur in mesenchyme-derived cells, we used proteomics to characterize NE and other subcellular fractions isolated from mesenchymal stem cells and from adipocytes and myocytes. Based on spectral abundance, we calculated enrichment scores for proteins in the NE fractions. We demonstrated by quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy that five little-characterized proteins with high enrichment scores are substantially concentrated at the NE, with Itprip exposed at the outer nuclear membrane, Smpd4 enriched at the NPC, and Mfsd10, Tmx4, and Arl6ip6 likely residing in the inner nuclear membrane. These proteins provide new focal points for studying the functions of the NE. Moreover, our datasets provide a resource for evaluating additional potential NE proteins.

19.
J Proteome Res ; 18(6): 2359, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042043
20.
Biochimie ; 163: 12-20, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059753

RESUMO

In parasites, cathepsins are implicated in mechanisms related to organism surveillance and host evasion. Some parasite cathepsins have fibrinogenolytic and fibrinolytic activity, suggesting that they may contribute to maintain blood meal fluidity for extended feeding periods. Here, it is shown that BmGTI (Rhipicephalus [Boophilus] microplus Gut Thrombin Inhibitor), a protein previously described as an inhibitor of fibrinogen hydrolysis and platelet aggregation by thrombin, and BmCL1 (Rhipicephalus [Boophilus] microplus Cathepsin-L like 1) are the same protein, hereinafter referred to using the earliest name (BmCL1). To further characterize BmCL1, Rhipicephalus microplus native and recombinant (rBmCL1) proteins were obtained. Native BmCL1 was isolated using thrombin-affinity chromatography, and it displays thrombin inhibition activity. We subsequently investigated rBmCL1 interaction with thrombin. We show that rBmCL1 and thrombin have a dissociation constant (ΚD) of 130.2 ±â€¯11.2 nM, and this interaction likely occurs due to a more electronegative surface of BmCL1 at pH 7.5 than at pH 5.0, which may favor an electrostatic binding to positively charged thrombin exosites. During BmCL1-thrombin interaction, thrombin is not degraded or inhibited. rBmCL1 impairs thrombin-induced fibrinogen clotting via a fibrinogenolytic activity. Fibrinogen degradation by BmCL1 occurs by the hydrolysis of Aα- and Bß-chains, generating products similar to those produced by fibrinogenolytic cathepsins from other organisms. In conclusion, BmCL1 likely has an additional role in R. microplus blood digestion, besides its role in hemoglobin degradation at acid pH. BmCL1 fibrinogenolytic activity indicates a proteolytic activity in the neutral lumen of tick midgut, contributing to maintain the fluidity of the ingested blood, which remains to be confirmed in vivo.


Assuntos
Catepsina L/metabolismo , Rhipicephalus/enzimologia , Trombina/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticoagulantes/química , Anticoagulantes/isolamento & purificação , Anticoagulantes/metabolismo , Catepsina L/química , Catepsina L/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Proteólise
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