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2.
Atherosclerosis ; 322: 67-73, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The impact of weight changes in middle age on the incidence of cardiovascular disease has not been well elucidated. We investigated whether a 5-year weight change was associated with risk of stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD) in middle-aged individuals. METHODS: We analyzed data of 74,928 participants aged 40-69 years who provided responses to the baseline and 5-year follow-up questionnaires in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. Weight change was calculated by subtracting self-reported weight at baseline from that at 5-year follow-up. Stroke and CHD events were confirmed by reviewing hospital records. RESULTS: During 997,406 person-years of follow-up, we documented 3,975 stroke and 914 CHD events. The multivariable HRs of stroke for losing ≥5 kg compared to stable weight (change ≤2 kg) was 1.17 (95% CI, 1.01-1.37) in men versus 1.33 (1.13-1.57) for losing ≥5 kg and 1.61 (1.36-1.92) for gaining ≥5 kg in women (U-shaped association). These associations did not change after the exclusion of early events. The multivariable HR of CHD for gaining ≥5 kg was 1.22 (0.95-1.58) in men. After exclusion of early events within another 5 years, that positive association became stronger [multivariable HR 1.34 (1.00-1.82)]. CONCLUSIONS: Weight gain during middle age was associated with an increased risk of stroke in women and an increased risk of CHD in men. Weight loss was associated with an increased risk of stroke in both men and women.

4.
J Cancer Surviv ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433855

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study compared working cancer survivors' self-rated health status (SRHS), physical functional capacity, depressive symptoms, and happiness to those of cancer-free workers. METHODS: A nationwide general population-based cross-sectional study on a sample of Japanese was conducted. Prevalence of deteriorated SRHS, restricted physical functional capacity, depressive symptoms, and perceived happiness were compared between working cancer survivors and cancer-free workers with multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and sociodemographic and health-related backgrounds. RESULTS: Of the 28,311 male and 26,068 female workers, 977 (3.5%) and 1267 (4.9%) were cancer survivors, respectively. Working cancer survivors reported deteriorated SRHS more frequently than cancer-free workers: 21.3% vs. 13.8%, multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 1.64 (1.39-1.95) for men, 23.8% vs. 17.5%, 1.34 (1.16-1.54) for women. Restricted physical functional capacity was reported more frequently in working cancer survivors than cancer-free workers: 6.8% vs. 2.6%, 1.76 (1.34-2.32) for men, 4.9% vs. 2.0%, 2.06 (1.56-2.71) for women. No significant difference was found for depressive symptoms: 21.6% vs. 22.9% in men, 30.0% vs. 28.5% in women. Working cancer survivors felt happiness more frequently than cancer-free survivors in men (77.3% vs. 71.7%, 1.21 (1.01-1.45)) but not in women (76.1% vs. 74.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Working cancer survivors had worse SRHS and more restricted physical functional capacity than cancer-free workers. In men, working cancer survivors felt happiness more frequently than cancer-free workers. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Continuous support to improve cancer survivors' SRHS and physical functional capacity would be necessary even while they are working.

5.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 12, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to describe the status of alcohol consumption and drug use among young adults as well as their determinants. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 356 young adults (aged 18 to 24 years) living in Palau in 2013. The prevalence of self-reported alcohol and marijuana usage were compared within and between sexes, age groups, ethnicities, and education levels. RESULTS: The proportion of current drinking was higher in people aged 21-24 than in those aged 18-20 (73.2% vs. 60.9%, p = 0.09 in men and 48.3% vs. 30.0%, p = 0.02 in women), while that of marijuana use did not differ between the age groups. The proportions of current drinking and marijuana use were higher in Palauan than in other ethnicities (current drinking: 70.6% vs. 40.6%, p = 0.005 in men and 38.8% vs. 16.6%, p = 0.04 in women; lifetime marijuana use: 80.0% vs. 52.9%, p = 0.02 in men and 56.1% vs. 30.6%, p = 0.09 in women). The proportion of frequent (3 times or more) marijuana users was higher for the lower educated than for the higher educated (62.5% vs. 32.1%, p < 0.001 in men and 33.9% vs. 24.4%, p = 0.12 in women). CONCLUSIONS: Sex, age, ethnicity, and education were significant determinants of alcohol and marijuana use.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/etnologia , Palau/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
6.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; : 1010539520974848, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289398

RESUMO

The increasing burden of diabetes mellitus is one of the major public health challenges in African countries, including Ethiopia. This is the first study aimed to identify factors associated with prediabetes and diabetes defined by both fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin in Ethiopians. We analyzed data of a cross-sectional survey (1372 adults aged 25-64 years) conducted between October 2015 and February 2016; multinomial logistic regression models were applied. Abdominal obesity, total cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were independently associated with prediabetes and diabetes in both sexes. Increased triglycerides and religious fasting practices were independently associated with prediabetes and diabetes only in men; hypertension was associated with prediabetes and diabetes only in women, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was not associated with prediabetes and diabetes in either sex. Sex differences in the association of triglycerides, hypertension, and dietary habit suggest that different approaches of lifestyle modification may be required for men and women.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138333

RESUMO

We examined the association between objective and perceived neighborhood characteristics and self-reported leisure-time physical activity (PA) in older Japanese residents living in areas ranging from metropolitan to rural in 2016. Objective measures used were walkability and the numbers of parks/green spaces and sports facilities within 500 or 1000 m of subjects' homes, calculated using geographic information systems. Subjective measures were the subjects' perceptions of their neighborhoods, assessed using a structured questionnaire. All variables were divided into three groups, and the lowest tertile was used as the reference. We assessed the location and frequency of strolling or brisk walking, moderate-intensity PA, and vigorous-intensity PA (sports) using a self-reported questionnaire and defined as performing a certain type of PA 3-4 times/week as a habit. Living in a neighborhood in the highest tertile for walkability and number of parks/green spaces as well as perception of having good access to recreational facilities, observing others exercising and the presence of walkable sidewalks was associated with walking and sports habits (multivariable odds ratios (ORs): 1.33-2.46, all p < 0.05). Interestingly, objective measures of PA-friendly environmental features were inversely associated with moderate-intensity PA habits, potentially because moderate-intensity PA consisted predominantly of gardening. In conclusion, living in an environment supportive of PA, whether objectively or subjectively measured, is related to leisure-time PA habits among older Japanese adults.

8.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041313

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to develop and validate risk prediction models to estimate the absolute 10-year risk of death from coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: We evaluated a total of 44,869 individuals aged 40-79 years from eight Japanese prospective cohorts to derive coefficients of risk equations using cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazard regression models. Discrimination (C-index) of the equation was examined in each cohort and summarised using random-effect meta-analyses. Calibration of the equation was assessed using Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-squared statistic. RESULTS: Within a median follow-up of 12.7 years, we observed 765 deaths due to CVD (276 CHDs and 489 strokes). After backward selection, age, sex, current smoking, systolic blood pressure (SBP), proteinuria, prevalent diabetes mellitus, the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDLC), interaction terms of age by SBP, and age by current smoking were retained as predictors for CHD. Sex was excluded in the stroke equation. We did not consider TC/HDLC as a risk factor for the stroke and CVD equations. The pooled C-indices for CHD, stroke, and CVD were 0.83, 0.80, and 0.81, respectively, and the corresponding p-values of the Hosmer-Lemeshow tests were 0.18, 0.003, and 0.25, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Risk equations in the present study can adequately estimate the absolute 10-year risk of death from CHD, stroke, and CVD. Future work will evaluate the system as an education and risk communication tool for primary prevention of CHD and stroke.

9.
J Clin Virol ; 132: 104656, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Entire genome of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) that integrates into human chromosomes is called chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (ciHHV-6). Several viral infections have been suggested to be involved in autoimmune connective tissue diseases (CTDs). Reactivated HHV-6 from the integrated viral genome can induce immune responses against the virus. Thus, it is plausible that ciHHV-6 is associated with autoimmune CTDs. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether the prevalence of ciHHV-6 was significantly higher in patients with autoimmune CTDs than in a healthy population. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 846 peripheral blood samples collected from autoimmune CTD patients were analyzed. Since there was a large number of samples, they were pooled into 24 samples per group. Copy numbers of HHV-6 DNA were measured by real-time PCR. The threshold level for distinguishing between ciHHV-6 and active viral infection and the reliability of pooled DNA analysis were examined as initial validation experiments. RESULTS: The threshold level was 1.6 × 10^6 copy/mL in whole blood. The reliability of pooled DNA analysis to identify one ciHHV-6 sample among 23 HHV-6 DNA-negative samples was high. No HHV-6 DNA was detected in any of the pooled DNA samples collected from the patients. The probability of the present study including the 846 autoimmune CTD patient's samples was statistically not different with a healthy Japanese population which was 0.2 % or 0.6 %. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in the prevalence of ciHHV-6 between a healthy population and patients with autoimmune CTDs.

11.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916842

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to further examine the relationship between milk intake and stroke mortality among the Japanese population. We used data from the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study (total number of participants = 110,585, age range: 40-79) to estimate the posterior acceleration factors (AF) as well as the hazard ratios (HR) comparing individuals with different milk intake frequencies against those who never consumed milk at the study baseline. These estimations were computed through a series of Bayesian survival models that employed a Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation process. In total, 100,000 posterior samples were generated separately through four independent chains after model convergency was confirmed. Posterior probabilites that daily milk consumers had lower hazard or delayed mortality from strokes compared to non-consumers was 99.0% and 78.0% for men and women, respectively. Accordingly, the estimated posterior means of AF and HR for daily milk consumers were 0.88 (95% Credible Interval, CrI: 0.81, 0.96) and 0.80 (95% CrI: 0.69, 0.93) for men and 0.97 (95% CrI: 0.88, 1.10) and 0.95 (95% CrI: 0.80, 1.17) for women. In conclusion, data from the JACC study provided strong evidence that daily milk intake among Japanese men was associated with delayed and lower risk of mortality from stroke especially cerebral infarction.

12.
Nutr Diabetes ; 10(1): 34, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968050

RESUMO

Following publication, the authors asked to add the following institution to the affiliations of author Madoka Matsushita: Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine Both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article have been updated accordingly.

13.
J Infect Dis ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) can be genetically transmitted from parent to child as inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (iciHHV-6). HHV-6 reactivation occurs in pregnant women with iciHHV-6. We showed no gender differences in the frequency of index cases with iciHHV-6 but inheritance from the father was more common. We evaluated the association between iciHHV-6 status and spontaneous abortion. METHODS: iciHHV-6 was confirmed by high viral DNA copy numbers in whole blood and somatic cells. The origin of integrated viral genome, paternal or maternal, was examined using the same method. The pregnancy history of 23 mothers in families with iciHHV-6 and 285 mothers in families without iciHHV-6 was abstracted. RESULTS: Of 23 iciHHV-6 index cases, eight mothers and 15 fathers had iciHHV-6. Spontaneous abortion rates in mothers with and mothers without/fathers with iciHHV-6 and mothers in families without iciHHV-6 were 27.6%, 10.3%, and 14.8%, respectively (p = 0.012). Mother with iciHHV-6 (OR 6.41, 95%CI 1.10-37.4) and maternal age at the most recent pregnancy ≥40 years (OR 3.91, 95%CI 1.30-11.8) are associated with two or more spontaneous abortions. CONCLUSION: Mothers with iciHHV-6 is a risk factor for spontaneous abortion.

14.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2020 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32863295

RESUMO

AIM: The fact that low concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease is well known, but high-density lipoprotein metabolism has not been fully understood. Apolipoprotein A2 (ApoA2) is the second-most dominant apolipoprotein of high-density lipoprotein. We tested the hypothesis that ApoA2 isoforms are inversely associated with myocardial infarction. METHODS: We measured the plasma levels of three ApoA2 isoforms (ApoA2-ATQ/ATQ, ApoA2-ATQ/AT, ApoA2-AT/AT) in nested case-control study samples of 1:2 from the Japan Public Health-Center-based Study (JPHC Study): 106 myocardial infarction incidence cases and 212 controls. RESULTS: ApoA2-AT/AT was inversely associated with risk of myocardial infarction, in a matched model (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.26-6.09 for lowest compared with the highest quartile), but its association was attenuated after adjustment for smoking only (OR=2.13; 95% CI, 0.91-4.97) or drinking only (OR=2.07; 0.91-4.74), and the multivariable OR was 1.20 (95% CI, 0.41-3.57). Neither ApoA2-ATQ/ATQ nor ApoA2-ATQ/AT was associated with the risk of myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Our nested case-control study did not show a significant association of ApoA2 isoforms with a risk of myocardial infarction.

15.
Intern Med ; 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788541

RESUMO

Objective The burden of death from pneumonia is expected to increase with the aging of the population, as has been observed in Japan. Depressive tendency, a common psychosocial sign, may be a risk factor for pneumonia due to its possible association with some immune dysfunction. This study aimed to clarify the association between depressive tendency and the risk of death from pneumonia. Methods A population-based cohort that consisted of 75,174 Japanese men and women was followed for a median of 19.1 years. Four psychological and behavioral symptoms (depressive symptoms) were used to evaluate depressive tendency. Results A total of 1,329 deaths from pneumonia were observed. Depressive symptoms were positively and dose-dependently associated with the risk of death from pneumonia (P<0.001 for trend), and subjects with ≥2 depressive symptoms showed a significantly elevated risk compared to those without any symptoms (multivariable hazard ratio [HR], 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39-1.99). This association was not significantly affected by sex or age at baseline. The elevated risk was still significant even when subjects were limited to those without any medical histories. The excess risk was observed not only for death occurring within the first 10 years of follow-up (multivariable HR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.51-2.78) but also for that occurring in the longer follow-up period (multivariable HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.18-1.85). Conclusion Depressive tendency may be a risk factor for death from pneumonia. Further studies using a more reliable tool for the evaluation of depressive state are necessary to confirm this relationship.

16.
Environ Res ; 191: 109972, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758551

RESUMO

Occupational trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure can cause hypersensitivity syndrome (TCE-HS). The human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*13:01 is reportedly an important allele involved in TCE-HS onset. However, the threshold exposure level causing TCE-HS in relation to HLA-B*13:01 remains unknown. We conducted a case-control study comprising 37 TCE-HS patients and 97 age- and sex-matched TCE-tolerant controls from the Han Chinese population. Urine and blood of patients were collected on the first day of hospitalization, and those of controls were collected at the end of their shifts. Urinary trichloroacetic acid (TCA) was measured as an exposure marker, and end-of-shift levels in the patients were estimated using the biological half-life of 83.7 h. HLA-B genotype was identified using DNA from blood. Crude odds ratios (ORs) for TCE-HS in the groups with urinary TCA concentration >15 mg/L to ≤50 mg/L and of >50 mg/L were 21.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.2-114.1] and 27.6 (6.1-125.8), respectively, when the group with urinary TCA ≤15 mg/L was used as a reference. The frequency of HLA-B*13:01, the most common allele in the patients, was 62.2% (23/37), which was significantly higher than 17.5% (17/97) in the TCE-tolerant controls, with a crude OR of 8.4 (3.1-22.6). The mutually-adjusted ORs for urinary TCA >15 to ≤50 mg/L, >50 mg/L, and for HLA-B*13:01 were 33.4 (4.1-270.8), 34.0 (5.3-217.1), and 11.0 (2.4-50.7), respectively. In conclusion, reduction of TCE exposure to ≤15 mg/L is required for TCE-HS prevention because urinary TCA concentration >15 mg/L showed increased risk of TCE-HS, regardless of whether the patients had the HLA-B*13:01 allele.

17.
Nutr Diabetes ; 10(1): 33, 2020 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the Smart Life Stay (SLS) program, which is an experience-oriented stayover program, in combination with health tourism and mandatory health guidance on glucose metabolism after 2 years. METHODS: The participants of the SLS program (n = 792) were recruited from a database of 23 medical insurers. They underwent a mandatory health examination termed Specific Health Checkups in 2014. The participants were included if they had diabetes or were at a high risk of diabetes and if they satisfied the following inclusion criteria: (1) body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) > 25, or (2) waist circumference (WC; cm) > 85 for men and > 90 for women, or (3) hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c; %) > 5.6, or (4) fasting plasma glucose (FPG; mg/dl) > 100. Individuals who corresponded to one or more items were included as study participants. The control subjects (n = 3645) were nonparticipants of the program who were selected from the database and met the inclusion criteria. The lifestyle changes and changes in mean BMI, WC, FPG, and HbA1c in both groups from baseline to 2-year follow-up were compared by inverse probability weighting of a propensity score. RESULTS: The percentage of people who exercised regularly increased significantly in the SLS group compared with the control group. In the SLS group, BW, BMI, and WC significantly decreased by 1.75 kg, 0.60 kg/m2, and 1.45 cm, respectively, whereas in the control group, WC, FPG, and HbA1c increased significantly by 0.38 cm, 3.37 mg/dl, and 0.12%, respectively. The comparison between groups revealed that the BW, BMI, WC, FPG, and HbA1c improved significantly in the SLS group. CONCLUSIONS: The SLS program is suggested to help improve glucose metabolism. This program could be a feasible option as a lifestyle intervention program for diabetes.

18.
Surg Today ; 50(12): 1601-1609, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488476

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to clarify the long-term change in the renal function after pelvic exenteration (PE) and to evaluate the risk factors for any future dysfunction. METHODS: This study comprised 40 patients. A greater than 25% decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 3 years was defined as early renal function disorder (ERFD), possibly predicting future chronic kidney disease (CKD). RESULTS: In the entire cohort, the median eGFR decreased by 23% at 3 years, and CKD developed in 50%. The patients were divided into the ERFD (n = 16) and non-ERFD (n = 24) groups. In the ERFD group, the eGFR significantly decreased by 28% during the first 1.5 years and continued to decline after that, resulting in 81.3% of patients reaching CKD, whereas it was 4% and 37.5%, respectively, in the non-ERFD group. In a growth model analysis, late urinary tract complications (UTC) and small bowel obstruction were shown to be risk factors for ERFD. CONCLUSION: Although PE was associated with a high incidence of future CKD, ERFD could predict it. Close observation of the eGFR decline over 1.5 years might be beneficial to identify ERFD patients. High-risk patients with late UTC and small bowel obstruction should, therefore, be observed carefully.

19.
Chest ; 158(2): 797-807, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infectious complications after endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial biopsy with a guide sheath (EBUS-GS-TBB) are serious in that they may delay or change scheduled subsequent therapy. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for infection after EBUS-GS-TBB. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the risk factors for infection after EBUS-GS-TBB? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 1,045 consecutive patients who had undergone EBUS-GS-TBB for peripheral lung lesions between January 2013 and December 2017 at Fujita Health University Hospital. We evaluated the following risk factors for infectious complications after EBUS-GS-TBB: relevant patient characteristics (age and comorbidities), lesion size, CT scan features of target lesion (intratumoral low-density areas [LDAs] and cavitation), stenosis of responsible bronchus observed by bronchoscopy, and laboratory data before EBUS-GS-TBB (WBC count and C-reactive protein concentration). RESULTS: Forty-seven of the study patients developed infectious complications (24 with pneumonia, 14 with intratumoral infection, three with lung abscess, three with pleuritis, and three with empyema), among whom the complication caused a delay in cancer treatment in 13 patients, cancellation of cancer treatment in seven patients, and death in three patients. Multivariate analysis showed that cavitation (P = .007), intratumoral LDAs (P < .001), and stenosis of responsible bronchus observed by bronchoscopy (P < .001) were significantly associated with infectious complications after EBUS-GS-TBB. Prophylactic antibiotics had been administered to 13 patients in the infection group. Propensity matched analysis could not show significant benefit of prophylactic antibiotics in preventing post-EBUS-GS-TBB infections. INTERPRETATION: Cavitation, LDAs for CT scan features of target lesions, and stenosis of responsible bronchus observed by bronchoscopy are risk factors of post-EBUS-GS-TBB infection. In the cohort, prophylactic antibiotics failed to prevent infectious complications.

20.
Heart ; 106(10): 732-737, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tub bathing is considered to have a preventive effect against cardiovascular disease (CVD) by improving haemodynamic function. However, no prospective studies have investigated the long-term effects of tub bathing with regard to CVD risk. METHODS: A total of 30 076 participants aged 40-59 years with no history of CVD or cancer were followed up from 1990 to 2009. Participants were classified by bathing frequency: zero to two times/week, three to four times/week and almost every day. The HRs of incident CVD were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models after adjusting for traditional CVD risk factors and selected dietary factors. RESULTS: During 538 373 person-years of follow-up, we documented a total of 2097 incident cases of CVD, comprising 328 coronary heart diseases (CHDs) (275 myocardial infarctions and 53 sudden cardiac deaths) and 1769 strokes (991 cerebral infarctions, 510 intracerebral haemorrhages, 255 subarachnoid haemorrhages and 13 unclassified strokes). The multivariable HRs (95% CIs) for almost daily or every day versus zero to two times/week were 0.72 (0.62 to 0.84, trend p<0.001) for total CVD; 0.65 (0.45 to 0.94, trend p=0.065) for CHD; 0.74 (0.62 to 0.87, trend p=0.005) for total stroke; 0.77 (0.62 to 0.97, trend p=0.467) for cerebral infarction; and 0.54 (0.40 to 0.73, trend p<0.001) for intracerebral haemorrhage. No associations were observed between tub bathing frequency and risk of sudden cardiac death or subarachnoid haemorrhage. CONCLUSION: The frequency of tub bathing was inversely associated with the risk of CVD among middle-aged Japanese.

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