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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 861050, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35401572

RESUMO

It has been reported that multiple severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOCs) including Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta can reduce neutralization by antibodies, resulting in vaccine breakthrough infections. Virus-antiserum neutralization assays are typically performed to monitor potential vaccine breakthrough strains. However, experiment-based methods took several weeks whether newly emerging variants can break through current vaccines or therapeutic antibodies. To address this, we sought to establish a computational model to predict the antigenicity of SARS-CoV-2 variants by sequence alone. In this study, we firstly identified the relationship between the antigenic difference transformed from the amino acid sequence and the antigenic distance from the neutralization titers. Based on this correlation, we obtained a computational model for the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein to predict the fold decrease in virus-antiserum neutralization titers with high accuracy (~0.79). Our predicted results were comparable to experimental neutralization titers of variants, including Alpha, Beta, Delta, Gamma, Epsilon, Iota, Kappa, and Lambda, as well as SARS-CoV. Here, we predicted the fold of decrease of Omicron as 17.4-fold less susceptible to neutralization. We visualized all 1,521 SARS-CoV-2 lineages to indicate variants including Mu, B.1.630, B.1.633, B.1.649, and C.1.2, which can induce vaccine breakthrough infections in addition to reported VOCs Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron. Our study offers a quick approach to predict the antigenicity of SARS-CoV-2 variants as soon as they emerge. Furthermore, this approach can facilitate future vaccine updates to cover all major variants. An online version can be accessed at http://jdlab.online.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos , Soros Imunes , Testes de Neutralização , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
2.
Eur J Cancer ; 167: 1-12, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pembrolizumab, a PD-1 inhibitor, demonstrated anti-tumour activity and tolerability in patients treated with sorafenib and with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma in KEYNOTE-224. Longer-term efficacy and safety after ∼2.5 years of additional follow-up are reported. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Adults with confirmed hepatocellular carcinoma who experienced progression after or intolerance to sorafenib treatment received pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks for ≤35 cycles or until confirmed progression, unacceptable toxicity, withdrawal of consent or investigator decision. The primary end-point was objective response rate assessed by blinded independent central review per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours v1.1. The secondary end-points included duration of response, disease control rate, time to progression, progression-free survival, overall survival and adverse events. RESULTS: Efficacy and safety were assessed in 104 patients. The median time from first dose to data cutoff was 45.1 months (range, 41.3-49.3). Objective response rate was 18.3% (95% CI: 11.4-27.1), and median duration of response was 21.0 months (range, 3.1 to 39.5+). Disease control rate was 61.5%, and median time to progression was 4.8 months (95% CI: 3.9-7.0). Median progression-free survival was 4.9 months (95% CI: 3.5-6.7) and median overall survival was 13.2 months (95% CI: 9.7-15.3). Of 104 patients, 76 (73.1%) patients reported treatment-related adverse events; most were low grade in severity (grade 3-4, n = 26 [25.0%]; grade 5, n = 1 [1.0%]). Immune-mediated hepatitis occurred in 3 patients (all grade 3). No viral-induced hepatitis flares occurred. CONCLUSIONS: After ∼2.5 years of additional follow-up, pembrolizumab continued to provide durable anti-tumour activity and no new safety concerns were identified. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT02702414.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico
3.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35288743

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint blockade combined with anti-angiogenic therapy induces vascular normalization and anti-tumor immunity and is efficacious in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). But whether and how initial immunotherapy affects the efficacy of subsequent anti-angiogenic therapy is unknown. We evaluated a cohort of HCC patients (n = 25) who received the pan-VEGF receptor multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib after initial therapy with an anti-programmed cell death protein (PD)-1 antibody and found superior outcomes in these patients (12% overall response rate to sorafenib and a median OS of 12.1 months). To understand mechanisms of this benefit, we examined the impact of an anti-PD-1 antibody on response to subsequent sorafenib treatment in orthotopic models of murine HCC. Prior anti-PD-1 antibody treatment amplified HCC response to sorafenib therapy and increased survival (n = 8-9 mice per group, HR = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.09-0.91; p = .04). Anti-PD-1 therapy showed angio-protective effects on HCC vessels to subsequent sorafenib treatment, which enhanced the benefit of this therapy sequence in a CD8+ T-cell-dependent manner. This priming approach using immunotherapy provides an immediately translatable strategy for effective HCC treatment while reducing drug exposure.

4.
Hepatology ; 2022 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35302667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Prognosis of HCC remains poor due to lack of effective therapies. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have delayed response and are only effective in a subset of patients. Treatments that could effectively shrink the tumors within a short period of time are idealistic to be employed together with ICIs for durable tumor suppressive effects. HCC acquires increased tolerance to aneuploidy. The rapid division of HCC cells relies on centrosome duplication. In this study, we found that polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4), a centrosome duplication regulator, represents a therapeutic vulnerability in HCC. APPROACH AND RESULTS: An orally available PLK4 inhibitor, CFI-400945, potently suppressed proliferating HCC cells by perturbing centrosome duplication. CFI-400945 induced endoreplication without stopping DNA replication, causing severe aneuploidy, DNA damage, micronuclei formation, cytosolic DNA accumulation, and senescence. The cytosolic DNA accumulation elicited the DEAD box helicase 41-stimulator of interferon genes-interferon regulatory factor 3/7-NF-κß cytosolic DNA sensing pathway, thereby driving the transcription of senescence-associated secretory phenotypes, which recruit immune cells. CFI-400945 was evaluated in liver-specific p53/phosphatase and tensin homolog knockout mouse HCC models established by hydrodynamic tail vein injection. Tumor-infiltrated immune cells were analyzed. CFI-400945 significantly impeded HCC growth and increased infiltration of cluster of differentiation 4-positive (CD4+ ), CD8+ T cells, macrophages, and natural killer cells. Combination therapy of CFI-400945 with anti-programmed death-1 showed a tendency to improve HCC survival. CONCLUSIONS: We show that by targeting a centrosome regulator, PLK4, to activate the cytosolic DNA sensing-mediated immune response, CFI-400945 effectively restrained tumor progression through cell cycle inhibition and inducing antitumor immunity to achieve a durable suppressive effect even in late-stage mouse HCC.

5.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 13(2): 795-810, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35187864

RESUMO

We performed a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression to determine if increasing daily protein ingestion contributes to gaining lean body mass (LBM), muscle strength, and physical/functional test performance in healthy subjects. A protocol for the present study was registered (PROSPERO, CRD42020159001), and a systematic search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Sciences databases was undertaken. Only randomized controlled trials (RCT) where participants increased their daily protein intake and were healthy and non-obese adults were included. Research questions focused on the main effects on the outcomes of interest and subgroup analysis, splitting the studies by participation in a resistance exercise (RE), age (<65 or ≥65 years old), and levels of daily protein ingestion. Three-level random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regressions were conducted on data from 74 RCT. Most of the selected studies tested the effects of additional protein ingestion during RE training. The evidence suggests that increasing daily protein ingestion may enhance gains in LBM in studies enrolling subjects in RE (SMD [standardized mean difference] = 0.22, 95% CI [95% confidence interval] 0.14:0.30, P < 0.01, 62 studies, moderate level of evidence). The effect on LBM was significant in subjects ≥65 years old ingesting 1.2-1.59 g of protein/kg/day and for younger subjects (<65 years old) ingesting ≥1.6 g of protein/kg/day submitted to RE. Lower-body strength gain was slightly higher by additional protein ingestion at ≥1.6 g of protein/kg/day during RE training (SMD = 0.40, 95% CI 0.09:0.35, P < 0.01, 19 studies, low level of evidence). Bench press strength is slightly increased by ingesting more protein in <65 years old subjects during RE training (SMD = 0.18, 95% CI 0.03:0.33, P = 0.01, 32 studies, low level of evidence). The effects of ingesting more protein are unclear when assessing handgrip strength and only marginal for performance in physical function tests. In conclusion, increasing daily protein ingestion results in small additional gains in LBM and lower body muscle strength gains in healthy adults enrolled in resistance exercise training. There is a slight effect on bench press strength and minimal effect performance in physical function tests. The effect on handgrip strength is unclear.


Assuntos
Treinamento de Força , Adulto , Idoso , Exercício Físico , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
6.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35215983

RESUMO

Omicron was designated by the WHO as a VOC on 26 November 2021, only 4 days after its sequence was first submitted. However, the impact of Omicron on current antibodies and vaccines remains unknown and evaluations are still a few weeks away. We analysed the mutations in the Omicron variant against epitopes. In our database, 132 epitopes of the 120 antibodies are classified into five groups, namely NTD, RBD-1, RBD-2, RBD-3, and RBD-4. The Omicron mutations impact all epitopes in NTD, RBD-1, RBD-2, and RBD-3, with no antibody epitopes spared by these mutations. Only four out of 120 antibodies may confer full resistance to mutations in the Omicron spike, since all antibodies in these three groups contain one or more epitopes that are affected by these mutations. Of all antibodies under EUA, the neutralisation potential of Etesevimab, Bamlanivimab, Casirivimab, Imdevima, Cilgavimab, Tixagevimab, Sotrovimab, and Regdanvimab might be dampened to varying degrees. Our analysis suggests the impact of Omicron on current therapeutic antibodies by the Omicron spike mutations may also apply to current COVID-19 vaccines.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/análise , Anticorpos Antivirais/farmacologia , Simulação por Computador , Mutação/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Anticorpos Monoclonais/classificação , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/farmacologia , Testes de Neutralização , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
7.
Invest New Drugs ; 40(2): 314-321, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735674

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We investigated the safety and efficacy of a pegylated arginase (PEG-BCT-100) in combination with chemotherapy (oxaliplatin and capecitabine) [PACOX] in advanced HCC patients. METHODS: This was a single centre phase 1 trial to assess the safety and tolerability of PACOX. All the enrolled subjects received treatment in 3-weekly cycles: intravenous PEG-BCT-100 2.7 mg/kg on days 1, 8 and 15 of each cycle; oral capecitabine 1000 mg/m2 twice daily on day 1-14 of each cycle and intravenous oxaliplatin on day 1. Three dose levels of oxaliplatin (85 mg/m2, 100 mg/m2 or 130 mg/m2) were studied to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Adverse events (AEs), efficacy by RECIST v1.1, time to progression (TTP), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were studied. RESULTS: Seventeen patients were enrolled at 3 dose levels of oxaliplatin: 85 mg/m2 (8 patients), 100 mg/m2 (3 patients), and 130 mg/m2 (6 patients). The median age was 55 years; all had had locoregional chemotherapy or targeted therapy such as sorafenib, but no systemic chemotherapy. The most common AEs were nausea (82%), injection site reaction (76%), palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (59%), oral mucositis (53%) and vomiting (53%). There was no dose-limiting toxicity (DLT). Median duration on study was 8 weeks overall. In 14 evaluable cases, one achieved partial response (PR), 4 had stable disease (SD); disease control rate was 36%; most responses were observed in the 130 mg/m2 cohort with 1 PR and 2 SDs. Median TTP and PFS were both 7.0 weeks. Overall median OS was 10.7 months; the median OS was not reached at 19.4 months of follow-up in the 130 mg/m2 cohort. CONCLUSION: The PACOX regimen demonstrated good anti-cancer activity and survival advantage in advanced pre-treated HCC with favourable safety profile. It warrants further phase II/III studies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Arginase , Capecitabina , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxaliplatina , Polietilenoglicóis/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Recombinantes
8.
J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) ; 63(2): 179-186, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34792311

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a crucial intervention in acute myocardial infarction (AMI), particularly when AMI is not amenable for management with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). To optimize outcome in these patients, surgical teams must consider a host of predictive factors, with the most prominent being the timing of CABG. Despite numerous studies exploring timing of CABG following AMI in the past, optimal surgical timing remains controversial. The mortality rates vary with timing of CABG, but confounding factors such as age, impaired pulmonary function, renal insufficiency, and poor left ventricular function may contribute to varied outcomes reported. EVIDENCE ACQUISITON: An electronic literature search of articles that discussed acute myocardial presentation and urgent in-patient or elective CABG was conducted. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The evidence was synthesized based on each reported article and their outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Current literature suggests multiple factors can guide CABG timing including, type of AMI at initial presentation, distinctive pathological status, and patient characteristics. Thus, there is a need for large, multi-center studies to identify optimal CABG timing in complex coronary artery disease or failed PCI in patients with AMI. Future guidelines should emphasize patient cohorts by taking their risk factors into consideration. As such, a need for greater cardiac screening methods and development of scoring systems can aid in the optimization of CABG timing.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Infarto do Miocárdio , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Lancet Oncol ; 23(1): 77-90, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single-agent nivolumab showed durable responses, manageable safety, and promising survival in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma in the phase 1-2 CheckMate 040 study. We aimed to investigate nivolumab monotherapy compared with sorafenib monotherapy in the first-line setting for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: In this randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial done at medical centres across 22 countries and territories in Asia, Australasia, Europe, and North America, patients at least 18 years old with histologically confirmed advanced hepatocellular carcinoma not eligible for, or whose disease had progressed after, surgery or locoregional treatment; with no previous systemic therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma, with Child-Pugh class A and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0 or 1, and regardless of viral hepatitis status were randomly assigned (1:1) via an interactive voice response system to receive nivolumab (240 mg intravenously every 2 weeks) or sorafenib (400 mg orally twice daily) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was overall survival assessed in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This completed trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02576509. FINDINGS: Between Jan 11, 2016, and May 24, 2017, 743 patients were randomly assigned to treatment (nivolumab, n=371; sorafenib, n=372). At the primary analysis, the median follow-up for overall survival was 15·2 months (IQR 5·7-28·0) for the nivolumab group and 13·4 months (5·7-25·9) in the sorafenib group. Median overall survival was 16·4 months (95% CI 13·9-18·4) with nivolumab and 14·7 months (11·9-17·2) with sorafenib (hazard ratio 0·85 [95% CI 0·72-1·02]; p=0·075; minimum follow-up 22·8 months); the protocol-defined significance level of p=0·0419 was not reached. The most common grade 3 or worse treatment-related adverse events were palmar-plantar erythrodysaesthesia (1 [<1%] of 367 patients in the nivolumab group vs 52 [14%] of patients in the sorafenib group), aspartate aminotransferase increase (22 [6%] vs 13 [4%]), and hypertension (0 vs 26 [7%]). Serious treatment-related adverse events were reported in 43 (12%) patients receiving nivolumab and 39 (11%) patients receiving sorafenib. Four deaths in the nivolumab group and one death in the sorafenib group were assessed as treatment related. INTERPRETATION: First-line nivolumab treatment did not significantly improve overall survival compared with sorafenib, but clinical activity and a favourable safety profile were observed in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, nivolumab might be considered a therapeutic option for patients in whom tyrosine kinase inhibitors and antiangiogenic drugs are contraindicated or have substantial risks. FUNDING: Bristol Myers Squibb in collaboration with Ono Pharmaceutical.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Sorafenibe/efeitos adversos
10.
Gut ; 71(1): 185-193, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431577

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC)-a rare liver malignancy with limited therapeutic options-is characterised by aggressive progression, desmoplasia and vascular abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine the role of placental growth factor (PlGF) in ICC progression. DESIGN: We evaluated the expression of PlGF in specimens from ICC patients and assessed the therapeutic effect of genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of PlGF in orthotopically grafted ICC mouse models. We evaluated the impact of PlGF stimulation or blockade in ICC cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) using in vitro 3-D coculture systems. RESULTS: PlGF levels were elevated in human ICC stromal cells and circulating blood plasma and were associated with disease progression. Single-cell RNA sequencing showed that the major impact of PlGF blockade in mice was enrichment of quiescent CAFs, characterised by high gene transcription levels related to the Akt pathway, glycolysis and hypoxia signalling. PlGF blockade suppressed Akt phosphorylation and myofibroblast activation in ICC-derived CAFs. PlGF blockade also reduced desmoplasia and tissue stiffness, which resulted in reopening of collapsed tumour vessels and improved blood perfusion, while reducing ICC cell invasion. Moreover, PlGF blockade enhanced the efficacy of standard chemotherapy in mice-bearing ICC. Conclusion PlGF blockade leads to a reduction in intratumorous hypoxia and metastatic dissemination, enhanced chemotherapy sensitivity and increased survival in mice-bearing aggressive ICC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Placentário/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Colangiocarcinoma/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fator de Crescimento Placentário/antagonistas & inibidores
11.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 13: 17588359211039928, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616489

RESUMO

AIMS: This post hoc analysis evaluated albumin/bilirubin (ALBI) score, an objective measure of liver function, in patients receiving pembrolizumab plus best supportive care (BSC) compared with placebo plus BSC in the KEYNOTE-240 study. METHODS: Patients with confirmed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and progression after/intolerance to sorafenib, Child-Pugh class A liver function, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1 were randomly assigned 2:1 to pembrolizumab 200 mg or placebo intravenously every 3 weeks plus BSC for ⩽35 cycles or until confirmed progression/unacceptable toxicity. Outcomes were assessed by ALBI grade. RESULTS: Of 413 patients, at baseline 116 had an ALBI grade 1 score (pembrolizumab, n = 74; placebo, n = 42) and 279 had an ALBI grade 2 score (n = 193; n = 86). Change from baseline in ALBI score to the end of treatment was similar in both arms [difference in least squares mean, -0.039; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.169 to 0.091]. Time to ALBI grade increase was similar in both arms [median for pembrolizumab versus placebo: 7.8 versus 6.9 months; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.863 (95% CI: 0.625-1.192)]. Regardless of baseline ALBI grade, a trend toward improved overall survival was observed with pembrolizumab [grade 1: HR = 0.725 (95% CI: 0.454-1.158); grade 2: HR = 0.827 (95% CI: 0.612-1.119)]. CONCLUSION: Pembrolizumab did not adversely impact liver function compared with placebo in patients with HCC, as measured by changes in ALBI scores. A trend toward improved overall survival was observed with pembrolizumab in both ALBI grade groups. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02702401.

12.
Adv Ther ; 38(12): 5752-5762, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699004

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Concurrent anthracycline and taxane is an effective and efficient way to deliver neoadjuvant chemotherapy for HER2-negative breast cancers. Data on efficacy and tolerance to 6 cycles of concurrent docetaxel, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (TEC) is limited. METHOD: All patients with HER2-negative breast cancers who received neoadjuvant TEC from January 2013 to December 2019 were reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 71 patients [57 luminal B disease; 14 triple negative breast cancer (TNBC)] received neoadjuvant TEC with prophylactic granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). The pathological complete response (pCR) rate was 26.3% and 28.6% for luminal B and TNBC, respectively. With median follow-up of 48.9 months, 3 years disease-free survival was 85.9%, and 3 years overall survival was 89.6%. Non-hematological toxicities were common but the majority was grade 1 or 2. The most common grade 3 or 4 toxicity were hematological, including neutropenia (26.8%) and anemia (15.5%). There was no cardiotoxicity observed. Half of the patients had at least one dose reduction but all patients completed the planned 6 cycles and had breast surgery done. CONCLUSION: Six cycles of TEC with prophylactic G-CSF is an effective and tolerable neoadjuvant regime for HER2-negative breast cancers. Hematological toxicities were the most common toxicities. Although many patients required dose reduction, all patients completed treatment and there was no observed cardiotoxicity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Docetaxel/uso terapêutico , Epirubicina , Feminino , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Receptor ErbB-2/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 189(3): 665-676, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553296

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Neratinib, an irreversible pan-HER tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has demonstrated systemic efficacy and intracranial activity in various stages of HER2+breast cancer. NALA was a phase III randomized trial that assessed the efficacy and safety of neratinib+capecitabine (N+C) against lapatinib+capecitabine (L+C) in HER2+ metastatic breast cancer (mBC) patients who had received ≥ 2 HER2-directed regimens. Descriptive analysis results of the Asian subgroup in the NALA study are reported herein. METHODS: 621 centrally assessed HER2+ mBC patients were enrolled, 202 of whom were Asian. Those with stable, asymptomatic brain metastases (BM) were eligible for study entry. Patients were randomized 1:1 to N (240 mg qd) + C (750 mg/m2 bid, day 1-14) with loperamide prophylaxis or to L (1250 mg qd) + C (1000 mg/m2 bid, day 1-14) in 21-day cycles. Co-primary endpoints were centrally assessed progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Secondary endpoints included time to intervention for central nervous system (CNS) disease, objective response rate, duration of response (DoR), clinical benefit rate, and safety. RESULTS: 104 and 98 Asian patients were randomly assigned to receive N+C or L+C, respectively. Median PFS of N+C and L+C was 7.0 and 5.4 months (P = 0.0011), respectively. Overall cumulative incidence of intervention for CNS disease was lower with N+C (27.9 versus 33.8%; P = 0.039). Both median OS (23.8 versus 18.7 months; P = 0.185) and DoR (11.1 versus 4.2 months; P < 0.0001) were extended with N+C, compared to L+C. The incidences of grade 3/4 treatment emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and TEAEs leading to treatment discontinuation were mostly comparable between the two arms. Diarrhea and palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia were the most frequent TEAEs in both arms, similar to the overall population in incidence and severity. CONCLUSION: Consistent with the efficacy profile observed in the overall study population, Asian patients with HER2+ mBC, who had received ≥ 2 HER2-directed regimens, may also benefit from N+C. No new safety signals were noted. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01808573.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Capecitabina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Lapatinib/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(9)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518290

RESUMO

Patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have historically had few options and faced extremely poor prognoses if their disease progressed after standard-of-care tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Recently, the standard of care for HCC has been transformed as a combination of the immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) atezolizumab plus the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody bevacizumab was shown to offer improved overall survival in the first-line setting. Immunotherapy has demonstrated safety and efficacy in later lines of therapy as well, and ongoing trials are investigating novel combinations of ICIs and TKIs, in addition to interventions earlier in the course of disease or in combination with liver-directed therapies. Because HCC usually develops against a background of cirrhosis, immunotherapy for liver tumors is complex and oncologists need to account for both immunological and hepatological considerations when developing a treatment plan for their patients. To provide guidance to the oncology community on important concerns for the immunotherapeutic care of HCC, the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) convened a multidisciplinary panel of experts to develop a clinical practice guideline (CPG). The expert panel drew on the published literature as well as their clinical experience to develop recommendations for healthcare professionals on these important aspects of immunotherapeutic treatment for HCC, including diagnosis and staging, treatment planning, immune-related adverse events (irAEs), and patient quality of life (QOL) considerations. The evidence- and consensus-based recommendations in this CPG are intended to give guidance to cancer care providers treating patients with HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia
15.
Liver Cancer ; 10(4): 296-308, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414118

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Atezolizumab plus bevacizumab significantly improved overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) versus sorafenib in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in IMbrave150. Efficacy and safety data from the Chinese subpopulation are reported. METHODS: IMbrave150, a global, randomized, open-label, phase 3 study in patients with systemic treatment-naive unresectable HCC, included an extension phase that enrolled additional patients from mainland China. Patients were randomized (2:1) to receive intravenous atezolizumab 1,200 mg plus bevacizumab 15 mg/kg once every 3 weeks or sorafenib 400 mg twice a day until unacceptable toxicity or loss of clinical benefit. Co-primary endpoints were OS and independent review facility-assessed PFS per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 in the intention-to-treat population. RESULTS: Of 194 Chinese patients enrolled from April 16, 2018, to April 8, 2019 (137 in the global study and 57 in the China extension phase), 133 received atezolizumab plus bevacizumab and 61 received sorafenib. At the data cutoff (August 29, 2019), the stratified hazard ratio for OS was 0.44 (95% CI, 0.25-0.76) and for PFS was 0.60 (95% CI, 0.40-0.90). The respective median OS and PFS with atezolizumab plus bevacizumab were not reached (NR; 95% CI, 13.5 months to NR) and 5.7 months (95% CI, 4.2-8.3) versus 11.4 months (95% CI, 6.7 to NR) and 3.2 months (95% CI, 2.6-4.8) with sorafenib. Grade 3-4 adverse events (AEs) occurred in 78 of 132 (59.1%) atezolizumab plus bevacizumab-treated and 27 of 58 (46.6%) sorafenib-treated patients. The most common grade 3-4 AE with atezolizumab plus bevacizumab was hypertension, occurring in 15.2% of patients; however, other high-grade AEs were infrequent. CONCLUSION: Clinically meaningful improvements in OS and PFS observed with atezolizumab plus bevacizumab versus sorafenib suggest that atezolizumab plus bevacizumab may become a practice-changing treatment for Chinese patients with unresectable HCC.

16.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2021 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369368

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk of 6 types of malignancies in spondyloarthritis (SpA) with and without psoriasis (PsO) and on disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), compared to non-specific back pain (NSBP). METHODS: Medical records were retrieved. Patients with SpA with and without PsO were identified and compared to those with NSBP. Clinical data; follow-up duration; comorbidities; dates and types of cancer diagnosed; types and duration of DMARD therapy were collected. Propensity score adjustment was used to compare the risks of malignancies between SpA, SpA with and without PsO, and NSBP. Cox regression analysis was used to determine the risk of malignancy in DMARD therapy. RESULTS: A total of 3020 patients with SpA and 2527 patients with NSBP were studied. The mean follow-up duration in patients with SpA and NSBP was 9.6 years and 13.5 years respectively. Incidence and risk of malignancies were compatible between SpA and NSBP. The incidences of various carcinomas (per 1000 patient-years) in SpA were: 1.37 for colorectal carcinoma; 0.30 for carcinoma of pancreas; 0.30 for carcinoma of stomach; and 0.91 for lymphomas. Risk of colorectal carcinoma (HR 2.46; p=0.03) and lymphomas (HR 2.86; p=0.04) was increased in SpA with concomitant PsO. DMARD therapy was not associated with increased risks of malignancies after adjustment for confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS: Risk of malignancy was increased in SpA with PsO but not in other subtypes of SpA or DMARD therapy.

17.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(27): 2991-3001, 2021 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292792

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This phase I/II study evaluated tremelimumab (anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 monoclonal antibody) and durvalumab (antiprogrammed death ligand-1 monoclonal antibody) as monotherapies and in combination for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), including a novel regimen featuring a single, priming dose of tremelimumab (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02519348). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with HCC who had progressed on, were intolerant to, or refused sorafenib were randomly assigned to receive T300 + D (tremelimumab 300 mg plus durvalumab 1,500 mg [one dose each during the first cycle] followed by durvalumab 1,500 mg once every 4 weeks), durvalumab monotherapy (1,500 mg once every 4 weeks), tremelimumab monotherapy (750 mg once every 4 weeks [seven doses] and then once every 12 weeks), or T75 + D (tremelimumab 75 mg once every 4 weeks plus durvalumab 1,500 mg once every 4 weeks [four doses] followed by durvalumab 1,500 mg once every 4 weeks). Safety was the primary end point. Secondary end points included objective response rate (ORR) by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors v1.1 and overall survival; exploratory end points included circulating lymphocyte profiles. RESULTS: A total of 332 patients were enrolled (T300 + D, n = 75; durvalumab, n = 104; tremelimumab, n = 69; and T75 + D, n = 84). Tolerability was acceptable across arms, with grade ≥ 3 treatment-related adverse events occurring in 37.8%, 20.8%, 43.5%, and 24.4%, respectively. Confirmed ORRs (95% CI) were 24.0% (14.9 to 35.3), 10.6% (5.4 to 18.1), 7.2% (2.4 to 16.1), and 9.5% (4.2 to 17.9), respectively. An early expansion of CD8+ lymphocytes was associated with response across arms, with highest proliferating CD8+ lymphocyte levels occurring in the T300 + D arm. The median (95% CI) overall survival was 18.7 (10.8 to 27.3), 13.6 (8.7 to 17.6), 15.1 (11.3 to 20.5), and 11.3 (8.4 to 15.0) months in the T300 + D, durvalumab, tremelimumab, and T75 + D arms, respectively. CONCLUSION: All regimens were found to be tolerable and clinically active; however, the T300 + D regimen demonstrated the most encouraging benefit-risk profile. The unique pharmacodynamic activity and association with ORR of the T300 + D regimen further support its continued evaluation in HCC.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Liver Cancer ; 10(3): 275-284, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239813

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: KEYNOTE-240 investigated the efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab plus best supportive care (BSC) in sorafenib-treated patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Results for the subgroup of patients from Asia are described. METHODS: Adults with advanced HCC previously treated with sorafenib were randomized 2:1 to pembrolizumab or placebo plus BSC. Here, the Asian subgroup comprised patients enrolled in Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Thailand. Primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) per blinded central imaging review and overall survival (OS). Secondary endpoints included objective response rate (ORR) per blinded central imaging review, duration of response (DOR), and safety. RESULTS: The Asian subgroup included 157 patients. As of January 2, 2019, the median follow-up in this subgroup was 13.8 months for pembrolizumab and 8.3 months for placebo. The median PFS was 2.8 months for pembrolizumab (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.6-4.1) versus 1.4 months (95% CI 1.4-2.4) for placebo (hazard ratio [HR] 0.48; 95% CI 0.32-0.70). The median OS was 13.8 months (95% CI 10.1-16.9) for pembrolizumab versus 8.3 months (95% CI 6.3-11.8) for placebo (HR 0.55; 95% CI 0.37-0.80). ORR was 20.6% (95% CI 13.4-29.5) for pembrolizumab versus 2.0% (95% CI 0.1-10.6) for placebo (difference: 18.5%; 95% CI 8.3-27.6). The median DOR was 8.6 and 2.8 months for pembrolizumab and placebo, respectively. Any grade treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) occurred in 63 patients (58.9%) receiving pembrolizumab and 24 patients (48.0%) receiving placebo; 14 (13.1%) and 2 (4.0%) patients experienced grade 3-5 TRAEs, respectively. No treatment-related deaths occurred. CONCLUSION: Pembrolizumab demonstrated antitumor activity and was well tolerated in the Asian subgroup of KEYNOTE-240. A trend toward greater benefit with pembrolizumab in the Asian subgroup was observed compared with the overall cohort, supporting further evaluation of pembrolizumab treatment in this population.

19.
Adv Ther ; 38(7): 3900-3910, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrences following liver transplant (LT) is challenging. Most clinical trials of systemic therapies for advanced HCC excluded patients with any history of organ transplant. We aimed to assess the outcomes in using various systemic therapies in patients with post-LT recurrence. METHODS: Consecutive patients with HCC and recurrences following LT at a large tertiary centre from 2005 to 2018 were reviewed. Overall survival (OS), response rates and adverse events (AEs) were analysed. RESULTS: Forty-three consecutive patients with a recurrence of HCC following LT were identified from 2005 to 2018. Median OS from diagnosis of recurrence was 17 months (CI 11.3, 22.7). Early recurrence within 12 months of transplant was associated with a significantly worse median survival of 10 months (CI 8.5, 11.4) compared to 26 months (CI 18.8, 33.2) when recurrences occurred after 12 months from transplant (p < 0.001) with a hazard ratio of 0.104 (log-rank test, p < 0.001). A total of 41 patients had received systemic therapies and 79.1% of them were on sorafenib as the first-line treatment. Among these patients treated with sorafenib, median OS from recurrence was 14 months (CI 7.3, 20.7). Hand-foot syndrome (34.7%) was most common among AEs followed by diarrhoea (26.7%). Overall, AEs led to dose interruptions in 8.8% of patients. Notably, 47.1% of patients received subsequent lines of systemic therapies after sorafenib. CONCLUSIONS: Early recurrence within 1 year from transplant was the most significant risk factor. Treatment efficacy and adverse events and tolerability of sorafenib were comparable with those in the setting of advanced HCC without transplant.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Transplante de Fígado , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Postgrad Med J ; 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous (SC) trastuzumab is similar to intravenous trastuzumab in terms of pharmacokinetics, efficacy and tolerability. The use of dual anti-HER2 agents trastuzumab and pertuzumab has become the new standard for node-positive HER2-positive breast cancers at adjuvant setting, but the safety and tolerability of combining SC trastuzumab and intravenous pertuzumab is not well studied. METHODS: This was a prospective single-arm pilot study with locally advanced HER2-positive breast cancer who received adjuvant SC trastuzumab and intravenous pertuzumab after standard anti-HER2 treatment with chemotherapy. Primary outcomes included adverse events (AEs), severe AEs and cardiac AEs. Secondary outcome was invasive disease-free survival (iDFS). RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 21.7 months, 20 patients were enrolled. One patient (5%) developed asymptomatic drop in left ventricular ejection fraction from 69% to 53%. Two patients (10%) developed grade 1 injection site reaction related to SC trastuzumab. There were no grade 2 or above AEs. All AEs were transient. No new AEs were observed. The 1-year iDFS was 90% (95% CI 0.656 to 0.974) CONCLUSIONS: Combination of SC trastuzumab and intravenous pertuzumab for HER2-positive breast cancer is a safe and well-tolerated option in adjuvant setting.

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