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1.
Eur J Intern Med ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581979

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Severe COVID-19 cases have a detrimental hyper-inflammatory host response and different cytokine-blocking biologic agents were explored to improve outcomes. Anakinra blocks the activity of both IL-1α and IL­1ß and is approved for different autoinflammatory disorders, but it is used off-label for conditions characterized by an excess of cytokine production. Several studies on anakinra in COVID-19 patients reported positive effects. We performed a meta-analysis of all published evidence on the use of anakinra in COVID19 to investigate its effect on survival and need for mechanical ventilation. METHODS: We searched for any study performed on adult patients with acute hypoxemic failure related to 2019-nCoV infection, receiving anakinra versus any comparator. Primary endpoint was mortality at the longest available follow-up. Adverse effects, need for mechanical ventilation and discharge at home with no limitations were also analysed. RESULTS: Four observational studies involving 184 patients were included. Overall mortality of patients treated with anakinra was significantly lower than mortality in the control group (95% CI 0.14-0.48, p<0.0001). Moreover, patients treated with anakinra had a significantly lower risk of need for mechanical ventilation than controls (95% CI 0.250.74, p=0.002). No difference in adverse events and discharge at home with no limitations was observed. The Trial Sequential Analysis z-cumulative line reached the monitoring boundary for benefit and the required sample size. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of anakinra in COVID-19 patients was safe and might be associated with reductions in both mortality and need for mechanical ventilation. Randomized clinical trials are warranted to confirm these findings.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology, clinical course, and outcomes of COVID-19 patients in the Russian population are unknown. Information on the differences between laboratory-confirmed and clinically-diagnosed COVID-19 in real-life settings is lacking. METHODS: We extracted data from the medical records of adult patients who were consecutively admitted for suspected COVID-19 infection in Moscow, between April 8 and May 28, 2020. RESULTS: Of the 4261 patients hospitalised for suspected COVID-19, outcomes were available for 3480 patients (median age 56 years (interquartile range 45-66). The commonest comorbidities were hypertension, obesity, chronic cardiac disease and diabetes. Half of the patients (n=1728) had a positive RT-PCR while 1748 were negative on RT-PCR but had clinical symptoms and characteristic CT signs suggestive of COVID-19 infection.No significant differences in frequency of symptoms, laboratory test results and risk factors for in-hospital mortality were found between those exclusively clinically diagnosed or with positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR.In a multivariable logistic regression model the following were associated with in-hospital mortality; older age (per 1 year increase) odds ratio [OR] 1.05 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03 - 1.06); male sex (OR 1.71, 1.24 - 2.37); chronic kidney disease (OR 2.99, 1.89 - 4.64); diabetes (OR 2.1, 1.46 - 2.99); chronic cardiac disease (OR 1.78, 1.24 - 2.57) and dementia (OR 2.73, 1.34 - 5.47). CONCLUSIONS: Age, male sex, and chronic comorbidities were risk factors for in-hospital mortality. The combination of clinical features were sufficient to diagnoseCOVID-19 infection indicating that laboratory testing is not critical in real-life clinical practice.

5.
Minerva Cardioangiol ; 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989964

RESUMO

The interest in percutaneous high tech cardiac procedures has increased in recent years together with its safety and efficacy. In fragile patients, procedural sedation and analgesia are used to perform most of the procedures. General anesthesia remains the technique of choice during the team learning curve and might be required in selected patients or in emergent situations. Despite the high costs of percutaneous high tech cardiac procedures, the decrease in length of hospital stay, rate of intensive care admission and complications, balance the increase in devices costs. In fragile patients who undergo percutaneous high tech cardiac procedures, the primary role of the anesthesiologist is to prevent the need forpostprocedural intensive care unit and complications rate. Starting from the experience of a large university third level hospital we identified the eight most commonly performed contemporary percutaneous high tech cardiac procedures (ventricular tachycardia and atrial fibrillation ablation, protected percutaneous coronary intervention, transcatheter aortic valve implantation, MitraClip®, percutaneous patent foramen ovale closure, left atrial appendage closure, and dysfunctional lead extraction), discuss the role of procedural sedation and analgesia in this setting, and explore future perspectives.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727110

RESUMO

The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of preconditioning based on changes in inspiratory oxygen fraction on endothelial function in the model of ischemia-reperfusion injury of the myocardium in the condition of cardiopulmonary bypass. The prospective randomized study included 32 rabbits divided into four groups: hypoxic preconditioning, hyperoxic preconditioning, hypoxic-hyperoxic preconditioning, and control group. All animals were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. We provided preconditioning, then started cardiopulmonary bypass, followed by induced acute myocardial infarction (ischemia 45 min, reperfusion 120 min). We investigated endothelin-1, nitric oxide metabolites, asymmetric dimethylarginine during cardiopulmonary bypass: before ischemia, after ischemia, and after reperfusion. We performed light microscopy of myocardium, kidney, lungs, and gut mucosa. The endothelin-1 level was much higher in the control group than in all preconditioning groups after ischemia. The endothelin-1 even further increased after reperfusion. The total concentration of nitric oxide metabolites was significantly higher after all types of preconditioning compared with the control group. The light microscopy of the myocardium and other organs revealed a diminished damage extent in the hypoxic-hyperoxic preconditioning group as compared to the control group. Hypoxic-hyperoxic preconditioning helps to maintain the balance of nitric oxide metabolites, reduces endothelin-1 hyperproduction, and enforces organ protection.

8.
J Crit Care ; 58: 89-95, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402931

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Perioperative myocardial dysfunction occurs frequently in cardiac surgery, and is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality. Levosimendan has been suggested to reduce mortality of patients with perioperative myocardial dysfunction. However, long-term outcome data on its efficacy in cardiac surgery are lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cardiac surgery patients with perioperative myocardial dysfunction were randomized to levosimendan or placebo, in addition to standard inotropic care. One-year mortality data were collected. RESULTS: We randomized 506 patients (248 to levosimendan 258 to placebo). At 1-year follow-up, 41 patients (16.5%) died in the levosimendan group, while 47 (18.3%) died in the placebo group (absolute risk difference -1.8; 95% CI -8.4 to 4.9; P = .60). Female sex, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, previous myocardial infarction, serum creatinine, hematocrit, mean arterial pressure, and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass were independently associated with 1-year mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Levosimendan administration does not improve 1-year survival in cardiac surgery patients with perioperative myocardial dysfunction. One-year mortality in these patients is 17%. Six predictive factors for long-term mortality were identified. STUDY REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00994825 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

9.
Crit Care Med ; 48(7): 1047-1054, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32355134

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of the application of therapeutic hypothermia (32-35°C) on survival and major clinical endpoints in critically ill patients. DATA SOURCES: We searched online database and clinical trial registries dated up to April 30, 2019, and references of relevant studies. STUDY SELECTION: Low risk of bias randomized trials which compared hypothermia applied for at least 24 hours and conventional therapy in critically ill patients were included. We excluded trials investigating therapeutic hypothermia in indications already supported by international guidelines (adult cardiac arrest and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy of newborns) or intraoperative hypothermia. DATA EXTRACTION: Titles and abstracts were reviewed independently by two authors. If the articles seemed eligible, full-text articles were reviewed, and data were abstracted using a structured template. DATA SYNTHESIS: Our search retained 14 low risk of bias randomized trials (2,670 patients) performed in three different settings: traumatic brain injury, serious infections, and stroke. Therapeutic hypothermia was associated with an increase in mortality at longest follow-up available (432/1,375 [31%] vs 330/1,295 [25%]; risk ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.10-1.39; p = 0.0004; I = 0%). Pooled results showed no difference of good neurologic outcome among survivors between the two treatment arms (493/1,142 [43%] vs 486/1,067 [46%]; risk ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.97-1.12; p = 0.27; I = 1%). Arrhythmias were significantly increased among patients undergoing therapeutic hypothermia. We found no difference between groups in pneumonia, serious infections, any infection, hemorrhage, renal failure, deep vein thrombosis, and uncontrollable intracranial hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: High-quality randomized evidence indicates that therapeutic hypothermia is associated with higher mortality and no difference in good neurologic outcome compared with normothermia in critically ill patients. Although there still might be a possibility that therapeutic hypothermia is beneficial in a specific setting, routine application of therapeutic hypothermia would better be avoided outside the settings indicated by international guidelines (adult cardiac arrest and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy of newborns).

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434720

RESUMO

Despite improvements in surgical techniques and perioperative care, cardiac surgery still is burdened by relatively high mortality and frequent major postoperative complications, including myocardial dysfunction, pulmonary complications, neurologic injury, and acute kidney injury. Although the surgeon's skills and volume and patient- and procedure-related risk factors play a major role in the success of cardiac surgery, there is growing evidence that also optimizing perioperative care may improve outcomes significantly. The present review focuses on the aspects of perioperative care that are strictly related to the anesthesia regimen, with special reference to volatile anesthetics and neuraxial anesthesia, whose effect on outcome in adult cardiac surgery has been investigated extensively.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265083

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Conflicting data exist on the effect of dexmedetomidine on delirium. For the present study, a randomized trial was performed to investigate the effect of perioperative dexmedetomidine on the rate of postoperative delirium after cardiac surgery. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Patients (n = 169) undergoing elective cardiac surgery (coronary artery bypass graft surgery, valve surgery, or combined surgery) with cardiopulmonary bypass. INTERVENTIONS: Patients received a sevoflurane-based general anesthesia and were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive a dexmedetomidine infusion that started in the operating room (0.7 µg/kg/h) and continued into the intensive care unit (0.4 µg/kg/h) or an equivolume infusion of placebo. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A decrease in the rate of delirium in the dexmedetomidine group compared with the placebo group was demonstrated (6 of 84 [7.1%] v 16 of 85 [18.8%]; p = 0.02; odds ratio [OR] 0.33 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.12-0.90]). Reduced intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay also were observed (18 [18-22] hours v 22 [18-39] hours; p = 0.002 and 17 [7-20] days v 19 [8-21] days; p = 0.04, respectively). Mortality at 30 days was 2 (2.4%) in both groups. On multivariate analysis, only dexmedetomidine administration (OR 0.24 [95% CI 0.08-0.74]) and cardiopulmonary bypass time (OR 1.02 [95% CI 1.01-1.03] for increases of 1 min) were independent predictors of delirium development. CONCLUSIONS: Dexmedetomidine administered during and after general anesthesia for cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass decreased the rate of postoperative delirium and intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay.

14.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 34(6): 1622-1635, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276758

RESUMO

SEPARATION from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) after cardiac surgery is a progressive transition from full mechanical circulatory and respiratory support to spontaneous mechanical activity of the lungs and heart. During the separation phase, measurements of cardiac performance with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) provide the rationale behind the diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making process. In many cases, it is possible to predict a complex separation from CPB, such as when there is known preoperative left or right ventricular dysfunction, bleeding, hypovolemia, vasoplegia, pulmonary hypertension, or owing to technical complications related to the surgery. Prompt diagnosis and therapeutic decisions regarding mechanical or pharmacologic support have to be made within a few minutes. In fact, a complex separation from CPB if not adequately treated leads to a poor outcome in the vast majority of cases. Unfortunately, no specific criteria defining complex separation from CPB and no management guidelines for these patients currently exist. Taking into account the above considerations, the aim of the present review is to describe the most common scenarios associated with a complex CPB separation and to suggest strategies, pharmacologic agents, and para-corporeal mechanical devices that can be adopted to manage patients with complex separation from CPB. The routine management strategies of complex CPB separation of 17 large cardiac centers from 14 countries in 5 continents will also be described.

15.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(10): 2685-2694, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reducing mortality is a key target in critical care and perioperative medicine. The authors aimed to identify all nonsurgical interventions (drugs, techniques, strategies) shown by randomized trials to increase mortality in these clinical settings. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process. SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred fifty-one physicians from 46 countries. INTERVENTIONS: The authors performed a systematic literature search and identified all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showing a significant increase in unadjusted landmark mortality among surgical or critically ill patients. The authors reviewed such studies during a meeting by a core group of experts. Studies selected after such review advanced to web-based voting by clinicians in relation to agreement, clinical practice, and willingness to include each intervention in international guidelines. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors selected 12 RCTs dealing with 12 interventions increasing mortality: diaspirin-crosslinked hemoglobin (92% of agreement among web voters), overfeeding, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in septic shock, human growth hormone, thyroxin in acute kidney injury, intravenous salbutamol in acute respiratory distress syndrome, plasma-derived protein C concentrate, aprotinin in high-risk cardiac surgery, cysteine prodrug, hypothermia in meningitis, methylprednisolone in traumatic brain injury, and albumin in traumatic brain injury (72% of agreement). Overall, a high consistency (ranging from 80% to 90%) between agreement and clinical practice was observed. CONCLUSION: The authors identified 12 clinical interventions showing increased mortality supported by randomized controlled trials with nonconflicting evidence, and wide agreement upon clinicians on a global scale.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Médicos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Internet , Mortalidade/tendências
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