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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 716, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686222

RESUMO

The data presented here are from the Offinso North District Farm Health Study (ONFAHS), a population-based cross-sectional study among vegetable farmers in Ghana. The paper addresses knowledge, pesticide handling practices, and protective measures related to pesticide use by self-reported symptoms for 310 adult farmers who completed a comprehensive questionnaire on pesticide management practices and health. In addition, an inventory was prepared using information supplied by pesticide sellers/dealers in this district. We report that cough and wheezing (but not breathlessness) are positively associated with stirring pesticide preparations with bare hands/drinking water while mixing/applying pesticides, and stirring pesticide preparations with bare hands/drinking water/smoking cigarettes while mixing/applying pesticides. There is a significant exposure-response association between the number of precautionary measures practiced while handling pesticides and cough and wheezing but not with breathlessness. We also found unsafe practices to be associated with sexual dysfunction, nervousness, and lack of concentration. The results also suggest a negative association between practice of any precautionary measure when mixing/applying pesticides and sexual dysfunction, nervousness, and lack of concentration. We found that in spite of the fact that farmers have adequate knowledge about the environment and health effects of pesticides, several unhygienic practices are in widespread use, indicating that knowledge is not necessarily always translated in action. Further action is necessary to promote the safe use of pesticides and to replace existing poor management practices among these and other farmers in Ghana.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Praguicidas , Adulto , Agricultura , Tosse , Estudos Transversais , Gana , Humanos , Sons Respiratórios , Autorrelato
2.
J Nutr Metab ; 2018: 5989307, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30416828

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) has highlighted the beneficial role of adequate intake of potassium (K) in combating the global burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), mainly hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Diets are the main source of K supply to humans and can contribute to both K deficiency (hypokalemia) and excess (hyperkalemia). While global attention is currently devoted to K deficiency, K excess can be even more dangerous and deserves equal attention. The objectives of this paper were to (i) estimate the K intake of Ghanaian population using food supply and food composition data and (ii) compare this estimate with the WHO-recommended requirement for K in order to assess if there is a risk of inadequate or excess K intake. Food supply data (1961-2011) were obtained from the Food Balance Sheet (FBS) of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to derive trends in food and K supply. The average food supply in the FBS for 2010 and 2011 was used in assessing the risk of inadequate or excess dietary intake of K. The K content of the food items was obtained from food composition databases. Based on 2010-2011 average data, the K supply per capita per day was approximately 9,086 mg, about 2.6-fold larger than the WHO-recommended level (3,510 mg). The assessment suggests a potentially large risk of excess dietary K supply at both individual and population levels. The results suggest the need for assessing options for managing K excess as part of food security and public health strategies. The results further underscore a need for assessment of the K status of staple food crops and mixed diets, as well as K management in food crop production systems in Ghana.

3.
Heliyon ; 4(11): e00931, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480156

RESUMO

The realization of the scale, magnitude, and complexity of the water and sanitation problem at the global level has compelled international agencies and national governments to increase their resolve to face the challenge. There is extensive evidence on the independent effects of urbanicity (rural-urban environment) and wealth status on access to water and sanitation services in sub-Saharan Africa. However, our understanding of the joint effect of urbanicity and wealth on access to water and sanitation services across spatio-temporal scales is nascent. In this study, a pooled regression analysis of the compositional and contextual factors that systematically vary with access to water and sanitation services over a 25-year time period in fifteen countries across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) was carried out. On the whole, substantial improvements have been made in providing access to improved water sources in SSA from 1990 to 2015 unlike access to sanitation facilities over the same period. Households were 28.2 percent and 125.2 percent more likely to have access to improved water sources in 2000-2005 and 2010-2015 respectively, than in 1990-1995. Urban rich households were 329 percent more likely to have access to improved water sources compared with the urban poor. Although access to improved sanitation facilities increased from 69 percent in 1990-1995 and 74 percent in 2000-2005 it declined significantly to 53 percent in 2010-2015. Urban rich households were 227 percent more likely to have access to improved sanitation facilities compared with urban poor households. These results were mediated and attenuated by biosocial, socio-cultural and contextual factors and underscore the fact that the challenge of access to water and sanitation in sub-Saharan Africa is not merely scientific and technical but interwoven with environment, culture, economics and human behaviour necessitating the need for interdisciplinary research and policy interventions.

4.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203605, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30192868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity and poverty rates in Ghana are highest in the districts from latitude 8° N upwards. These have motivated several interventions aimed at addressing the food insecurity via promoting agricultural growth. An assessment of the overall impact of these interventions on food security is necessary to guide policy design and future interventions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A systematic review was used to assess the cumulative evidence of the effect of development interventions, implemented from 2006 to 2016 on food security, especially in Northern Ghana. Information were retrieved from over 20 Government and non-Governmental organisations through online search and actual visits. The number of studies included in systematic review was 22. The study showed that a large number of interventions have been implemented in Northern Ghana over the study period. Access to quality extension services, training and capacity building was a major intervention strategy. About 82% of studies considered increasing production but only 14% of the studies reported on changes in yield. About 42% of the included studies used market access as a strategy but about 44% reported increase in incomes of beneficiaries (with only seven studies providing numerical evidence for this claim). The ranking of frequency of intervention strategies was in the order extension and capacity building > production > postharvest value addition > water and irrigation facilities > storage facilities > input supply. A substantial number of the studies had no counterfactuals, weakening confidence in attributing impacts on food security for even the beneficiaries. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that evidence for impacts of the interventions on food security was weak, or largely assumed. A logical recommendation is the need for development partners to synchronise their measurement and indicators of food security outcomes. It is also recommended that some food security indicators are explicitly incorporated into intervention design while bearing in mind the potential need for counterfactuals.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Características da Família , Gana , Humanos , Pobreza
5.
Heliyon ; 4(6): e00665, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30003159

RESUMO

The development of cassava genotypes with root system traits that increase soil resource acquisition could increase yields on infertile soils but there are relatively few work that has quantified cassava root system architecture (RSA). We used an easily adaptable and inexpensive protocol to: (i) measure genotypic variation for RSA and shoot traits of a range of cassava genotypes; and (ii) identify candidate variables that contribute the largest share of variance. Cassava genotypes were grown in soil-filled pots, maintained at 70% field capacity. Shoot and RSA traits were measured on plants grown up to 30, 45 and 60 days. Multivariate analysis was used to determine major traits contributing to variation. The study showed that cassava roots are adventitious in origin consisting of a main root axis and orders of lateral roots, and therefore the historically used term "fibrous roots" are redundant currently not contributing to clarity. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) for traits evaluated. The highest relative root growth rate occurred over the first 30 days and ranged from 0.39 to 0.48 cm day-1. Root fresh weight was significantly correlated with other traits, including root length (r = 0.79), leaf area (r = 0.72), number of lower nodal roots (r = 0.60), indicating that direct selection based on these traits might be sufficient to improve root biomass. Up to the first six principal components explained over 80% of the total variation among the genotypes for the traits measured at 30, 45 and 60 days. Leaf area, root diameter and branching density-related traits were the most important traits contributing to variation. Selection of cassava genotypes based on shoot and root biomass, root diameter and branching density at juvenile growth stage could be successful predictors of nutrient and water-use efficiency in the field. Further studies are required to relate studied juvenile cassava root traits with the performance of field-grown-mature plant with regard to drought, nutrient-use efficiency and yield.

6.
J Environ Public Health ; 2018: 5847439, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29796020

RESUMO

This paper investigated the concentrations of eggs of three helminths (roundworm, hookworm, and whipworm) in the so-called black soils used for domestic and urban landscaping, home gardening and as growth medium for potted plants and pot experiments. The black soils are largely collected from active or abandoned waste dumpsites and fallowed or vegetated idle sites in the urban fringe or rural areas. Users buy black soils from dealers. Samples of black soils used for various purposes and at different places were collected for analysis of helminth eggs. The Modified EPA Method, which combines flotation and sedimentation, was used to isolate the eggs. The results show that these black soils have substantial loads of helminth eggs, with roundworm being dominant, followed by hookworm. Mean concentrations of helminth eggs were 2.45 (roundworm), 1.38 (hookworm), and 0.25 (whipworm) g-1 soil, respectively. The helminth egg loads also declined with duration of use of the black soils. It is concluded that black soils used for horticultural purposes in Ghana can be a potential source of helminth infestation. Therefore, treatment of black soils, regulation of black soil market and use, and development of growth media industry should be important components of helminth control strategy.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Ascaris lumbricoides/isolamento & purificação , Solo/parasitologia , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Gana , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas
7.
J Water Health ; 15(4): 658-672, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28771162

RESUMO

Chemometric techniques were applied to evaluate the spatial and temporal heterogeneities in groundwater quality data for approximately 740 goldmining and agriculture-intensive locations in Ghana. The strongest linear and monotonic relationships occurred between Mn and Fe. Sixty-nine per cent of total variance in the dataset was explained by four variance factors: physicochemical properties, bacteriological quality, natural geologic attributes and anthropogenic factors (artisanal goldmining). There was evidence of significant differences in means of all trace metals and physicochemical parameters (p < 0.001) between goldmining and non-goldmining locations. Arsenic and turbidity produced very high value F's demonstrating that 'physical properties and chalcophilic elements' was the function that most discriminated between non-goldmining and goldmining locations. Variations in Escherichia coli and total coliforms were observed between the dry and wet seasons. The overall predictive accuracy of the discriminant function showed that non-goldmining locations were classified with slightly better accuracy (89%) than goldmining areas (69.6%). There were significant differences between the underlying distributions of Cd, Mn and Pb in the wet and dry seasons. This study emphasizes the practicality of chemometrics in the assessment and elucidation of complex water quality datasets to promote effective management of groundwater resources for sustaining human health.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Subterrânea/química , Metais/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluição Química da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , Gana , Modelos Teóricos
8.
J Nutr Metab ; 2016: 3150498, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28050281

RESUMO

Adequate dietary intake of potassium (K) helps fight noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), mainly hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. This paper (i) estimated the K intake of Ghanaian population using food supply and food composition data and (ii) compared this estimate with the WHO recommended requirement for K in order to assess if there is a risk of inadequate K intake. Food supply data (1961-2011) was obtained from the FAO Food Balance Sheet (FBS) to derive trends in food and K supply. The average food supply in the FBS for 2010 and 2011 was used in assessing the risk of inadequate dietary intake of K. The K contents of the food items were obtained from food composition databases. The mean K supply per capita per day was approximately 856 mg. The assessment suggests a potentially large risk of inadequate dietary K supply at both individual and population levels. The results suggest the need for assessing options for managing K deficiency, including assessment of K supplying power of soils and K fertilizer management in food crop production systems, as well as empirical estimates of K content of food items (including those underreported in the FBS) and mixed diets in Ghana.

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