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1.
Nature ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087929

RESUMO

The UK Biobank is a prospective study of 502,543 individuals, combining extensive phenotypic and genotypic data with streamlined access for researchers around the world1. Here we describe the release of exome-sequence data for the first 49,960 study participants, revealing approximately 4 million coding variants (of which around 98.6% have a frequency of less than 1%). The data include 198,269 autosomal predicted loss-of-function (LOF) variants, a more than 14-fold increase compared to the imputed sequence. Nearly all genes (more than 97%) had at least one carrier with a LOF variant, and most genes (more than 69%) had at least ten carriers with a LOF variant. We illustrate the power of characterizing LOF variants in this population through association analyses across 1,730 phenotypes. In addition to replicating established associations, we found novel LOF variants with large effects on disease traits, including PIEZO1 on varicose veins, COL6A1 on corneal resistance, MEPE on bone density, and IQGAP2 and GMPR on blood cell traits. We further demonstrate the value of exome sequencing by surveying the prevalence of pathogenic variants of clinical importance, and show that 2% of this population has a medically actionable variant. Furthermore, we characterize the penetrance of cancer in carriers of pathogenic BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants. Exome sequences from the first 49,960 participants highlight the promise of genome sequencing in large population-based studies and are now accessible to the scientific community.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901402

RESUMO

The contradiction between the development of urban agglomerations and ecological protection has long been a challenging issue. China has experienced an astonishing expansion of its urban scale in the past 40 years, and nearly 783 million of the nation's people now live in cities. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta have been prioritized to become world-class clusters by 2020. The health effects of air pollution in these three urban agglomerations are becoming increasingly formidable. Given these conditions, using the daily mean PM2.5 concentration in 40 cities from January 2014 to December 2016, this research explored the spatial-temporal characteristics of PM2.5 concentrations in these three urban agglomerations. The annual mean PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta are 35.39 µg/m3, 53.72 µg/m3 and 78.54 µg/m3, respectively. Compared with the other two urban agglomerations, abundant rainfall causes the Pearl River Delta to have the lowest PM2.5 level. Furthermore, a general regression neural network (GRNN) method is developed to predict the PM2.5 concentration in these clusters on the second day, with inputs including the average, maximum and minimum temperature; average, maximum and minimum atmosphere; total rainfall; average humidity; average and maximum wind speed; and the PM2.5 concentration measured 1 day ahead. The results indicate that the GRNN method can precisely predict the concentration level in these clusters, and it is especially useful for the Pearl River Delta, as the underlying influence mechanism is more specified in this cluster than in the others. Importantly, this 1-day-ahead forecasting of PM2.5 concentrations can raise awareness among the public to improve their precautionary behaviours and help urban planners to provide corresponding support.

3.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(7): 752-758, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) can protect islet cells from the damage induced by TNF-α. METHODS: After isolation and purification, the neonatal porcine islet cell clusters (NICCs) were divided into 3 groups (islets 10 000 IEQ/group): a Nec-1 group (Nec-1+TNF-α was added to the culture medium), a TNF-α group (TNF-α was added to the culture medium), and a control group (pure medium). The number of cells was observed after 48 h of co-culture. The cell death was evaluated by AO/EB staining. Insulin secretion and DNA of islets were detected by chemiluminescence and nucleic acid quantitative analysis. RT-PCR assay was used to examine the mRNA expressions of insulin gene, glueogan gene and somatostatin gene. Flow cytometry analysis was used to detect the viability of B cells. RESULTS: The number of islets in Nec-1 group, TNF-α group and the control group were (8 425±2 187), (4 325±778), and (7 122±1 558) IEQ, respectively. Compared to the other two groups, the number of dead cells in TNF-α group was greatly increased. The insulin/DNA values in the Nec-1 group, TNF-α group and blank control group were (13.21±3.15), (2.47±0.45), and (7.44±0.97) mIU/mg, respectively. Compared to the TNF-α group and the control group, the mRNA relative expression levels of insulin gene (6.73±1.07), glucagon gene (10.13±1.98), somatostatin gene (8.57±1.11) were significantly increased in the Nec-1 group (all P<0.05), the rate of live cells (97.32±1.87)% and live B cells (90.86±3.68)% were increased significantly in the Nec-1 group (all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: TNF-α can induce neonatal porcine islet cells damage, which is attenuated in the presence of Nec-1. Nec-1 can increase the content of endocrine cells in NICCs.


Assuntos
Ilhotas Pancreáticas , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Animais , Imidazóis , Indóis , Insulina , Suínos
4.
Cancer Sci ; 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889778

RESUMO

Advanced hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma HCC with poor prognosis is often associated with chronic inflammation, immune tolerance, and marked heterogeneity. The interleukin-6 (IL-6)/JAK/STAT3 signal pathways play multiple regulatory roles in modulating inflammation and immunity in cancers. Polarization of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) is involved in HBV-related immunosuppression and CD8+ T-cell activation through ERK/IL-6/STAT3. Icaritin is a small molecule that has displayed anticancer activities through IL-6/JAK/STAT3 pathways in tumor cells and immune cells including CD8+ T cells, MDSCs, neutrophils, and macrophages. This study aimed to confirm icaritin immunomodulation in advanced HBV-related HCC patients with poor prognosis. Immunomodulation of MDSCs was evaluated in BALB/c mice in vivo. Immunomodulation of serum cytokines and a panel of immune checkpoint proteins were assessed in HBV-related, histologically confirmed HCC patients. Poor prognostic characteristics included HBV infection, bulky tumors, Child-Pugh B classification, and metastasis. Clinical end-points included safety, tumor response, and overall survival (OS). Icaritin treatment-induced dynamics of serum cytokines IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and soluble immune checkpoint proteins TIM3, LAG3, CD28, CD80, and CTLA-4 were assessed. No grade III/IV treatment-related adverse events were observed. Time-to-progression was significantly associated with the prognostic factors. Improved survival was observed in the advanced HCC patients with dynamic changes of cytokines, immune checkpoint proteins, and immune cells. Median OS (329-565 days) was significantly correlated with baseline hepatitis B surface antigen positivity, cytokines, tumor neoantigens, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection. Composite biomarker scores of high-level α-fetoprotein and T helper type I (Th1)/Th2 cytokines associated with favorable survival warrant further clinical development of icaritin as an alternative immune-modulatory regimen to treat advanced HCC patients with poor prognosis.

5.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958392

RESUMO

To achieve the high-level stable expression of chlorothalonil hydrolytic dehalogenase (Chd), the gene chd was first integrated into the chromosome of Bacillus subtilis WB800. High generation stability was achieved by almost no gene lost after six generations but Chd activity decreased. aprE promoter alteration, translation initiation region modification and multi-copy chromosome integration were studied and these modifications could increase Chd activity by 270%, 2304% and 25%. Chlorothalonil residual exhibited inhibition on bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass. The addition of Chd crude enzyme (60 µL per g wheat straw) could increase glucose production by 36.10% and 39.65% in synergistic hydrolysis and separate hydrolysis by laccase and cellulase with 120 mg/L residual chlorothalonil. Filter paper activity and carboxymethyl cellulase activity were enhanced by 12.84% and 23.95%, and biomass of Trichoderma reesei was increased by 76.67% under 50 µg chlorothalonil/g dry straw in solid-state fermentation. Thus, the high-level stable expressed Chd effectively eliminated chlorothalonil inhibition on enzymatic hydrolysis and solid-state fermentation. It showed promising potential for bioremediation of chlorothalonil pollution and improving conversion efficiency of lignocellulose.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857234

RESUMO

With the more efficient involvement of both technology and policy factors in China's whole industry-chain, the year 2020 is a key period for photovoltaic (PV) industry to achieve grid parity. In this context, COVID-19 may trigger a certain time-delay in new installed PV projects, thereby bringing an uncertain influence on the whole PV industry. To forecast the influence degree and influence cycle of COVID-19 on PV industry, this paper firstly clarifies the key features of epidemic situation as well as the basic rule of such pandemics' transmission along industry-chain. Then this paper constructs a system dynamics model targeting at cost accounting of PV power generation under the influence of COVID-19 and thus forecasts the variation rules, superposition effects and influence cycle of levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of PV power generation and the operations cost of each sub-system. Empirical results show that PV industry has a lag response to the COVID-19 for 1 quarter and periodic response for 4 quarters, which is mainly embodied in the rise of short-term production cost. At the same time, the influence of COVID-19 on the upstream firms of PV industry is stronger than that on downstream firms. With the gradual recovery of whole industry-chain, LCOE of PV power generation will rapidly return to the previous expected level of grid parity by the end of 2020.

7.
Ecol Evol ; 10(15): 8055-8072, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788961

RESUMO

Background: Anthropogenic factors potentially affect observed biogeographical patterns in population genetics, but the effects of ancient human activities on the original patterns created by natural processes are unknown. Sinotaia quadrata, a widely distributed freshwater snail species in East Asia, was used to investigate this issue. It is unclear whether S. quadrata in Japan was introduced from China and how different human uses and varying geographic patterns affect the contemporary population genetics between the two regions. Thus, we investigated the demography of S. quadrata and detected its genetic structure in Japan and continental East Asia. Results: Sinotaia quadrata populations first naturally migrated from continental East Asia to Japan, which is associated with the ancient period in Japanese geohistory (about 70,000 years ago). They were then artificially introduced in association with agriculture expansion by human movements in two recent periods (about 8,000 and 1,200 years ago). Populations in different parts of Japan have their own sources. Natural migration in the ancient period and artificial introduction in the recent period suggest that the population distribution is affected by both the geohistory of East Asia and the history of human expansion. In the background of the historical migration and introduction, contemporary populations in the two regions show different genetic patterns. Population divergence levels were significantly correlated with geographical patterns in Japan and significantly correlated with human interventions variables in continental East Asia, suggesting that long-term geographical isolation is likely the major factor that shaped the contemporary population genetics in Japan, while modern human uses are likely the major factor in continental East Asia. Conclusions: Our preliminary results show a complex demography and unusual genetic patterns in the contemporary populations for a common freshwater snail and are of significance to determine the historical formation and contemporary patterns of biogeography in Japan and continental East Asia.

8.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(3): 287-299, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615742

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic infection caused by Echinococcus granulosus larvae. It seriously affects the development of animal husbandry and endangers human health. Due to a poor understanding of the cystic fluid formation pathway, there is currently a lack of innovative methods for the prevention and treatment of CE. In this study, the protoscoleces (PSCs) in the encystation process were analyzed by high-throughput RNA sequencing. A total of 32,401 transcripts and 14,903 cDNAs revealed numbers of new genes and transcripts, stage-specific genes, and differently expressed genes. Genes encoding proteins involved in signaling pathways, such as putative G-protein coupled receptor, tyrosine kinases, and serine/threonine protein kinase, were predominantly up-regulated during the encystation process. Antioxidant enzymes included cytochrome c oxidase, thioredoxin glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase were a high expression level. Intriguingly, KEGG enrichment suggested that differentially up-regulated genes involved in the vasopressin-regulated water reabsorption metabolic pathway may play important roles in the transport of proteins, carbohydrates, and other substances. These results provide valuable information on the mechanism of cystic fluid production during the encystation process, and provide a basis for further studies on the molecular mechanisms of growth and development of PSCs.


Assuntos
Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Echinococcus granulosus/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Encistamento de Parasitas/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Equinococose/parasitologia
9.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(5): 2229-2238, 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608840

RESUMO

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a class of drug residues with a high frequency of detection in Taihu Lake. However, little information is available about the occurrence of typical NSAID mixtures in Taihu Lake as a whole across the four seasons. Therefore, for each season, the concentrations of five typical NSAIDs including diclofenac, ibuprofen, indomethacin, naproxen, and ketoprofen were monitored in the water of Taihu Lake by the method of high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) at 19 transects covering the entire lake. The temporal and spatial occurrence of NSAID mixtures in the water of Taihu Lake and their correlation with environmental factors were analyzed, and the mixture risk quotient (MRQ) model was also used to assess the ecological risk of the NSAID mixtures. The research results are as follows:① The concentrations of NSAIDs in the northern, western, and eastern waters of Taihu Lake are at a higher level compared to those in the central waters. Ketoprofen is the main contributor to the contamination of NSAID mixtures in all regions of Taihu Lake. ② The concentrations of NSAIDs in Taihu Lake are higher in summer (15.9-134.3 ng·L-1) and autumn (16.4-144.6 ng·L-1) but lower in spring (25.3-72.5 ng·L-1) and winter (14.6-57.4 ng·L-1), being significantly correlated with water conductivity and pH, respectively. ③ The MRQ model evaluation reveals that there are nine sections in Taihu Lake showing a high ecological risk (MRQ>1) from NSAID mixtures throughout the year. The ecological risk of the NSAID mixtures at a medium or high level (MRQ>0.1) lasts for a long time spanning the spring, summer, and autumn seasons, of which the risk is greatest in autumn. Overall, the pollution caused by the NSAID mixtures in the water of Taihu Lake should not be ignored, and especially great attention should be paid to the pollution in autumn.


Assuntos
Lagos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(2): 251-264, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640185

RESUMO

Applying exome sequencing to populations with unique genetic architecture has the potential to reveal novel genes and variants associated with traits and diseases. We sequenced and analyzed the exomes of 6,716 individuals from a Southwestern American Indian (SWAI) population with well-characterized metabolic traits. We found that the SWAI population has distinct allelic architecture compared to populations of European and East Asian ancestry, and there were many predicted loss-of-function (pLOF) and nonsynonymous variants that were highly enriched or private in the SWAI population. We used pLOF and nonsynonymous variants in the SWAI population to evaluate gene-burden associations of candidate genes from European genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for type 2 diabetes, body mass index, and four major plasma lipids. We found 19 significant gene-burden associations for 11 genes, providing additional evidence for prioritizing candidate effector genes of GWAS signals. Interestingly, these associations were mainly driven by pLOF and nonsynonymous variants that are unique or highly enriched in the SWAI population. Particularly, we found four pLOF or nonsynonymous variants in APOB, APOE, PCSK9, and TM6SF2 that are private or enriched in the SWAI population and associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. Their large estimated effects on LDL cholesterol levels suggest strong impacts on protein function and potential clinical implications of these variants in cardiovascular health. In summary, our study illustrates the utility and potential of exome sequencing in genetically unique populations, such as the SWAI population, to prioritize candidate effector genes within GWAS loci and to find additional variants in known disease genes with potential clinical impact.


Assuntos
Exoma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Índios Norte-Americanos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Alelos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Genética Populacional/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos
11.
Mol Hum Reprod ; 26(7): 532-548, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579212

RESUMO

Pre-eclampsia (PE), which results from abnormal placentation, is a primary cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. However, the causes of abnormal development of the placenta remain poorly understood. BHLHE40 is a transcriptional repressor in response to hypoxia. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that BHLHE40 negatively regulates miR-196a-5p expression, which may decrease miR-196a-5p to target SNX16. Since SNX16 exerts an inhibitory effect on cell migration, it may disrupt trophoblast cell migration in placentation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore a possible role of the BHLHE40/miR-196a-5p/SNX16 axis in PE pathogenesis. BHLHE40, miR-196a-5p and SNX16 mRNA and/or protein levels were detected in PE and normal placenta tissues. PE models in vitro and in vivo were constructed by culturing trophoblasts under hypoxia and reducing the uterine perfusion pressure in pregnant C57/BL6N mice, respectively. BHLHE40 and SNX16 were upregulated in PE placenta, while miR-196a-5p was downregulated. Knockdown of BHLHE40 reversed miR-196a-5p expression in trophoblasts under hypoxia, and upregulation of miR-196a-5p inhibited SNX16 expression. As indicated by ChIP assay, BHLHE40 bound to the promoter of the miR-196a-5p gene; luciferase reporter analysis showed that miR-196a-5p could bind to the 3'-untranslated region of SNX16 mRNA. Knockdown of either BHLHE40 or SNX16, or an increase in miR-196a-5p, restored cell viability, migration, invasion and matrix metalloprotein (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 expression under hypoxia. BHLHE40 knockdown also alleviated PE symptoms in pregnant C57/BL6N mice. This study supports involvement of the BHLHE40/miR-196a-5p/SNX16 axis in PE pathogenesis; Proper adjustment of the BHLHE40/miR-196a-5p/SNX16 axis is able to attenuate PE symptoms.

12.
Neuroscience ; 440: 130-145, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450294

RESUMO

Astrocytes are major glial cells critical in assisting the function of the central nervous system (CNS), but the functional changes and regulation mechanism of reactive astrocytes are still poorly understood in CNS diseases. In this study, mouse primary astrocytes were cultured, and inflammatory insult was performed to observe functional changes in astrocytes and the involvement of Notch-PI3K-AKT signaling activation through immunofluorescence, PCR, Western blot, CCK-8, and inhibition experiments. Notch downstream signal Hes-1 was clearly observed in the astrocytes, and Notch signal inhibitor GSI dose-dependently decreased the cleaved Notch-l level without an influence on cell viability. Inflammatory insult of lipopolysaccharide plus interferon-γ (LPS+IFNγ) induced an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, that is, iNOS, IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF, at the protein and mRNA levels in activated astrocytes, which was reduced or blocked by GSI treatment. The cell viability of the astrocytes did not show significant differences among different groups. While an increase in MyD88, NF-кB, and phosphor-NF-кB was confirmed, upregulation of PI3K, AKT, and phosphor-AKT was observed in the activated astrocytes with LPS+IFNγ insult and was reduced by GSI treatment. Inhibitor experiments showed that inhibition of Notch-PI3K-AKT signaling activation reduced the pro-inflammatory cytokine production triggered by LPS+IFNγ inflammatory insult. This study showed that the reactive astrocytes displayed pro-inflammatory adaptability through Notch-PI3K-AKT signaling activation in response to inflammatory stimulation, suggesting that the Notch-PI3K-AKT pathway in reactive astrocytes may serve as a promising target against CNS inflammatory disorders.

13.
Lab Med ; 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382753

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the value of serum soluble CD14 subtype (sCD14-ST) in early diagnosis of sepsis. METHODS: Seventy-two patients were diagnosed with systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, or septic shock. Peripheral blood was collected at 0, 12, 24, and 48 hours after admission to the hospital. Levels of sCD14-ST, procalcitonin (PCT), hypersensitive C-reactive protein (CRP), and white blood cells (WBC) were determined. RESULTS: Levels of sCD14-ST in the patients with septic shock were higher than those in the other patients (P < .01) and peaked at 48 h. PCT and CRP levels were similar in the patients at admission but increased by 5 times to 10 times in the next 48 h, especially in the patients with septic shock. WBC levels remained high and did not change dramatically. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity values of sCD14-ST to diagnose sepsis were much higher than those of the other markers. CONCLUSION: Compared with PCT, CRP, and WBC, sCD14-ST is a better biomarker for the early diagnosis of sepsis.

14.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(5): 963e-974e, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the use of computer-aided design and manufacturing cutting and drilling guides with prebent titanium plates for the correction of skeletal class III malocclusion. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial, 46 patients with skeletal class III malocclusion were randomly assigned into two groups. The patients underwent bimaxillary surgery with computer-aided design and manufacturing cutting and drilling guides with prebent titanium plates (experimental group) or computer-aided design and manufacturing splints (control group). Preoperative and postoperative imaging data were collected and then analyzed using Mimics Research 19.0, Geomagic Studio, and IBM SPSS Version 21.0. RESULTS: Deformity evaluation and posttreatment assessment were performed for all patients. The experimental group had fewer postoperative complications. Comparison of the linear and angular differences to facial reference planes revealed more accurate repositioning of the mandible and condyles in the experimental group, although the position of several landmarks still requires small adjustments. CONCLUSION: Computer-aided design and manufacturing cutting and drilling guides with prebent titanium plates effectively corrected skeletal class III malocclusion, providing positional control of segments with reasonable surgical accuracy. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, II.


Assuntos
Desenho Assistido por Computador , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe III/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ortognáticos/instrumentação , Osteotomia de Le Fort/instrumentação , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/instrumentação , Adulto , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Placas Ósseas , Cefalometria/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Maxila/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ortognáticos/métodos , Osteotomia de Le Fort/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Contenções , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Titânio , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(5): 984-990, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237436

RESUMO

Noni is a dry and mature fruit of Morinda citrifolia, which is widely distributed in the islands in the southern Pacific Ocean and the Indochina Peninsula in Asia. It is edible and has been used as a natural medicine for thousands of years. At present, Noni has been legally introduced into China, but there is no clear standard of traditional Chinese medicine properties and clinical application of traditional Chinese medicine, which greatly limits the application of compatibility with traditional Chinese medicine in China. This article appllied our pioneering modern research technology of new herbal medicine outside of China, theoretically studied the traditional Chinese medicine properties of Noni, and scientifically guided the reasonable compatibility and application of Noni with traditional Chinese medicine. The Web of Science and PubMed databases were selected to access the literatures on Noni. The retrieval time was August 1, 2018, with Noni or Morinda citrifolia as the search term. A total of 862 articles were retrieved. By reading the titles and abstracts of the articles, in addition to repetitive and irrelevant literature, 251 scientific research literatures with reasonable design and high credibility were selected, including 25 clinical trials, 94 pharmacological experiments, and 51 chemical composition literatures. Through analysis of scientific research literatures, led by clinical experiments, supported by pharmacological experiments, combined with the research progress of chemical components, the medicinal properties were studied under the guidance of traditional Chinese medicine theory. The Chinese medicine property of Noni is flat, with acid and sweet flavor.The channel tropisms of Noni included kidney, liver and spleen. The function of Noni included tonifying kindey and liver, strengthening tendon and bone, yiqi yangyin. The clinical application of Noni is used for liver and kidney deficiency, waist and knee weakness, weak muscles and bones; Qi and Yin deficiency, tiredness and thirst. Taken as fruit pulp or dry powder, the equivalent of dried product is 1-4 g. Noni is also distributed in Taiwan, Hainan in China. Hainan, Yunnan have been cultivated and introduced. Give Noni a clear Chinese medicine property, and lay a theoretical foundation for the compatibility of Noni with traditional Chinese medicine, which can enrich the Chinese medicine resources and promote the development of Chinese medicine.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Morinda/química , China , Frutas/química , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais , Plantas Medicinais/química
17.
Hum Mutat ; 41(5): 1012-1024, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981384

RESUMO

Haploinsufficiency of ARID1B (AT-rich interaction domain 1B) has been involved in autism spectrum disorder, nonsyndromic and syndromic intellectual disability, and corpus callosum agenesis. Growth impairment is a major clinical feature caused by ARID1B mutations; however, the mechanistic link has not been elucidated. Here, we confirm that growth delay is a common characteristic of patients with ARID1B mutations, which may be associated with dysregulation of the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. An analysis of patients harboring pathogenic variants of ARID1B revealed that nearly half had short stature and nearly all had below-average height. Moreover, the percentage of patients with short stature increased with age. Knockdown of arid1b in zebrafish embryos markedly reduced body length and perturbed the expression of both chondrogenic and osteogenic genes including sox9a, col2a1a, runx2b, and col10a1. Knockout of Arid1b in chondrogenic ATDC5 cells inhibited chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Finally, Wnt/ß-catenin signaling was perturbed in Arid1b-depleted zebrafish embryos and Arid1b knockout ATDC5 cells. These data indicate that ARID1B modulates bone growth possibly via regulation of the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway, and may be an appropriate target for gene therapy in disorders of growth and development.

18.
J Dig Dis ; 21(1): 46-51, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794121

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been increasing worldwide, and the risk of infection has increased due to the use of immunosuppressive and biologic medications. Some of these infections can be prevented with vaccinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the vaccination practices of Chinese gastroenterologists for patients with IBD. METHODS: Questionnaires based on quick response codes were sent using email and the WeChat platform to gastroenterologists at 20 hospitals in China. The vaccination practices of the gastroenterologists, including vaccinating for hepatitis B, hepatitis A, and varicella, were assessed. RESULTS: Of the 468 gastroenterologists who received the questionnaire, 307 (65.6%) completed it. Of the gastroenterologists who were most concerned about hepatitis B; 83.4% always or frequently asked about an infection history, 53.7% took an immunization history, and 73.6% tested patients for hepatitis B infection. However, few gastroenterologists did so for hepatitis A or varicella. The proportion of patients who were asked about an infection and immunization history and tested for varicella infection was 16.0%, 15.0%, and 9.4%, respectively. Only a few gastroenterologists recommended vaccination for patients without an infection before IBD medical treatment (26.7% for hepatitis A, 45.6% for hepatitis B, and 28% for varicella vaccination). CONCLUSION: Vaccination practices for patients with IBD used by Chinese gastroenterologists vary greatly, suggesting that education about immunization is needed.

19.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol ; 47(3): 459-465, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663629

RESUMO

Cholangiocarcinoma is an aggressive malignancy with rapid invasion, metastasis and poor prognosis, however, the mechanism mediating its cholangiocarcinoma development needs further investigation. Here, we demonstrate that decreased miR-138 in tumor tissues is related to the poor prognosis in patients, and that miR-138 mediates sorafenib-induced cell survival in cholangiocarcinoma cells. Moreover, miR-138 negatively regulates SOX4 expression by specifically targeting its 3' untranslated region (3' UTR). As per our results, overexpression of SOX4 reversed sorafenib-induced changes in cell viability and apoptosis. Furthermore, the elevated levels of SOX4 in the tumor tissues that correlated with poor prognosis. Overall, the present study reveals that miR-138/SOX4 is involved in sorafinib-mediated cell survival in cholangiocarcinoma cells, and is associated with poor prognosis.

20.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 62(5): 550-555, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305005

RESUMO

Rejuvenation refers to the process enabling plants to regain physiological and molecular characteristics lost after entering the adult phase. The underlying molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Previous studies have revealed that microRNA156 (miR156) is highly accumulated at juvenile stage and maintains juvenile traits by repressing a group of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) transcription factors. Here, we found that induction of miR156 expression in adult leaves can only restore some aspects of juvenile traits, such as loss of epidermal leaf hairs on the lower side of leaves and absence of serration at the leaf edges, but is incapable of delaying flowering and promoting adventitious root production.

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