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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125275

RESUMO

Terpenoids represent one of the largest class of chemicals in nature, which play important roles in food and pharmaceutical fields due to diverse biological and pharmacological activities. Microorganisms are recognized as a promising source of terpenoids due to its short growth cycle and sustainability. Importantly, microalgae can fix inorganic carbon through photosynthesis for the growth of themselves and the biosynthesis of various terpenoids. Moreover, microalgae possess effective biosynthesis pathways of terpenoids, both the eukaryotic mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway and the prokaryotic methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. In recent years, various genetic engineering strategies have been applied to increase target terpenoid yields, including overexpression of the rate-limited enzymes and inhibition of the competing pathways. However, since gene-editing tools are only built in some model microalgae, fermentation strategies that are easier to be operated have been widely successful in promoting the production of terpenoids, such as changing culture conditions and addition of chemical additives. In addition, an economical and effective downstream process is also an important consideration for the industrial production of terpenoids, and the solvent extraction and the supercritical fluid extraction method are the most commonly used strategies, especially in the industrial production of ß-carotene and astaxanthin from microalgae. In this review, recent advancements and novel strategies used for terpenoid production are concluded and discussed, and new insights to move the field forward are proposed. KEY POINTS: • The MEP pathway is more stoichiometrically efficient than the MVA pathway. • Advanced genetic engineering and fermentation strategies can increase terpene yield. • SFE has a higher recovery of carotenoids than solvent extraction.

2.
Vet Microbiol ; 259: 109130, 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052623

RESUMO

Pseudorabies virus (PRV), an alphaherpesvirus, causes respiratory and reproductive diseases in pigs and severe nervous symptom in other susceptible hosts. Previous studies showed that PRV infection induced a systemic inflammatory response in mice, indicating that pro-inflammatory cytokines participated in viral neuropathy in mice. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1ß is a key mediator of the inflammatory response and plays an important role in host-response to pathogens. However, the secretion of IL-1ß and its relationship with inflammasome activation during PRV infection remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that PRV infection caused significant secretion of several pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages and promoted IL-1ß secretion in an ATP-dependent manner. Furthermore, the expression of IL-1ß can be induced by only PRV infection and depended on NF-κB pathway activation, while the subsequent secretion of IL-1ß was mediated by ATP-induced P2 × 7R activation, loss of intracellular K+, and the subsequent NLRP3 inflammasome activation. By using a mouse infection model, we also found that ATP exacerbated clinical signs and death of mice infected by PRV in a NLRP3-dependent manner. These results indicate that ATP facilitates activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and enhances the pathogenicity of PRV in mice during its acute infection.

3.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 132021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051074

RESUMO

Depression is a complex neuropsychiatric disease involved multiple targets and signaling pathways. Systems pharmacology studies could potentially present a comprehensive molecular mechanism to delineate the anti-depressant effect of emodin (EMO). In this study, we investigated the anti-depressant effects of EMO in the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rat model of depression and gained insights into the underlying mechanisms using systems pharmacology and molecular simulation analysis. Forty-three potential targets of EMO for treatment of depression were obtained. GO biological process analysis suggested that the biological functions of these targets mainly involve the regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process, response to lipopolysaccharide, regulation of inflammatory response, etc. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, insulin resistance, IL-17 signaling pathway were the most significantly enriched signaling pathways. The molecular docking analysis revealed that EMO might have a strong combination with ESR1, AKT1 and GSK3B. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting showed that 2 weeks' EMO treatment (80 mg/kg/day) reduced depression related microglial activation, neuroinflammation and altered PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Our findings provide a systemic pharmacology basis for the anti-depressant effects of EMO.

4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 649235, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34017331

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is an important zoonotic food-borne pathogen causing severe invasive infections, such as sepsis, pneumonia, food poisoning, toxic shock syndrome and autoimmune diseases. Staphylococcal enterotoxin O (SEO) is a new type of enterotoxins of S. aureus with superantigenic and emetic activity. However, it is still unclear about SEO-induced host inflammatory response. Therefore, the mechanism of SEO-induced interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) secretion in mouse neutrophils was investigated in this study. Our results showed that recombinant SEO had superantigenic activity with high level of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production in mouse spleen cells and induced inflammatory cytokines expression including IL-1α, IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α in neutrophils under the action of ATP. In addition, SEO-induced IL-1ß secretion was dependent on activation of Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways. However, SEO-induced IL-1ß secretion was abolished in the neutrophils of NLRP3-/- mice compared with those of wild type mice, indicating that activation of NLRP3 inflammasome mediated IL-1ß secretion during neutrophils stimulation with SEO under the action of ATP. Moreover, this process of SEO+ATP-induced IL-1ß secretion was dependent on potassium (K+) efflux. Taken together, our study suggests that activation of TLR4/JNK/NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway mediate maturation and secretion of IL-1ß and provides a new insight on S. aureus virulence factor-induced host immune response.

5.
Analyst ; 146(8): 2490-2498, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899058

RESUMO

As with other proteins, the conformation of the silk protein is critical for determining the mechanical, optical and biological performance of materials. However, an efficient, accurate and time-efficient method for evaluating the protein conformation from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra is still desired. A set of convolutional neural network (CNN)-based deep learning models was developed in this study to identify the silk proteins and evaluate their relative content of each conformation from FTIR spectra. Compared with the conventional deconvolution algorithm, our CNN models are highly accurate and time-efficient, showing promise in processing massive FTIR data sets, such as data from FTIR imaging, and in quick analysis feedback, such as on-line and time-resolved FTIR measurements. We compiled an open-source and user-friendly graphical Python program that allows users to analyze their own FTIR data set, which can be from the silk protein or other proteins, for the encouragement and convenience of interested researchers to use the CNN models.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Conformação Proteica , Seda , Algoritmos , Redes Neurais de Computação
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918100

RESUMO

Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) causes severe pulmonary diseases, leading to high morbidity and mortality. It has been reported that inflammasomes such as NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) and absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) play an important role in the host defense against S. pneumoniae infection. However, the role of NLRP6 in vivo and in vitro against S. pneumoniae remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the role of NLRP6 in regulating the S. pneumoniae-induced inflammatory signaling pathway in vitro and the role of NLRP6 in the host defense against S. pneumoniae in vivo by using NLRP6-/- mice. The results showed that the NLRP6 inflammasome regulated the maturation and secretion of IL-1ß, but it did not affect the induction of IL-1ß transcription in S. pneumoniae-infected macrophages. Furthermore, the activation of caspase-1, caspase-11, and gasdermin D (GSDMD) as well as the oligomerization of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC) were also mediated by NLRP6 in S. pneumoniae-infected macrophages. However, the activation of NLRP6 reduced the expression of NF-κB and ERK signaling pathways in S. pneumoniae-infected macrophages. In vivo study showed that NLRP6-/- mice had a higher survival rate, lower number of bacteria, and milder inflammatory response in the lung compared with wild-type (WT) mice during S. pneumoniae infection, indicating that NLRP6 plays a negative role in the host defense against S. pneumoniae. Furthermore, increased bacterial clearance in NLRP6 deficient mice was modulated by the recruitment of macrophages and neutrophils. Our study provides a new insight on S. pneumoniae-induced activation of NLRP6 and suggests that blocking NLRP6 could be considered as a potential therapeutic strategy to treat S. pneumoniae infection.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Infecções Pneumocócicas/metabolismo , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/fisiologia , Animais , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Caspases Iniciadoras/metabolismo , Citocinas/biossíntese , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Infecções Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Vet Microbiol ; 257: 109080, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915344

RESUMO

Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is related to alphaherpesvirus and varicellovirus. pUL16 is a conserved protein in all herpesviruses, and studies have shown that UL16 can interact with the viral proteins pUL11, pUL49, pUL21, gD, and gE. In this study, we found that pUL16 interacted with the viral capsid protein VP26, which could not translocate into the nucleus itself but did appear in the nucleus. We further determined whether pUL16 assists the translocation of VP26 into the nucleus. We found that pUL16 interacted with VP26 with or without viral proteins, and since VP26 itself did not contain a nuclear location signal, we concluded that pUL16 assisted the translocation of VP26 into the nucleus. Deletion of UL16 and UL35 significantly reduced the 50 % tissue culture infective dose, virulence, attachment, and internalization of PRV in cells. These results show that the interaction between pUL16 and VP26 influences the growth and virulence of pseudorabies virus. Our research is the first study to show that pUL16 interacts with VP26, which may explain the targeting site of UL16 and viral capsids. It is also the first to show that UL16 assists the transport of other viral proteins to organelles. Previous researches on pUL16 usually emphasized its interaction with pUL11, pUL21, and gE, and sometimes commented on pUL49 and gD. Our research focuses on the novel interaction between pUL16 and VP26, thereby enriching the studies on herpesviruses and possibly providing different directions for researchers.

8.
Int J Mol Med ; 47(6)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846799

RESUMO

Present in more than one billion adults, hypertension is the most significant modifiable risk factor for mortality resulting from cardiovascular disease. Although its pathogenesis is not yet fully understood, the disruption of the renin­angiotensin system (RAS), consisting of the systemic and brain RAS, has been recognized as one of the primary reasons for several types of hypertension. Therefore, acquiring sound knowledge of the basic science of RAS and the underlying mechanisms of the signaling pathways associated with RAS may facilitate the discovery of novel therapeutic targets with which to promote the management of patients with cardiovascular and kidney disease. In total, 4 types of angiotensin II receptors have been identified (AT1R­AT4R), of which AT1R plays the most important role in vasoconstriction and has been most extensively studied. It has been found in several regions of the brain, and its distribution is highly associated with that of angiotensin­like immunoreactivity in nerve terminals. The effect of AT1R involves the activation of multiple media and signaling pathways, among which the most important signaling pathways are considered to be AT1R/JAK/STAT and Ras/Raf/MAPK pathways. In addition, the regulation of the nuclear factor κ­light­chain­enhancer of activated B cells (NF­κB) and cyclic AMP response element­binding (CREB) pathways is also closely related to the effect of ATR1. Their mechanisms of action are related to pro­inflammatory and sympathetic excitatory effects. Central AT1R is involved in almost all types of hypertension, including spontaneous hypertension, salt­sensitive hypertension, obesity­induced hypertension, renovascular hypertension, diabetic hypertension, L­NAME­induced hypertension, stress­induced hypertension, angiotensin II­induced hypertension and aldosterone­induced hypertension. There are 2 types of central AT1R blockade, acute blockade and chronic blockade. The latter can be achieved by chemical blockade or genetic engineering. The present review article aimed to highlight the prevalence, functions, interactions and modulation means of central AT­1R in an effort to assist in the treatment of several pathological conditions. The identification of angiotensin­derived peptides and the development of AT­2R agonists may provide a wider perspective on RAS, as well as novel therapeutic strategies.

9.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(8): 11678-11695, 2021 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882456

RESUMO

Piccolo is a presynaptic protein with high conservation among different species, and the expression of Piccolo is extensive in vertebrates. Recently, a small fragment of Piccolo (Piccolino), arising due to the incomplete splicing of intron 5/6, was found to be present in the synapses of retinas and cochleae. However, the comprehensive function of Piccolo in the retina and cochlea remains unclear. In this study, we generated Piccolo knockout mice using CRISPR-Cas9 technology to explore the function of Piccolo. Unexpectedly, whereas no abnormalities were found in the cochlear hair cells of the mutant mice, significant differences were found in the retinas, in which two layers (the outer nuclear layer and the outer plexiform layer) were absent. Additionally, the amplitudes of electroretinograms were significantly reduced and pigmentation was observed in the fundoscopy of the mutant mouse retinas. The expression levels of Bassoon, a homolog of Piccolo, as well as synapse-associated proteins CtBP1, CtBP2, Kif3A, and Rim1 were down-regulated. The numbers of ribbon synapses in the retinas of the mutant mice were also reduced. Altogether, the phenotype of Piccolo-/- mice resembled the symptoms of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in humans, suggesting Piccolo might be a candidate gene of RP and indicates Piccolo knockout mice are a good model for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of RP.

10.
Vascul Pharmacol ; : 106864, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865997

RESUMO

Background Extracellular vesicles (EVs) from vascular adventitial fibroblasts (AFs) contribute to the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and vascular remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). This study shows the crucial roles of EVs-mediated miR135a-5p transfer in VSMC proliferation and the underlying mechanisms in hypertension. Methods AFs and VSMCs were obtained from the aorta of Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) and SHR. EVs were isolated from the culture of AFs with ultracentrifugation method. Results MiR135a-5p level in SHR-EVs was significantly increased. MiR135a-5p inhibitor prevented the SHR-EVs-induced VSMC proliferation. Fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) was a target gene of miR135a-5p. FNDC5 level was lower in VSMCs of SHR. MiR135a-5p inhibitor not only increased FNDC5 expression, but reversed the SHR-EVs-induced FNDC5 downregulation in VSMCs of SHR. MiR135a-5p mimic inhibited FNDC5 expression, but failed to promote the SHR-EVs-induced FNDC5 downregulation in VSMCs of SHR. Exogenous FNDC5 prevented the SHR-EVs-induced VSMC proliferation of both WKY and SHR. Knockdown of miR135a-5p in fibroblasts completely prevented the upregulation of miR135a-5p in the EVs. The SHR-EVs from the miR135a-5p knockdown-treated fibroblasts lost their roles in inhibiting FNDC5 expression and promoting proliferation in VSMCs of both WKY and SHR. Conclusions Increased miR135a-5p in the SHR-EVs promoted VSMC proliferation of WKY and SHR via inhibiting FNDC5 expression. MiR135a-5p and FNDC5 are crucial targets for intervention of VSMC proliferation in hypertension.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807157

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a growing concern in modern society, and effective drugs for its treatment are lacking. Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) and its main alkaloids have been studied to treat neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. This study aimed to uncover the key components and mechanism of the anti-AD effect of UR alkaloids through a network pharmacology approach. The analysis identified 10 alkaloids from UR based on HPLC that corresponded to 90 anti-AD targets. A potential alkaloid target-AD target network indicated that corynoxine, corynantheine, isorhynchophylline, dihydrocorynatheine, and isocorynoxeine are likely to become key components for AD treatment. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed the Alzheimers disease (hsa05010) was the pathway most significantly enriched in alkaloids against AD. Further analysis revealed that 28 out of 90 targets were significantly correlated with Aß and tau pathology. These targets were validated using a Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) dataset. Molecular docking studies were carried out to verify the binding of corynoxine and corynantheine to core targets related to Aß and tau pathology. In addition, the cholinergic synapse (hsa04725) and dopaminergic synapse (hsa04728) pathways were significantly enriched. Our findings indicate that UR alkaloids directly exert an AD treatment effect by acting on multiple pathological processes in AD.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Alcaloides/análise , Alcaloides/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Humanos , Indóis/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Compostos de Espiro/farmacologia , Uncaria/química
12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764061

RESUMO

Noble metals manifest themselves with unique electronic structures and irreplaceable activity toward a wide range of catalytic applications but are unfortunately restricted by limited choice of geometric structures spanning single atoms, clusters, nanoparticles, and bulk crystals. Herein, we propose how to overcome this limitation by integrating noble metal atoms into the lattice of transition metal oxides to create a new type of hybrid structure. This study shows that iridium single atoms can be accommodated into the cationic sites of cobalt spinel oxide with short-range order and an identical spatial correlation as the host lattice. The resultant Ir0.06Co2.94O4 catalyst exhibits much higher electrocatalytic activity than the parent oxide by 2 orders of magnitude toward the challenging oxygen evolution reaction under acidic conditions. Because of the strong interaction between iridium and cobalt oxide support, the Ir0.06Co2.94O4 catalyst shows significantly improved corrosion resistance under acidic conditions and oxidative potentials. This work eliminates the "close-packing" limitation of noble metals and offers promising opportunity to create analogues with desired topologies for various catalytic applications.

13.
Vet Microbiol ; 255: 109023, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677368

RESUMO

The cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) signaling pathway plays an important role in the innate immune response by the production of type I interferon (IFN) against DNA virus infection. However, viruses have evolved a variety of strategies to antagonize the host antiviral response to facilitate infection and replication. Pseudorabies virus (PRV), a DNA virus that causes great economic losses to the swine industry, encodes approximate 70 proteins, including some that are involved in evasion of host immunity. However, the mechanism employed by PRV to regulate type I IFN remains unclear. The results of the present study showed that the transcription levels of type I IFN were significantly upregulated by a UL24-deleted PRV strain. Furthermore, IFN-ß activation induced by poly(dA:dT) or stimulated by cGAS-STING was inhibited by UL24 overexpression in PK15 cells. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that UL24 interacts with and can degrade interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) through the proteasome pathway in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these results showed that PRV UL24 interacted with IRF7 via the proteasome pathway and antagonized cGAS-STING-mediated activation of IFN-ß.

14.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 548: 7-13, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631677

RESUMO

Lipocalin family members, LCN8 and LCN9, are specifically expressed in the initial segment of mouse caput epididymis. However, the biological functions of the molecules in vivo are yet to be clarified. In this study, CRISPR/Cas9 technology was used to generate Lcn8 and Lcn9 knockout mice, respectively. Lcn8-/- and Lcn9-/- male mice showed normal spermatogenesis and fertility. In the cauda epididymis of Lcn8-/- male mice, morphologically abnormal sperm was increased significantly, the proportion of progressive motility sperm was decreased, the proportion of immobilized sperm was elevated, and the sperm spontaneous acrosome reaction (AR) frequency was increased. Conversely, the knockout of Lcn9 did not have any effect on the ratio of morphologically abnormal sperm, sperm motility, and sperm spontaneous AR frequencies. These results demonstrated the role of LCN8 in maintaining the sperm quality in the epididymis, and suggested that the deficiency of LCN8 leads to epididymal sperm maturation defects.

15.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 132: 103557, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639241

RESUMO

RNAi is an essential technology for studying gene function in eukaryotes, and is also considered to be a potential strategy for pest control. However, the mechanism behind the cellular uptake of dsRNA in aphids, a group of important agricultural sucking pests, remains unknown. Here, using the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum as model for aphids, we identified two core genes of clathrin-dependent endocytosis (CDE), Apchc and Apvha16. We confirmed that expression of Apchc, Apvha16 and RNAi core component genes (ApAgo2, ApDcr2 and ApR2d2) were simultaneously induced at 12 h after feeding dsRNA. By using an RNAi-of-RNAi approach, we demonstrated that suppression of Apchc and Apvha16 transcripts by RNAi significantly impaired RNAi efficiency of selected reporter genes (RGs), including ApGNBP1, Apmts and Aphb, suggesting the involvement of CDE in cellular dsRNA uptake in aphids. Further confirmation was also provided using two inhibitors, chlorpromazine (CPZ) and bafilomycin A1 (BafA1). Administration of CPZ and of BafA1 both led to an impaired silencing efficiency of the RGs in the pea aphid. Finally, these RNAi-of-RNAi results were reconfirmed in the peach aphid Myzus persicae. Taking these findings together, we conclude that CDE is involved in cellular dsRNA uptake in aphids.

16.
Crit Rev Biotechnol ; 41(3): 339-354, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541146

RESUMO

Microbial cell factories provide vital platforms for the production of chemicals. Advanced biotechnological toolboxes have been developed to enhance their efficiency. However, these tools have limitations in improving physiological functions, and therefore boosting the efficiency (e.g. titer, rate, and yield) of microbial cell factories remains a challenge. In this review, we propose a strategy of microbial physiological engineering (MPE) to improve the efficiency of microbial cell factories. This strategy integrates tools from synthetic and systems biology to characterize and regulate physiological functions during chemical synthesis. MPE strategies mainly focus on the efficiency of substrate utilization, growth performance, stress tolerance, and the product export capacity of cell factories. In short, this review provides a new framework for resolving the bottlenecks that currently exist in low-efficiency cell factories.

17.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589794

RESUMO

Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) greatly contributes to vascular remodeling in hypertension. This study is to determine the roles and mechanisms of miR-135a-5p intervention in attenuating VSMC proliferation and vascular remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). MiR-135a-5p level was raised, while fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 (FNDC5) mRNA and protein expressions were reduced in VSMCs of SHRs compared with those of Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs). Enhanced VSMC proliferation in SHRs was inhibited by miR-135a-5p knockdown or miR-135a-5p inhibitor, but exacerbated by miR-135a-5p mimic. VSMCs of SHRs showed reduced myofilaments, increased or even damaged mitochondria, increased and dilated endoplasmic reticulum, which were attenuated by miR-135a-5p inhibitor. Dual-luciferase reporter assay shows that FNDC5 was a target gene of miR-135a-5p. Knockdown or inhibition of miR-135a-5p prevented the FNDC5 downregulation in VSMCs of SHRs, while miR-135a-5p mimic inhibited FNDC5 expressions in VSMCs of both WKYs and SHRs. FNDC5 knockdown had no significant effects on VSMC proliferation of WKYs, but aggravated VSMC proliferation of SHRs. Exogenous FNDC5 or FNDC5 overexpression attenuated VSMC proliferation of SHRs, and prevented miR-135a-5p mimic-induced enhancement of VSMC proliferation of SHR. MiR-135a-5p knockdown in SHRs attenuated hypertension, normalized FNDC5 expressions and inhibited vascular smooth muscle proliferation, and alleviated vascular remodeling. These results indicate that miR-135a-5p promotes while FNDC5 inhibits VSMC proliferation in SHRs. Silencing of miR-135a-5p attenuates VSMC proliferation and vascular remodeling in SHRs via disinhibition of FNDC5 transcription. Either inhibition of miR-135a-5p or upregulation of FNDC5 may be a therapeutically strategy in attenuating vascular remodeling and hypertension.

18.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(1)2021 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477467

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive opportunistic pathogen which causes infections in a variety of vertebrates. Virulence factors are the main pathogenesis of S. aureus as a pathogen, which induce the host's innate and adaptive immune responses. Toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) is one of the most important virulence factors of S. aureus. However, the role of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) in TSST-1-induced innate immune response is still unclear. Here, purified recombinant TSST-1 (rTSST-1) was prepared and used to stimulate mouse peritoneal macrophages. The results showed that under the action of adenosine-triphosphate (ATP), rTSST-1 significantly induced interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production in mouse macrophages and the production was dose-dependent. In addition, rTSST-1+ATP-stimulated cytokine production in macrophage depends on the activation of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4), but not TLR2 on the cells. Furthermore, the macrophages of NLRP3-/- mice stimulated with rTSST-1+ATP showed significantly low levels of IL-1ß production compared to that of wild-type mice. These results demonstrated that TSST-1 can induce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in macrophages via the activation of the TLR4 and NLRP3 signaling pathways. Our study provides new information about the mechanism of the TSST-1-inducing host's innate immune responses.

19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(4)2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483420

RESUMO

RNA helicases play roles in various essential biological processes such as RNA splicing and editing. Recent in vitro studies show that RNA helicases are involved in immune responses toward viruses, serving as viral RNA sensors or immune signaling adaptors. However, there is still a lack of in vivo data to support the tissue- or cell-specific function of RNA helicases owing to the lethality of mice with complete knockout of RNA helicases; further, there is a lack of evidence about the antibacterial role of helicases. Here, we investigated the in vivo role of Dhx15 in intestinal antibacterial responses by generating mice that were intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific deficient for Dhx15 (Dhx15 f/f Villin1-cre, Dhx15ΔIEC). These mice are susceptible to infection with enteric bacteria Citrobacter rodentium (C. rod), owing to impaired α-defensin production by Paneth cells. Moreover, mice with Paneth cell-specific depletion of Dhx15 (Dhx15 f/f Defensinα6-cre, Dhx15ΔPaneth) are more susceptible to DSS (dextran sodium sulfate)-induced colitis, which phenocopy Dhx15ΔIEC mice, due to the dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota. In humans, reduced protein levels of Dhx15 are found in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. Taken together, our findings identify a key regulator of Wnt-induced α-defensins in Paneth cells and offer insights into its role in the antimicrobial response as well as intestinal inflammation.

20.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493405

RESUMO

Salmonella is considered one of the leading causes for foodborne diseases in humans. Pork and its products contaminated with Salmonella are increasingly recognized as an important source of human salmonellosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance and prevalence of integrons in Salmonella isolates from pig farms. In total, 92 of 724 (12.7%) samples were Salmonella-positive, including 64 (15.0%) from fecal samples, 27 (12.6%) from floor samples, 1 (4.5%) from water samples, and 0 from feed and air samples. These isolates showed the highest resistance to tetracycline (85.9%), followed by trimethoprim (67.4%), ampicillin (60.9%), and chloramphenicol (51.1%). In addition, 51 isolates carried the complete class 1 integron, most of which (42/51) harbored antibiotic resistance cassettes. A total of six gene cassettes including orfF, est-X, dfrA1+aadA1, aadA1, dfrA12+aadA2, and sat were identified, in which the most prevalent one was orfF (29.4%). Furthermore, all 19 class 1 integron-positive isolates harboring dfr genes showed resistance to trimethoprim (SXT), suggesting that the trimethoprim resistance gene (dfr) may contribute to the emergence of SXT resistance phenotype. Therefore, considering the significance of integrons and related resistance genes for public health, special measures should be taken to control Salmonella spp. on the pig farms and to prevent spread of integrons and associated resistance genes.

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