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1.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573727

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking (CS) is known to reduce body weight and this often masks its real effect on insulin action. The present study tested the hypothesis that CS can divert lipid deposition to muscles to offset the supposed benefit of reduced body weight gain on insulin signalling in this major site for glucose tolerance (or insulin action). The study was conducted in mice exposed to chronic CS followed by either a chow (CH) diet or a high-fat (HF) diet. CS increased triglyceride (TG) levels in both plasma and muscle despite a reduced body weight gain and adiposity. CS led to glucose intolerance in CH-fed mice and they retained the glucose intolerance that was induced by the HF diet. In adipose tissue, CS increased macrophage infiltration and the mRNA expression of TNFα but suppressed the protein expression of adipose triglyceride lipase and PPARγ. While CS increased hormone-sensitive lipase and suppressed the mRNA expression of leptin, these effects were blunted in HF-fed mice. These results imply that CS impairs insulin signalling in skeletal muscle via accumulated intramuscular lipids from lipolysis and lipodystrophy of adipose tissues. This may explain why smokers may not benefit from insulin sensitising effects of reduced body weight gain.

2.
Biomed Chromatogr ; : e4914, 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515056

RESUMO

Dingkun Dan (DKD), a famous traditional Chinese medicine prescription since Qing Dynasty (1739), has been widely used in the treatment of irregular menstruation, leucorrhea abnormality and postpartum gynecological disease. It is comprised by 30 various types of herbal and animal orient medicine, which results in the complexity of its chemical compositions. In this study, an integrative method was established to rapidly characterize the chemical components of DKD by using UPLC-Q-TOF/MSE combined with the UNIFITM software. As a result, a total of 234 compounds were identified including 47 triterpenoid saponins, 55 flavonoids, 38 alkaloids and others. Among them, 170 compounds were characterized initially and 61 compounds were unambiguously identified by using standards. Under the same analysis conditions, 43 prototypical components, which were tentatively assigned as triterpenoid saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, phenylpropanoids and others, have been absorbed in rat by serum pharmacochemistry analysis. DKD has exerted the diverse pharmacological activities through the combined effect of these various components. This study was the first systematic study of chemical components in vitro originating from 30 medicinal materials and prototypes in vivo of DKD, which could provide a scientific evidence for explaining its therapeutic effect.

3.
Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol ; : 1-7, 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448015

RESUMO

Purpose: To compare the effect of intervention providing home modifications and assistive devices based on MOHO theory with home exercise on people with disability in time use, competence and values of occupational performance and activity limitations.Methods: Participants were 20 people with disabilities due to deficits in central nervous system. Eleven people in the experimental group partook in environmental modifications and assistive device intervention and nine people in the control partook in home exercise programmes. A total of eight sessions were progressed, one pre-test, six sessions of interventions and one post-test. Occupational Questionnaire (OQ) was used to evaluate one's time use. Occupational Self Assessment (OSA) was used to test the competence and values of one's everyday occupational performance. Activity Limitations Measure (ACTIVLIM) was used to assess the activity limitation of one's functional ability. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to analyse the comparison of the pre-post of time use, competence and values of occupational performance, and activity limitations. Mann-Whitney U was used to compare between both groups.Results: Among the four occupational areas of OQ, the participation time in ADL significantly increased and rest significantly decreased in the experimental group (p<.05). The competence of occupational performance also increased in the experimental group whereas the values of occupational performance increased in the control group (p<.05). The activity limitation significantly decreased in control group (p<.05) but not in the experimental group.Conclusions: Using the interaction between human and environment for environmental modification increased the time use in occupational participation and competence to perform occupation in people with disability. By applying MOHO theory to evaluate and modify one's home environment and activity performance, we could comprehend the life style of clients and suggest opportunities to actively participate in ADLs.Implications for rehabilitationUsing the interaction between human and environment for environmental modification increased the time use in occupational participation and competence to perform occupation in people with disability.By applying MOHO theory to evaluate and modify one's home environment, we could comprehend the life style of clients and suggest opportunities to actively participate in ADLs.Adapting MOHO theory to enhance activity participation will contribute to enhance the quality of occupational therapy services in community settings.

4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 7303897, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382567

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the temporal trends in mortality and disease burden of injuries in Anhui province from 2008 to 2017, so as to provide reference for injury control and prevention. Methods: Data of mortality were collected from 9 national surveillance points in Anhui province during 2008-2017 in the Information System for Death Cause Register and Management. The surveillance data were analyzed by using crude mortality, standardized mortality rate (SMR), potential year of life lost (PYLL), PYLL rate (PYLLR), and average of year life lost (AYLL). Results: There were a total of 44855 people died from injury, accounted for 9.44% of the all-cause mortality, ranked as the fifth leading cause of deaths in the whole population, and denoted the first leading cause of deaths in the 0-44 year's group. The leading causes of injury deaths were road traffic accidents, suicide, accidental falls, drowning, and poisoning. Road traffic accidents was the primary cause of injury deaths among the male population, while suicide was the dominate cause of injury deaths among the female population. Drowning, traffic accidents, and suicide accounted for the most injury deaths among the population aged 0-14 years, 15-64 years, and above 60 years, respectively. The road traffic accidents accounted for the largest proportion of injury PYLL and PYLLR, and drowning caused the highest AYLL among injury deaths. Conclusion: In Anhui province, road traffic accidents, suicide, accidental falls, drowning, and poisoning were the top five causes of injury deaths that harm the health of local residents; corresponding injury prevention strategies should be formulated.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(23): 26258-26266, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432467

RESUMO

The neural system is a multifunctional perceptual learning system. Our brain can perceive different kinds of information to form senses, including touch, sight, hearing, and so on. Mimicking such perceptual learning systems is critical for neuromorphic platform applications. Here, an artificial tactile perceptual neuron is realized by utilizing electronic skins (E-skin) with oxide neuromorphic transistors, and this artificial tactile perceptual neuron successfully simulates biological tactile afferent nerves. First, the E-skin device is constructed using microstructured polydimethylsiloxane membranes coated with Ag/indium tin oxide (ITO) layers, exhibiting good sensitivities of ∼2.1 kPa-1 and fast response time of tens of milliseconds. Then, the chitosan-based electrolyte-gated ITO neuromorphic transistor is fabricated and exhibits high performance and synaptic responses. Finally, the integrated artificial tactile perceptual neuron demonstrates pressure excitatory postsynaptic current and paired-pulse facilitation. The artificial tactile perceptual neuron is featured with low energy consumption as low as ∼0.7 nJ. Moreover, it can mimic acute and chronic pain and nociceptive characteristics of allodynia and hyperalgesia in biological nociceptors. Interestingly, the artificial tactile perceptual neuron can employ "Morse code" pressure-interpreting scheme. This simple and low-cost approach has excellent potential for applications including but not limited to intelligent humanoid robots and replacement neuroprosthetics.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5199, 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251314

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease. However, no reliable biomarkers have been identified to represent the clinical status. This study aimed to investigate whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) findings are useful imaging biomarkers to indicate the clinical status of ALS patients. Ninety-six probable or definite ALS cases and 47 age- and sex-matched, normal controls were enrolled. Demographic and clinical data were collected at the time of DTI. DTI data were acquired using a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner and analysed by voxel-wise statistical analyses for fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity, mean diffusivity, and mode of anisotropy. Compared with the healthy control group, the ALS group had significant differences in DTI scalars in the diffuse tracts of the brain, which was predominant in the corticospinal tract at the brainstem and cerebellar peduncle area. Furthermore, the DTI values correlated with the ALS functional rating scale-revised (ALSFRS-R) scores and the delta ALSFRS-R score representing the rate of disease progression. The subgroup analysis revealed a more severe and widespread brain degeneration was observed in rapidly progressive ALS. Therefore, our results suggest that DTI findings are useful as imaging biomarkers for evaluating the clinical severity and rate of disease progression in ALS.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5768, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238869

RESUMO

Recent advances in molecular genetic testing (MGT) have improved identification of genetic aetiology of candidates for cochlear implantation (CI). However, whether genetic information increases CI outcome predictability in post-lingual deafness remains unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the outcomes of CI with respect to genetic aetiology and clinical predictors by comparing the data of study subjects; those with an identified genetic aetiology (GD group), and those without identifiable variants (GUD group). First, we identified the genetic aetiology in 21 of 40 subjects and also observed genetic etiologic heterogeneity. The GD group demonstrated significantly greater improvement in speech perception scores over a 1-year period than did the GUD group. Further, inverse correlation between deafness duration and the 1-year improvement in speech perception scores was tighter in the GD group than in the GUD group. The weak correlation between deafness duration and CI outcomes in the GUD group might suggest the pathophysiology underlying GUD already significantly involves the cortex, leading to lesser sensitivity to further cortex issues such as deafness duration. Under our MGT protocol, the correlation between deafness duration and CI outcomes were found to rely on the presence of identifiable genetic aetiology, strongly advocating early CI in individual with proven genetic aetiologies.

8.
Environ Res ; 185: 109434, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276166

RESUMO

Evaluating the characteristics of exposure to mainstream cigarette smoke is an essential field in tobacco research because of the large risk burden among smokers. Detailed evaluation of the complex factors pertaining to the exposure of smokers to mainstream cigarette smoke was attempted by analysis of discarded cigarette butts. A total of 5475 samples of discarded cigarette butts was collected to investigate the exposure characteristics in relation to Korean smokers. The basic physico-chemical characteristics of cigarettes, including the filter length, filter type, menthol addition, and nicotine and tar content, were determined and the manufacturer and cigarette size were identified. The tobacco-burned percentage (TBP)) and tar staining were used as physical markers, and actual human exposure to cigarette smoke was determined using the part filter method. Multiple linear regression analyses and generalized ordinal logistic regression analysis were conducted to identify the relationship between the socio-demographic factors and the physico-chemical characteristics of the cigarettes themselves and the exposure characteristics. Significant associations were observed between the TBP and age group, occupational group, manufacturer, tar staining, ISO tar content, and filter length. Increased odds of smoking with a heavier tar stain among Korean smokers were associated with blue collar workers vs. other workers, manufacturer B vs. other manufacturers, recess filter vs. other filter types, ISO tar content, and TBP. Finally, significant associations between the log-transformed human-smoked tar and nicotine yields and occupational group, the TBP, tar staining, and physico-chemical properties of cigarettes were found and were used to propose models for predicting the actual exposure to tar and nicotine. The proposed models account for 60-61% and 47-49% of the variance of human exposure to tar and nicotine, respectively. This analysis of discarded cigarette butts revealed that various factors, including socio-demographic factors such as age group and occupational group, as well as the physico-chemical properties of cigarette products such as the filter type and length, cigarette size, ISO tar and nicotine content, and mentholation, affect the characteristics of exposure of Korean smokers to mainstream cigarette smoke.

9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 258: 112874, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311485

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Salvia miltiorrhiza is a traditional oriental medicine widely used for preventing and treating disorders of the liver, menstrual, and blood circulation systems. Osteoporosis, loss of bone with age and/or estrogen deficiency, is an important causal factor of fracture. S. miltiorrhiza extract has been used to alleviate dysmenorrhea and painful osteoarthritis. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was performed to investigate the anti-osteoporosis activity of the Salvia miltiorrhiza ethanol extract (SME) in osteoporosis-prone conditions: ovariectomized (OVX) and naturally menopaused (NM) ICR mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anti-osteoporotic potentials of SME (50-200 mg/kg) were evaluated based on bone mineral density using microCT analysis, biochemical parameters, and changes in the gene expressions involved in bone resorption. RESULTS: SME ameliorated the loss of trabecular bone both in OVX and NM mice. SME was effective in correcting aberrant levels of RANKL, osteocalcin, and BALP, which are critically involved in bone resorption. In addition, SME suppressed the expression of TRAF6 and NFATc1, which play a role in osteoclast differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: SME suppressed the loss of trabecular bone via suppressing bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation both in OVX and NM mice. SME is likely to be developed as a therapeutic agent for osteoporosis.

10.
Adv Mater ; : e1907500, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319170

RESUMO

For the last few decades, nanoscale materials and structures have been extensively studied and developed, making a huge impact on human sustainability. For example, the introduction of nanostructures has brought substantial development in electrocatalysts and optical sensing applications. However, there are still remaining challenges that need to be resolved to further improve their performance, reliability, and cost-effectiveness. Herein, long-range ordered 3D nanostructures and their design principles are introduced with an emphasis on electrocatalysts for energy conversion and plasmonic nanostructures for optical sensing. Among the various fabrication techniques, sequential solvent-injection-assisted nanotransfer printing is suggested as a practical fabrication platform for tunable long-range ordered 3D nanostructures composed of ultrahigh-resolution building blocks. Furthermore, the importance of understanding and controlling the 3D design parameters is discussed to realize more efficient energy conversion as well as effective surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analyses, suggesting new solutions for clean energy and healthcare issues.

11.
Meat Sci ; 165: 108108, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182547

RESUMO

This study describes a model of the growth kinetics for S. aureus in raw beef under wrapped packaging (WP), modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), vacuum packaging (VP), and vacuum skin packaging (VSP). Beef samples were inoculated with S. aureus and stored at 10, 15, 20, and 25 °C. VP and VSP showed lower maximum bacteria counts and higher lag time than WP and MAP at all temperatures. At 10 °C, S. aureus in VP and VSP decreased to about 2.5 Log CFU/g. Two primary models (modified Gompertz model and reparameterized Gompertz survival model) were used in the study. The secondary models were described using a polynomial equation and the Davey model. The bias factor (Bf), accuracy factor (Af), and root mean square error (RMSE) of the secondary models were 0.91-1.09, 1.00-1.13, and 0.00-0.68, respectively. The predictive models for kinetics of S. aureus in various packaged raw beef could help to predict the fate of S. aureus more accurately.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160105

RESUMO

Mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH) are widely used in the food industry for applications such as printing inks, additives, adhesives, and processing aids for food additives. Recently, the migration of MOH from food contact paper and board into foods has raised public health concerns. In this study, a total of 110 food contact paper and board samples, including baking and cooking paper (23), baking cups (28), food packaging bags (22), lunch boxes (8), party plates (26), and straws (3) were evaluated to quantify the content and short-term migration levels of MOH. The MOH were separated into mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH)/polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons (POSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) via a validated on-line liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (LC-GC-FID) technique. The coating materials of the sample products comprised polyethylene, polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, and silicone. The effects of the coating materials on the content and migration of MOH/POSH were evaluated. Quantitative analysis of the MOH in the samples showed that the MOSH/POSH and MOAH content varied widely, ranging from 16 to 5626 mg kg-1 for MOH, regardless of the coating materials. Short-term migration of MOSH/POSH was observed only in samples with polyolefinic coatings, such as polyethylene and polypropylene, in experiments conducted at 25 °C for 10 min, although the extent of MOAH migration for all samples was at the trace level. The migration of MOSH/POSH was detected within the range of 0.93 to 62.3 µg L-1 in 22 samples, and the migration of MOAH was detected within the range of 0.80 to 2.6 µg L-1 in only 4 samples. These results demonstrate that although the short-term migration potential of MOH is generally negligible, the migration of MOSH/POSH into wet fatty foods can be accelerated by polyolefinic coatings, even within a very short time.

13.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 184: 113197, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120187

RESUMO

Untargeted mass spectrometry analysis is one of the most challenging and meaningful steps in the rapid structural elucidation of the highly complex and diverse constituents of traditional Chinese medicine. Specifically, it is a laborious and time-consuming way to identify unknown compounds. Herein, a workflow was proposed to expedite the annotations of the chemical structures in Pheretima aspergillum (E. Perrier) (Di-Long, DL). First, ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOFMS) was performed to obtain the untargeted mass spectral data. Then, the spectral data were uploaded to the Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking (GNPS) platform to create a network and extract the Mass2Motifs (co-occurring fragments and neutral losses) using unsupervised substructure annotation topic modeling (MS2LDA). Finally, a structural analysis was performed using the proposed workflow of MS2LDA in combination with mass spectral molecular networking and in silico fragmentation prediction. As a result, a total of 124 compounds from DL were effectively characterized, of which 89 (7 furan sulfonic acids, 57 phospholipids and 25 carboxamides) were identified as potentially new compounds from DL. The results presented in this article significantly improve the understanding of the chemical composition of DL and provide a solid scientific basis for the future study of the quality control, underlying pharmacology and mechanism of DL. Moreover, the proposed workflow was used for the first time to accelerate the annotations of unknown molecules from TCM. Furthermore, this workflow will increase the efficiency of characterizing the 'unknown knowns' and elucidation of the 'unknown unknowns' from TCM, which are crucial steps of discovering the natural product drugs in TCM.

14.
Nanotechnology ; 31(26): 265302, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131063

RESUMO

The etch characteristics of Si and TiO2 nanostructures for optical devices were investigated using pulse biased inductively coupled plasmas (ICP) with SF6/C4F8/Ar and BCl3/Ar, respectively, and the results were compared with those etched using continuous wave (CW) biased ICP. By using pulse biasing compared to CW biasing in the etching of the line/pillar nanostructures with various aspect ratios, there was a reduction of the aspect ratio dependent etching (ARDE) and therefore, uniform etch depths for nanostructures with different pattern widths, as well as the improvement of the etch profiles without any notching, were obtained not only for silicon nanostructures but also for TiO2 nanostructures. The investigation has determined that the improvement of etch profiles and reduced ARDE effect when using pulse biasing are related to the decreased surface charging caused by neutralization of the surface and the improved radical adsorption (or etch byproduct removal) on the etched surfaces during the pulse-off period for pulse biasing compared to CW biasing.

15.
Eur J Med Chem ; 192: 112172, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163815

RESUMO

Discovery of novel anti-obesity agents is a challenging and promising research area. Based on our previous works, we synthesized 40 novel ß-indoloquinazoline analogues by altering the skeleton and introducing preferential side chains, evaluated their lipid-lowering activity and summarized the structure-activity relationships. In combination with an evaluation of the lipid-lowering efficacies, AMP-dependent activated protein kinase (AMPK) activating ability and liver microsomal stability, compound 23 (named as IQZ23) was selected for further studies. IQZ23 exerted a high efficacy in decreasing the triglyceride level (EC50 = 0.033 µM) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Mechanistic studies revealed the lipid-lowering activity of IQZ23 was dependent on the AMPK pathway by modulating ATP synthase activity. This activation was accompanied by mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidation capacity increased, and insulin sensitivity enhanced in pertinent cell models by various interventions. Correspondingly, IQZ23 (20 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment significantly reversed high fat and cholesterol diet (HFC)- induced body weight increases and accompanying clinical symptoms of obesity in mice but without indicative toxicity. These results indicate that IQZ23 could be a useful candidate for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders.

16.
Nanotechnology ; 31(21): 215404, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032014

RESUMO

Tailoring the chemical structures of a precursor polymer for carbon nanofibers (CNFs) produced by thermal treatment of electrospun nanofibers was studied to prepare the electrodes for electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). To improve energy storage performance of CNF electrodes, 6FDA-durene nanofibers were crosslinked by a vapor crosslinking method, and subsequently carbonized. Chemical modification via crosslinking was confirmed by FTIR spectra while the conversion of crosslinked 6FDA-durene into carbon was done by Raman spectroscopy. Electrochemical performance of these CNF electrodes was evaluated by assembling coin cells, and the CNFs derived from crosslinked 6FDA-durene nanofibers showed higher specific capacitances, energy densities and cycling stability than those from non-crosslinked ones. It was also shown that CNFs prepared using 1 min crosslinking exhibit the highest energy storage performances, a specific capacitance of 301 F g-1 (at 10 mV s-1), and the maximum energy density of 11.1 Wh kg-1 (at 0.5 A g-1) and power density of 1.8 kW kg-1 (at 6 A g-1). Surface area and porosity of CNFs, which is critical for the performance of EDLC electrodes, were studied by nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements, and it was clearly seen that surface crosslinking of precursor polymers improved surface properties of the resultant CNFs.

18.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 189: 110829, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036332

RESUMO

Chlorin e6 (Ce6), with its high phototoxic potential, has wide applications in photodynamic therapy (PDT) for many human diseases. However, poor cancer cell localization of Ce6 has limited its direct application for PDT. Here, we developed cancer-targeting peptide p 18-4/chlorin e6 (Ce6)-conjugated polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (PPC) nanoparticles for improving the targeting ability of Ce6 to breast cancer cells, thereby enhancing PDT efficacy. The synthesized PPC nanoparticles exhibited a spherical shape with an average diameter of 127.2 ± 11.3 nm in aqueous solution. Compared with free Ce6, the immobilization of p 18-4 enhanced the in vitro cellular uptake and targeting ability of PPC nanoparticles in breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. In addition, the intracellular uptake of PPC nanoparticles in MDA-MB-231 cells was dramatically increased compared with other cancer cells, indicating an obvious targeting ability of PPC nanoparticles on breast cancer cells. Upon light irradiation, PPC nanoparticles revealed significantly improved phototoxicity to MDA-MB-231 cells, mainly due to apoptotic cell death. In vivo PDT study suggested that PPC nanoparticles exhibited increased retention in tumor tissues and effectively inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 tumors in a target-specific manner. Overall, these results indicate that PPC nanoparticles are highly effective PDT agents for breast cancer therapy.

19.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 277(3): 827-832, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912217

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prognostic value of the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscle atrophy observed on neck computed tomography (CT) in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. METHODS: CT images of 87 subjects with unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) were evaluated to analyze the PCA muscle atrophy and to measure the severity of the PCA muscle atrophy in semi-quantitative manner. The grading of the PCA muscle atrophy was compared with the recruitment pattern of laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) and restoration of vocal fold movement. RESULTS: The PCA muscle was identifiable on CT in 73 subjects. Using the PCA muscle atrophy as an indicator of UVFP, we correctly predicted the paralysis in 69 (94.5%). Grade of the PCA muscle atrophy is significantly correlated with recruitment pattern of LEMG. If the positive result is defined as the PCA muscle showed moderate to severe degree of atrophy, we could predict the persistent UVFP in 88% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: PCA muscle atrophy identified on CT scan in patients with UVFP, is associated with low rates of return of mobility in the affected vocal fold.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990641

RESUMO

Condensed phosphates are deliberately added to the fishery and processed marine food products on purpose to increase the weight of products. However, excessive intake overwhelming bodily homoeostasis can result in phosphate toxicity such as mineral and bone disorders, associated with chronic kidney diseases, and cardiovascular events. Rapid analysis for condensed phosphates is required to detect the illegal adulteration of processed marine products. We optimised an analytical method using ion chromatography for the rapid and selective detection of condensed phosphates in various kinds of fishery and processed marine products. We compared the performance of three columns (IonPac AS11, AS11-HC, and AS16) for the detection of condensed phosphates with respect to time of analysis and sensitivity. The IonPac AS11 column exhibited the shortest retention time for the major condensed phosphates (pyro-, tri-, and trimetaphosphate), the highest sensitivity for trimetaphosphate, and good repeatability and precision. Microwave and boiling processing were examined as methods to prevent hydrolysis of condensed phosphates into orthophosphate, which is critical in distinguishing intentionally added condensed phosphates from naturally occurring orthophosphate. Microwave treatment was determined to be the more effective method to suppress hydrolysis of condensed phosphates to orthophosphate. Furthermore, microwave processing could be used for thawing the frozen samples, saving extra effort and time. We confirmed that the method exhibits good recovery (80% or more) and precision (%RSD < 10%) for samples with various matrices. With the method, 14 kinds of fishery and processed marine food products were successfully analysed for condensed phosphates. Especially, we identified that phosphate levels in the processed shrimp and dried shredded squid samples exceeded the maximum allowable levels specified in the CODEX standard. We believe that our method would be useful for the rapid analysis of condensed phosphates in various types of fishery and processed marine food products.


Assuntos
Fosfatos/análise , Animais , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica , Pesqueiros , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Limite de Detecção , Micro-Ondas , Alimentos Marinhos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Extração em Fase Sólida
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