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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 705: 135899, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864167

RESUMO

Precipitation is known to have legacy effects on plant diversity and production of many terrestrial ecosystems. Precipitation regimes are expected to become more variable with increasing extreme precipitation events. However, how previous-year precipitation regimes affect the current-year aboveground biomass (AGB) remains largely unknown. Here we measured long-term (2004-2017) AGB in a semi-arid grassland of the Chinese Loess Plateau to evaluate the impact of previous-year precipitation amount on current-year AGB. Furthermore, to assess the response of current-year AGB to previous-year precipitation regimes, we conducted a field manipulation experiment that included three precipitation regimes during 2014-2017: (i) ambient precipitation, (ii) monthly added four 5 mm rain events, and (iii) monthly added one 20 mm event. Both the long-term (2004-2017) observations under ambient precipitation and short-term (2014-2017) measurements under manipulative treatments showed significant positive effects of previous-year precipitation on current-year AGB. Our path analysis suggested that previous-year precipitation frequency had negative effects on the current-year density and mean height of grass (Leymus secalinus) while had positive effects on forb (Artemisia capillaris). The forb had much smaller height and AGB (65% and 53% less, respectively) than the grass. Consequently, the AGB reduced in the weekly small events treatment, causing the sensitivity of AGB to precipitation to decrease. Therefore, our findings indicated that the impacts of precipitation regimes on plant community dynamics should be taken into consideration while assessing the precipitation legacy effect on ecosystem production.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Pradaria , Poaceae , Chuva
2.
Glob Chang Biol ; 25(10): 3354-3364, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216082

RESUMO

The degree to which climate warming will stimulate soil organic carbon (SOC) losses via heterotrophic respiration remains uncertain, in part because different or even opposite microbial physiology and temperature relationships have been proposed in SOC models. We incorporated competing microbial carbon use efficiency (CUE)-mean annual temperature (MAT) and enzyme kinetic-MAT relationships into SOC models, and compared the simulated mass-specific soil heterotrophic respiration rates with multiple published datasets of measured respiration. The measured data included 110 dryland soils globally distributed and two continental to global-scale cross-biome datasets. Model-data comparisons suggested that a positive CUE-MAT relationship best predicts the measured mass-specific soil heterotrophic respiration rates in soils distributed globally. These results are robust when considering models of increasing complexity and competing mechanisms driving soil heterotrophic respiration-MAT relationships (e.g., carbon substrate availability). Our findings suggest that a warmer climate selects for microbial communities with higher CUE, as opposed to the often hypothesized reductions in CUE by warming based on soil laboratory assays. Our results help to build the impetus for, and confidence in, including microbial mechanisms in soil biogeochemical models used to forecast changes in global soil carbon stocks in response to warming.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Aquecimento Global , Processos Heterotróficos , Microbiologia do Solo
3.
Glob Chang Biol ; 25(6): 2152-2161, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924573

RESUMO

Past vegetation and climatic conditions are known to influence current biodiversity patterns. However, whether their legacy effects affect the provision of multiple ecosystem functions, that is, multifunctionality, remains largely unknown. Here we analyzed soil nutrient stocks and their transformation rates in 236 drylands from six continents to evaluate the associations between current levels of multifunctionality and legacy effects of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) desert biome distribution and climate. We found that past desert distribution and temperature legacy, defined as increasing temperature from LGM, were negatively correlated with contemporary multifunctionality even after accounting for predictors such as current climate, soil texture, plant species richness, and site topography. Ecosystems that have been deserts since the LGM had up to 30% lower contemporary multifunctionality compared with those that were nondeserts during the LGM. In addition, ecosystems that experienced higher warming rates since the LGM had lower contemporary multifunctionality than those suffering lower warming rates, with a ~9% reduction per extra degree Celsius. Past desert distribution and temperature legacies had direct negative effects, while temperature legacy also had indirect (via soil sand content) negative effects on multifunctionality. Our results indicate that past biome and climatic conditions have left a strong "functionality debt" in global drylands. They also suggest that ongoing warming and expansion of desert areas may leave a strong fingerprint in the future functioning of dryland ecosystems worldwide that needs to be considered when establishing management actions aiming to combat land degradation and desertification.


Assuntos
Clima , Ecossistema , Solo/química , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Plantas/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 660: 236-244, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640092

RESUMO

China initiated the "Grain for Green Project" in 1999 to mitigate soil erosion. The vegetation cover of the Chinese Loess Plateau, one of the most erosive regions in the world, has been greatly increased. However, studies on quantitatively investigating the climate change and human activities on vegetation coverage change were rare. In this study, spatio-temporal changes in vegetation coverage were investigated using MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data over 2000-2016. And a new method was introduced using Net Primary Productivity (NPP) model and relationship between NPP and NDVI to quantitatively and spatially distinguish the NDVI affected by climate change and human activities. Results showed that mean NDVI value over 2009-2016 were 14.46% greater than that over 2000-2007. In order to quantify the contribution of climate change and human activities to vegetation change, an NPP model suitable for the grassland of the Chinese Loess Plateau was identified using biomass observations from field survey and literature. The NDVI affected by climate change (NDVIclimate) was estimated by the NPP model and the relationship between NPP and NDVI. And the NDVI affected by human activities (NDVIhuman) was calculated by actual NDVI minus NDVIclimate. Comparison of the two stages showed that human activities and climate change contributed 42.35% and 57.65% respectively to the ΔNDVI on grassland in the Loess Plateau. After analysis of numerous NDVIhuman related factors, the slopes restored by the "Grain for Green Project" was considered the main influence factor of human activities.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Mudança Climática , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Pradaria , Atividades Humanas , China , Modelos Teóricos
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 616-617: 1174-1180, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29107367

RESUMO

Understanding under which climate and soil conditions the plant productivity-precipitation relationship is linear or nonlinear is useful for accurately predicting the response of ecosystem function to global environmental change. Using long-term (2000-2016) net primary productivity (NPP)-precipitation datasets derived from satellite observations, we identify >5600pixels in the North Hemisphere landmass that fit either linear or nonlinear temporal NPP-precipitation relationships. Differences in climate (precipitation, radiation, ratio of actual to potential evapotranspiration, temperature) and soil factors (nitrogen, phosphorous, organic carbon, field capacity) between the linear and nonlinear types are evaluated. Our analysis shows that both linear and nonlinear types exhibit similar interannual precipitation variabilities and occurrences of extreme precipitation. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance suggests that linear and nonlinear types differ significantly regarding to radiation, ratio of actual to potential evapotranspiration, and soil factors. The nonlinear type possesses lower radiation and/or less soil nutrients than the linear type, thereby suggesting that nonlinear type features higher degree of limitation from resources other than precipitation. This study suggests several factors limiting the responses of plant productivity to changes in precipitation, thus causing nonlinear NPP-precipitation pattern. Precipitation manipulation and modeling experiments should combine with changes in other climate and soil factors to better predict the response of plant productivity under future climate.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 590-591: 729-738, 2017 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28285856

RESUMO

Responses of soil respiration (Rs) to increasing nitrogen (N) deposition and warming will have far-reaching influences on global carbon (C) cycling. However, the seasonal (growing and non-growing seasons) difference of Rs responses to warming and N deposition has rarely been investigated. We conducted a field manipulative experiment in a semi-arid alfalfa-pasture of northwest China to evaluate the response of Rs to nitrogen addition and warming from March 2014 to March 2016. Open-top chambers were used to elevate temperature and N was enriched at a rate of 4.42g m-2yr-1 with NH4NO3. Results showed that (1) N addition increased Rs by 14% over the two-year period; and (2) warming stimulated Rs by 15% in the non-growing season, while inhibited it by 5% in the growing season, which can be explained by decreased plant coverage and soil water. The main effect of N addition did not change with time, but that of warming changed with time, with the stronger inhibition observed in the dry year. When N addition and warming were combined, an antagonistic effect was observed in the growing season, whereas a synergism was observed in the non-growing season. Overall, warming and N addition did not affect the Q10 values over the two-year period, but these treatments significantly increased the Q10 values in the growing season compared with the control treatment. In comparison, combined warming and nitrogen addition significantly reduced the Q10 values compared with the single factor treatment. These results suggest that the negative indirect effect of warming-induced water stress overrides the positive direct effect of warming on Rs. Our results also imply the necessity of considering the different Rs responses in the growing and non-growing seasons to climate change to accurately evaluate the carbon cycle in the arid and semi-arid regions.

7.
Ecology ; 95(8): 2109-20, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25230463

RESUMO

The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is experiencing high rates of climatic change. We present a novel combined mechanistic-bioclimatic modeling approach to determine how changes in precipitation and temperature on the TP may impact net primary production (NPP) in four major biomes (forest, shrub, grass, desert) and if there exists a maximum rain use efficiency (RUE(MAX)) that represents Huxman et al.'s "boundary that constrain[s] site-level productivity and efficiency." We used a daily mechanistic ecosystem model to generate 40-yr outputs using observed climatic data for scenarios of decreased precipitation (25-100%); increased air temperature (1 degrees - 6 degrees C); simultaneous changes in both precipitation (+/- 50%, +/- 25%) and air temperature (+1 to +6 degrees C) and increased interannual variability (IAV) of precipitation (+1 sigma to +3 sigma, with fixed means, where sigma is SD). We fitted model output from these scenarios to Huxman et al.'s RUE(MAX) bioclimatic model, NPP = alpha + RUE x PPT (where alpha is the intercept, RUE is rain use efficiency, and PPT is annual precipitation). Based on these analyses, we conclude that there is strong support (when not explicit, then trend-wise) for Huxman et al.'s assertion that biomes converge to a common RUE(MAX) during the driest years at a site, thus representing the boundary for highest rain use efficiency; the interactive effects of simultaneously decreasing precipitation and increasing temperature on NPP for the TP is smaller than might be expected from additive, single-factor changes in these drivers; and that increasing IAV of precipitation may ultimately have a larger impact on biomes of the Tibetan Plateau than changing amounts of rainfall and air temperature alone.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tibet
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