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1.
Anatol J Cardiol ; 23(3): 151-159, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Interleukin (IL) 25, also known as IL-17E, is an inflammatory cytokine and has been demonstrated to be closely related to cardiovascular diseases by regulating immunity and inflammation, including atherosclerosis. This study was aimed to evaluate the expression of IL-25 in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: In this study, the expression of IL-25 in normal (n=6) and atherosclerotic (n=10) human coronary arteries was detected by immunofluorescent staining. In addition, the serum IL-25, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α concentrations in stable angina pectoris (SAP, n=44), unstable angina pectoris (UAP, n=46), acute myocardial infarction (AMI, n=34), and non-CAD (control, n=36) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. RESULTS: IL-25 was significantly increased in coronary arteries of CAD patients when compared with normal coronary arteries, with macrophages and T lymphocytes being the sources of IL-25, especially macrophages. Moreover, the serum concentrations of IL-25 were markedly elevated in CAD patients and gradually increased in SAP, UAP, and AMI groups. In addition, IL-25 levels were positively correlated with the IL-6 and TNF-α levels, and Gensini score in CAD patients. Logistic regression analysis showed that IL-25 was independently positively correlated with the occurrence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). A receiver operator characteristic curve suggested that IL-25 presented a significant diagnosis value in ACS. CONCLUSION: IL-25 is increased in the coronary arteries and serum of CAD patients and is associated with the severity of coronary stenosis and the occurrence of ACS, suggesting that IL-25 may be one of the biomarkers of ACS.

2.
J Exp Med ; 217(5)2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130408

RESUMO

USP22 is a cytoplasmic and nuclear deubiquitinating enzyme, and the functions of cytoplasmic USP22 are unclear. Here, we discovered that cytoplasmic USP22 promoted nuclear translocation of IRF3 by deubiquitianting and stabilizing KPNA2 after viral infection. Viral infection induced USP22-IRF3 association in the cytoplasm in a KPNA2-depedent manner, and knockdown or knockout of USP22 or KPNA2 impaired IRF3 nuclear translocation and expression of downstream genes after viral infection. Consistently, Cre-ER Usp22fl/fl or Lyz2-Cre Usp22fl/fl mice produced decreased levels of type I IFNs after viral infection and exhibited increased susceptibility to lethal viral infection compared with the respective control littermates. Mechanistically, USP22 deubiquitinated and stabilized KPNA2 after viral infection to facilitate efficient nuclear translocation of IRF3. Reconstitution of KPNA2 into USP22 knockout cells restored virus-triggered nuclear translocation of IRF3 and cellular antiviral responses. These findings define a previously unknown function of cytoplasmic USP22 and establish a mechanistic link between USP22 and IRF3 nuclear translocation that expands potential therapeutic strategies for infectious diseases.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141004

RESUMO

The application of antibiotics is remarkable globally. However, antibiotic residues in aquatic ecosystems can pose adverse effects on nontarget plants and animals. In the present study, the cell growth properties and the production and release of microcystin-LR and microcystin-RR in cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa after exposure to three typical antibiotics were investigated. Results showed that the order of the degree of chronic toxicities of the three chemicals was oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC) > tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) > chlortetracycline hydrochloride (CTC). The target antibiotics interfered with the production and release of the toxins microcystin-LR and microcystin-RR to varying degrees. TC simultaneously increased MC-LR intracellular and extracellular concentrations and interfered with MC-RR intracellular and extracellular concentrations to varying degrees. CTC reduced MC-LR intracellular concentrations and simultaneously reduced the MC-RR intracellular and extracellular concentrations. OTC increased the MC-LR intracellular and extracellular concentrations but did not have an effect on MC-RR concentrations. The extracellular MC-LR concentrations increased dramatically from day 24 to 27 when the cells were saturated, while most MC-RRs stayed within the cells. MC-LR can easily enter the surrounding water body and pose a threat when the water blooms occurred. Our results may help illustrate the influence of tetracycline antibiotics on the production and release of toxin in M. aeruginosa. It is important for environmental protection and evaluation. The results may as well guide the use of antibiotics in agricultural settings.

5.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 238, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glyphosate has become the most widely used herbicide in the world. Therefore, the development of new varieties of glyphosate-tolerant crops is a research focus of seed companies and researchers. The glyphosate stress-responsive genes were used for the development of genetically modified crops, while only the EPSPS gene has been used currently in the study on glyphosate-tolerance in rice. Therefore, it is essential and crucial to intensify the exploration of glyphosate stress-responsive genes, to not only acquire other glyphosate stress-responsive genes with clean intellectual property rights but also obtain non-transgenic glyphosate-tolerant rice varieties. This study is expected to elucidate the responses of miRNAs, lncRNAs, and mRNAs to glyphosate applications and the potential regulatory mechanisms in response to glyphosate stress in rice. RESULTS: Leaves of the non-transgenic glyphosate-tolerant germplasm CA21 sprayed with 2 mg·ml- 1 glyphosate (GLY) and CA21 plants with no spray (CK) were collected for high-throughput sequencing analysis. A total of 1197 DEGs, 131 DELs, and 52 DEMs were identified in the GLY samples in relation to CK samples. Genes were significantly enriched for various biological processes involved in detoxification of plant response to stress. A total of 385 known miRNAs from 59 miRNA families and 94 novel miRNAs were identified. Degradome analysis led to the identification of 32 target genes, of which, the squamosa promoter-binding-like protein 12 (SPL12) was identified as a target of osa-miR156a_L + 1. The lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA regulatory network consisted of osa-miR156a_L + 1, two transcripts of SPL12 (LOC_Os06g49010.3 and LOC_Os06g49010.5), and 13 lncRNAs (e.g., MSTRG.244.1 and MSTRG.16577.1). CONCLUSION: Large-scale expression changes in coding and noncoding RNA were observed in rice mainly due to its response to glyphosate. SPL12, osa-miR156, and lncRNAs (e.g., MSTRG.244.1 and MSTRG.16577.1) could be a novel ceRNA mechanism in response to glyphosate in rice by regulating transcription and metal ions binding. These findings provide a theoretical basis for breeding glyphosate-tolerant rice varieties and for further research on the biogenesis of glyphosate- tolerance in rice.

6.
World J Pediatr ; 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased meningitis caused by extensively drug-resistant bacillary presents a significant challenge in antibiotic selection. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of polymyxin in the treatment of post-neurosurgical meningitis due to the extensively drug-resistant bacillary in children. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study on post-neurosurgical meningitis caused by the extensively drug-resistant bacillary in children, who were treated with polymyxin for ≥ 3 days. RESULTS: Among five post-neurosurgical meningitis cases that were included, the children were infected by Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 3), Klebsiella pneumonia (n = 1), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 1). The drug susceptibility test showed that they were extensively drug-resistant bacillary. Two patients received intravenous polymyxin E. Three children received intravenous combined with intraventricular injection of polymyxin B. One patient infected by Klebsiella pneumonia eventually died of septic shock. No serious adverse effects of polymyxin were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Polymyxin is a safe and effective therapy for post-neurosurgical, multidrug-resistant bacillary meningitis in children.

7.
Acta Biomater ; 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126308

RESUMO

Titanium-based endosseous implants with high antibacterial and osseointegration activities are extremely required in clinics. To achieve this line, herein the doped coatings with three kinds of Zn doses were micro-arc oxidized (MAOed) on Ti. They were examined to reveal a bilayered structure, in which the outer layer consisted completely of the amorphism comprising elements of Ti, O and Zn with Zn doped in the form of weaken Zn-O bonds, and the underlying layer was partially crystallized with nanocrystalline TiO2 and Zn2TiO4 to embed an amorphous matrix. While the Zn doped doses of the surface amorphous layers increased with elevating the MAOed voltages, the weaken Zn-O bonds in the amorphism were identified to act as both the contributor of Zn2+ controllable release and the generator of reactive oxide species (ROS) on the coatings. The enhanced HO• and O2-• formation on the elevated voltage MAOed coatings caused serious break of the cell walls and plasma membranes of S. aureus. In parallel, the enhanced Zn2+ release and extracellular H2O2 formation led to the enhanced intracellular ROS level of S. aureus, further aggravating the damage of plasma membrane, resulting in bacteria death. On contrary to the overdose of Zn doped coating, the moderate doses of Zn doped coatings did not induce additional intracellular ROS and attenuate viability and proliferation of osteoblasts in vitro, and promoted osseointegration in both S. aureus-uninfected and infected rat tibias, which ascribed to the strong antibacterial activity and un-attenuated cell function of the coatings in the infected case. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: (1) The Zn-doped coatings revealed a bilayered structure of the surface layer comprising the Ti, O and Zn constructed amorphism with Zn in the form of weaken Zn-O bonds, and the underlying layer comprising nanocrystalline TiO2 and Zn2TiO4 to embed amorphous matrix. (2) The weaken Zn-O bonds in the amorphism were identified to act as both the contributor of Zn2+ controllable release and the generator of ROS on the coatings. (3) The enhanced Zn2+ release and ROS formation on the coatings killed S. aureus by inducing serious break of their cell walls and plasma membranes. This effect in combination of un-attenuated osteoblast proliferation endowed the moderate Zn doped coatings with enhanced osseointegration in S. aureus-infected rat tibias.

8.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125820

RESUMO

Micro/nanorobots have been extensively explored as a tetherless small-scale robotic biodevice to perform minimally invasive interventions in hard-to-reach regions. Despite the emergence of versatile micro/nanorobots in recent years, matched in vivo development remains challenging, limited by unsatisfactory integration of core functions. Herein, we report a polydopamine (PDA)-coated magnetic microswimmer consisting of a magnetized Spirulina (MSP) matrix and PDA surface. Apart from the properties of the existing MSP (e.g., robust propulsion, natural fluorescence, tailored biodegradation, and selective cytotoxicity), the introduced PDA coating enhances the photoacoustic (PA) signal and photothermal effect of the MSP, thus making PA image tracking and photothermal therapy possible. Meanwhile, the PDA's innate fluorescence quenching and diverse surface reactivity allows an off-on fluorescence diagnosis with fluorescence probes (e.g., coumarin 7). As a proof of concept, real-time image tracking (by PA imaging) and desired theranostic capabilities of PDA-MSP microswimmer swarms are demonstrated for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial infection. Our study suggests a feasible antibacterial microrobot for in vivo development and a facile yet versatile functionalization strategy of micro/nanorobots.

9.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 82: 106316, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088642

RESUMO

Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is an effective therapeutic agent that alleviates myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI), but the exact mechanisms remain elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective effect of HSYA against MIRI through mechanisms related to NLRP3 inflammasome regulation. In this study, hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced H9c2 cardiomyocytes were treated with HSYA or the AMPK inhibitor, compound C (CC). Our results showed that HSYA pretreatment improved cardiomyocyte viability, maintained mitochondrial membrane potential, reduced apoptotic cardiomyocytes, decreased caspase-3 activity, and inhibited NOD-like receptor 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation during H/R injury. Moreover, the inhibition of AMPK activation by the CC inhibitor partially abolished the effects of HSYA treatment, including suppressing the upregulation of NLRP3 inflammasome components (NLRP3, caspase-1 and interleukin-1ß) and promoting autophagy (LC3-II/LC3-I and p62). In conclusion, the protective mechanism of HSYA in H/R-induced cardiomyocyte injury is associated with inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation through the AMPK signalling pathway.

10.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(4): 3287-3297, 2020 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risky behaviors can lead to huge economic and health losses. However, limited efforts are paid to explore the genetic mechanisms of risky behaviors. RESULT: MASH analysis identified a group of target genes for risky behaviors, such as APBB2, MAPT and DCC. For GO enrichment analysis, FUMA detected multiple risky behaviors related GO terms and brain related diseases, such as regulation of neuron differentiation (adjusted P value = 2.84×10-5), autism spectrum disorder (adjusted P value =1.81×10-27) and intelligence (adjusted P value =5.89×10-15). CONCLUSION: We reported multiple candidate genes and GO terms shared by the four risky behaviors, providing novel clues for understanding the genetic mechanism of risky behaviors. METHODS: Multivariate Adaptive Shrinkage (MASH) analysis was first applied to the GWAS data of four specific risky behaviors (automobile speeding, drinks per week, ever-smoker, number of sexual partners) to detect the common genetic variants shared by the four risky behaviors. Utilizing genomic functional annotation data of SNPs, the SNPs detected by MASH were then mapped to target genes. Finally, gene set enrichment analysis of the identified candidate genes were conducted by the FUMA platform to obtain risky behaviors related gene ontology (GO) terms as well as diseases and traits, respectively.

11.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 72(1): 84-90, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32099986

RESUMO

Meiosis is a special type of cell division to produce haploid gametes with intact genome. The behavior of homologous chromosomes during the first division (meiosis prophase I) is the most prominent feature of meiosis. During meiosis prophase I, synaptonemal complex (SC) formed between homologous chromosomes to promote the initiation and repair of programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), which is necessary for the correct recognition, pairing, recombination and separation of homologous chromosomes. In this paper, we reviewed the recent research progress on the composition and function of SC, discussed how the assembly of SC affected the repair of DSBs, and also summarized the known mutations on SC genes which were responsible for human reproductive disorders. On this basis, we also explored the future research direction of this field.


Assuntos
Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Prófase Meiótica I , Complexo Sinaptonêmico/genética , Reparo do DNA , Humanos
12.
J Psychiatr Res ; 124: 22-28, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109668

RESUMO

Subjective well-being (SWB), depressive symptoms, and neuroticism are common and vital traits of mental disorders. Genetic mechanisms of SWB, depressive symptoms and neuroticism remain elusive now. The large-scale GWAS summary datasets of SWB (n = 229,883), depressive symptoms (n = 180,866), and neuroticism (n = 170,911) were obtained from published studies. MASH tool was applied to the GWAS datasets for identifying candidate SNPs shared by SWB, depressive symptoms and neuroticism. SNPs detected by MASH, were then mapped to target genes considering regulatory SNP (rSNP), methylated quantitative trait locus (MeQTL) and the SNPs near to known genes. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was conducted by the FUMA platform. A total of 122 candidate SNPs were detected by MASH analysis, mapping to 29 target genes, such as CLDN23, MSRA and XKR6. GO enrichment analysis identified multiple immune related gene sets for SWB, depressive symptoms and neuroticism, such as GSE2770_UNTREATED_VS_IL4_TREATED_ACT_CD4_TCELL_48H_DN (P = 7.32 × 10-3), GSE6259_FLT3L_INDUCED_DEC205_POS_DC_VS_CD4_TCELL_DN (P = 2.52 × 10-2). We also found some mental disorders related gene sets were associated with three phenotypes, such as mood instability (P = 1.15 × 10-6) and neuroticism (P = 1.72 × 10-6). We identified multiple candidate genes and GO terms shared by SWB, depressive symptoms and neuroticism. Our results support the overlapping genetic mechanisms, and suggest a functional correlation between immunity and SWB, depressive symptoms and neuroticism.

13.
J Immunol ; 204(7): 1881-1891, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066597

RESUMO

Type I IFN mediates the innate immune system to provide defense against viral infections. NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) potentiates the basal activation of endogenous STING, which facilitates the recruitment of TBK1 with the ectopically expressed IRF3 to induce IFN production. Moreover, NIK phosphorylates IKKα and confers its ability to phosphorylate p100 (also known as NF-κB2) in mammals. Our study demonstrated that NIK plays a critical role in IFN production in teleost fish. It was found that NIK interacts with IKKα in the cytoplasm and that IKKα phosphorylates the NIK at the residue Thr432, which is different from the mammals. Overexpression of NIK caused the activation of IRF3 and NF-κB, which in turn led to the production of IFN and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). Furthermore, the ectopic expression of NIK was observed to be associated with a reduced replication of the fish virus, whereas silencing of endogenous NIK had an opposite effect in vitro. Furthermore, NIK knockdown significantly reduced the expression of IFN and key ISGs in zebrafish larvae after spring viremia of carp virus infection. Additionally, the replication of spring viremia of carp virus was enhanced in NIK knockdown zebrafish larvae, leading to a lower survival rate. In summary, our findings revealed a previously undescribed function of NIK in activating IFN and ISGs as a host antiviral response. These findings may facilitate the establishment of antiviral therapy to combat fish viruses.

14.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(5): 3064-3078, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022386

RESUMO

Th22 cells are a novel subset of CD4+ T cells that primarily mediate biological effects through IL-22, with both Th22 cells and IL-22 being closely associated with multiple autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated whether and how Th22 cells affect atherosclerosis. ApoE-/- mice and age-matched C57BL/6J mice were fed a Western diet for 0, 4, 8 or 12 weeks. The results of dynamic analyses showed that Th22 cells, which secrete the majority of IL-22 among the known CD4+ cells, play a major role in atherosclerosis. ApoE-/- mice fed a Western diet for 12 weeks and administered recombinant mouse IL-22 (rIL-22) developed substantially larger plaques in both the aorta and aortic root and higher levels of CD3+ T cells, CD68+ macrophages, collagen, IL-6, Th17 cells, dendritic cells (DCs) and pSTAT3 but lower smooth muscle cell (SMC) α-actin expression than the control mice. Treatment with a neutralizing anti-IL-22 monoclonal antibody (IL-22 mAb) reversed the above effects. Bone marrow-derived DCs exhibited increased differentiation into mature DCs following rIL-22 and ox-LDL stimulation. IL-17 and pSTAT3 were up-regulated after stimulation with IL-22 and ox-LDL in cells cocultured with CD4+ T cells and mature DC supernatant, but this up-regulation was significantly inhibited by IL-6mAb or the cell-permeable STAT3 inhibitor S31-201. Thus, Th22 cell-derived IL-22 aggravates atherosclerosis development through a mechanism that is associated with IL-6/STAT3 activation, DC-induced Th17 cell proliferation and IL-22-stimulated SMC dedifferentiation into a synthetic phenotype.

15.
EMBO Rep ; : e49076, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096305

RESUMO

Repressor/activator protein 1 (RAP1) is a highly evolutionarily conserved protein found at telomeres. Although yeast Rap1 is a key telomere capping protein preventing non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and consequently telomere fusions, its role at mammalian telomeres in vivo is still controversial. Here, we demonstrate that RAP1 is required to protect telomeres in replicative senescent human cells. Downregulation of RAP1 in these cells, but not in young or dividing pre-senescent cells, leads to telomere uncapping and fusions. The anti-fusion effect of RAP1 was further explored in a HeLa cell line where RAP1 expression was depleted through an inducible CRISPR/Cas9 strategy. Depletion of RAP1 in these cells gives rise to telomere fusions only when telomerase is inhibited. We further show that the fusions triggered by RAP1 loss are dependent upon DNA ligase IV. We conclude that human RAP1 is specifically involved in protecting critically short telomeres. This has important implications for the functions of telomeres in senescent cells.

16.
Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother ; 39(1): 12-16, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004438

RESUMO

The DNA fragment encoding predicted main antigenic region, aa 1-300 on Gp protein of Ebola virus (EBOV) was cloned into the vector pGEX-KG. The recombinant GST-tagged Gp-300 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) by induction with 1 mM isopropyl-1-thio-b-d-galactoside and purified by dialysis. Four monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) named 1C4, 2A3, 2G7, and 2H9 against Gp protein were generated by fusing mouse myeloma cell line SP2/0 with spleen lymphocytes from Gp-300 protein-immunized mice. The activity of the mAbs was then characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indirect immunofluorescent assays (IFA), and western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that all the mAbs showed high specificity and sensitivity in IFA and in western blot analysis, which indicated that these mAbs against Gp protein of EBOV may be used as valuable tools for analysis of the protein functions and pathogenesis of EBOV.

17.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(3): 1979-1990, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040708

RESUMO

Trans-polyisoprene rubber is produced in the tissues of leaves, bark, and fruit of Eucommia ulmoides and is considered an important energy source. Transcript profiles of two tissues from E. ulmoides cv. Qinzhong No. 3, leaf and fruit, were analysed using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 system. In total, 104 million clean reads were obtained and assembled into 58,863 unigenes. Through gene functional classification, 28,091 unigenes (47.72%) were annotated and 65 unigenes have been hypothesized to encode proteins involved in terpenoid biosynthesis. In addition, 10,041 unigenes were detected as differentially expressed unigenes, and 29 of them were putatively related to terpenoid biosynthesis. The synthesis of trans-polyisoprene rubbers in E. ulmoides was hypothesised to be dominated by the mevalonate pathway. Farnesyl diphosphate synthase 2 (FPPS2) was considered a key component in the biosynthesis of trans-polyprenyl diphosphate. Rubber elongation factor 3 (REF3) might be involved in stabilising the membrane of rubber particles in E. ulmoides. To date, 351 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were validated as polymorphisms from eight E. ulmoides plants (two parent plants and six F1 individuals), and these could act as molecular markers for genetic map density increase and breeding improvement of E. ulmoides.

18.
Ann Phys Rehabil Med ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Falls play a pivotal role in the cause of injury or death and have become a public health problem, especially for older people. Tai Chi may be an effective approach to improving balance and reducing falls. However, the conclusions of systematic reviews (SRs) have been inconsistent and the quality needs to be appraised critically. OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the methodological quality, risk of bias and reporting quality as well as quality of evidence of SRs of Tai Chi for improving balance and reducing falls. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of English- and Chinese-language SRs in 8 electronic databases, from inception to October 2019. The methodological quality, risk of bias, reporting quality and the quality of evidence were independently assessed by 2 reviewers who used the A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews 2 (AMSTAR 2), Risk of Bias in Systematic reviews (ROBIS), the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and Grades of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Primary outcomes were fall rate and the Berg Balance Scale score in older people and people with Parkinson disease. Secondary outcomes included these outcomes in stroke, osteoarthritis and heart failure. RESULTS: A total of 14 relevant SRs were included: 13 were rated critically low quality and 1 was rated low quality by AMSTAR 2. By the ROBIS, all SRs were rated low risk in Phase 1 (assessing relevance) and Domain 1 of Phase 2 (study eligibility criteria). With regard to Domain 2, assessing the identification and selection of studies, 3 (21.4%) SRs were rated low risk. Eleven (71.4%) were rated low risk in Domain 3 (data collection and study appraisal), 11 (71.4%) were rated low risk in Domain 4 (synthesis and findings), and 9 (64.3%) were rated low risk in Phase 3 (risk of bias in the review). According to PRISMA, the reporting was relatively complete, but there were still some reporting flaws in the topic of protocol and registration (2/14, 14.3%), search strategy (5/14, 35.7%), risk of bias (6/14, 42.9%), additional analyses (6/14, 42.9%) and funding (4/14, 28.6%). Among the 14 SRs, Tai Chi had benefits for improving balance and reducing falls in older people and people with Parkinson disease; however, no definitive conclusions could be drawn for its effectiveness in stroke, osteoarthritis and heart failure. The level of evidence for fall rate was "moderate" to "high" for older people and "low" for those with Parkinson disease. The level of evidence of the Berg Balance Scale was "low" to "moderate" for older people and "low" for those with Parkinson disease. Among the downgraded factors, imprecision was the most common, followed by inconsistency and publication bias. CONCLUSIONS: Tai Chi may be beneficial for improving balance and reducing falls in older people and those with Parkinson disease. Because of limitations and inconsistent conclusions, further rigorous, normative and comprehensive SRs are needed to provide robust evidence for definitive conclusions.

19.
Biomaterials ; 234: 119772, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945618

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment modality for tumor suppression. However, the hypoxic state of most solid tumors might largely hinder the efficacy of PDT. Here, a functional covalent organic framework (COF) is fabricated to enhance PDT efficacy by remodeling the tumor extracellular matrix (ECM). Anti-fibrotic drug pirfenidone (PFD) is loaded in an imine-based COF (COFTTA-DHTA) and followed by the decoration of poly(lactic-co-glycolic-acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) to fabricate PFD@COFTTA-DHTA@PLGA-PEG, or PCPP. After injected intravenously, PCPP can accumulate and release PFD in tumor sites, leading to down-regulation of ECM compenents such as hyaluronic acid (HA) and collagen I. Such depletion of tumor ECM reduces the intratumoral solid stress, a compressive force exerted by the ECM and cells, decompresses tumor blood vessels, and increases the density of effective vascular areas, resulting in significantly improved oxygen supply in tumor. Furthermore, PCPP-mediated tumor ECM depletion also enhances the tumor uptake of subsequently injected Protoporphyrinl IX (PPIX)-conjugated peptide formed nanomicelles (NM-PPIX) due to the improved enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Both the alleviated tumor hypoxia and improved tumor homing of photosensitizer (PS) molecules after PCPP treatment significantly increase the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in tumor and therefore realize greatly enhanced PDT effect of tumor in vivo.

20.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1099: 1-15, 2020 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986265

RESUMO

Nucleic acid-based techniques could achieve highly sensitive detection by amplifying template molecules to millions of folds. It has been one of the most valued analytical methods and is applied in many detection fields, such as diagnosis of infectious diseases, food safety assurance and so on. Nucleic acid-based techniques consist of three steps: nucleic acid extraction, amplification, and product detection. Among them, the detection step plays a vital role because it shows the results directly. As the trend of detection is simple, rapid and instrument-free, it is of necessity to carry out visual detection, where the result read-out could be visible and distinguished by the naked eye. In this critical review, advanced visual detection methods are summarized and discussed in detail, aiming to promote the potential application in on-site detection.

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