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J Autism Dev Disord ; 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825295


Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with cognitive dysfunctions, including mental time travel (MTT). However, findings on diminished MTT ability may be confounded by a number of factors, including the individuals' language ability, factors related to the MTT task and the demographic factors of participants. The present study provided a meta-analysis of MTT ability in people with ASD. The results showed significant overall reductions in MTT ability in people with ASD. Moderator analyses revealed that the variables examined did not explain the reduction in MTT ability. These findings suggest that MTT ability is diminished in people with ASD and that the degree of this diminishment may not depend on the characteristics of measures or demographic variables of people with ASD.

Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; : 17470218211066282, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841982


Delay discounting (DD) refers to the phenomenon in which the subjective value of future rewards is reduced over time. There are individual differences in the DD rate, and increased discounting has been observed in those with various psychiatric disorders. Episodic future thinking (EFT) is the act of vividly imagining events that may happen in the future. Studies have shown that EFT could reduce DD, although inconsistent results have been reported. The aim of this meta-analysis was to clarify the efficacy with which EFT reduces DD and to identify potential moderators. Forty-seven studies (including 63 contrasts) were included in the final analysis. EFT was found to significantly reduce DD (Hedges' g =0.52). Moderator analysis showed that positive EFT (g=0.64) was more effective in reducing DD than EFT with the valence not specifically mentioned (g=0.28), and EFT with neutral or negative valence (g=-0.03). In addition, several factors related to the control task and DD task were related to the efficacy of EFT to reduce DD. These findings have implications for using EFT to reduce DD in the future.

Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 74(5): 801-811, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535921


Saccade-induced retrieval enhancement (SIRE) refers to the phenomenon that actively engaging in horizontal eye movements before recall enhances subsequent memory performance. This effect is thought to be the result of interhemispheric interactions stimulated by saccades. An alternative explanation is that saccades promote memory retrieval by improving top-down attention control. Thus, the mechanisms of SIRE are unclear, and the present meta-analysis quantitatively analysed the effect of saccades on memory performance and examined the mechanisms of SIRE. We searched "Web of Science," "PubMed," and "Springer" for peer-reviewed papers using the keywords "eye movements + memory" and "saccades + memory." Twenty-two papers were included in the final analysis. There was a significant facilitation of horizontal saccades on overall memory performance, with a pooled effect size (Cohen's d) of 0.45 (p < .001). However, the overall effect of vertical saccades was not significant (d = 0.1, p = .14). Moderation analysis showed that the handedness of participants was a significant moderator of SIRE, with strongly right-handed individuals benefitting more from horizontal saccades than non-strongly right-handed individuals (p < .01). Horizontal saccades improved memory performance, particularly for strongly right-handed individuals. These results support the interhemispheric interaction hypothesis.

Memória , Movimentos Sacádicos , Movimentos Oculares , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Rememoração Mental
Psych J ; 10(3): 437-443, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594832


This study aimed to explore the relationships among clinical insight, subjective memory complaints, and objective memory performance in patients with schizophrenia. We recruited 205 patients with schizophrenia and 221 healthy controls in this study. The participants were administered a subjective-report scale on memory (the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire), and several objective memory tasks measuring verbal memory, visual memory, and working memory. Clinical insight was measured with an item in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. We found that when patients with schizophrenia were divided into subgroups with good and poor insight, both subgroups showed impairment in memory performance compared with controls. The schizophrenia patients with good insight reported similar memory complaints as controls whereas patients with poor insight reported less memory complaints than did the controls. These findings suggest that clinical insight may be related to subjective memory complaints, but not objective memory performance.

Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
J Int Neuropsychol Soc ; 27(10): 981-991, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509315


OBJECTIVE: Patients with schizophrenia and individuals with schizotypy, a subclinical group at risk for schizophrenia, have been found to have impairments in cognitive control. The Dual Mechanisms of Cognitive Control (DMC) framework hypothesises that cognitive control can be divided into proactive and reactive control. However, it is unclear whether individuals with schizotypy have differential behavioural impairments and neural correlates underlying these two types of cognitive control. METHOD: Twenty-five individuals with schizotypy and 26 matched healthy controls (HCs) completed both reactive and proactive control tasks with electroencephalographic data recorded. The proportion of congruent and incongruent trials was manipulated in a classic colour-word Stroop task to induce proactive or reactive control. Proactive control was induced in a context with mostly incongruent (MI) trials and reactive control in a context with mostly congruent (MC) trials. Two event-related potential (ERP) components, medial frontal negativity (MFN, associated with conflict detection) and conflict sustained potential (conflict SP, associated with conflict resolution) were examined. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of behavioural results. In terms of ERP results, in the MC context, HC exhibited significantly larger MFN (360-530 ms) and conflict SP (600-1000 ms) amplitudes than individuals with schizotypy. The two groups did not show any significant difference in MFN or conflict SP in the MI context. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings provide initial evidence for dissociation of neural activation between proactive and reactive cognitive control in individuals with schizotypy. These findings help us understand cognitive control deficits in the schizophrenia spectrum.

Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica , Cognição , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/complicações , Teste de Stroop