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1.
Food Chem ; 302: 125331, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404867

RESUMO

Adulteration of the high-value silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) is a serious problem worldwide, necessitating accurate identification and quantification of the species. In this study, optimisation of the digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) assay for the identification and quantification of the silver pomfret was carried out. The primer and probe concentrations, melting temperature, and PCR cycle number were optimised by combining single-factor experiments with an orthogonal experimental design. The absolute limits of detection and quantification of the ddPCR were 2copies/µl and 21 copies/µl, respectively. Its sensitivity was 0.1% for meat mixtures and 0.5% for DNA mixtures. The ddPCR was 156 times more sensitive than the real-time PCR, although both methods had similar specificities. However, the overall time needed to complete the ddPCR method was twice that of the real-time PCR. Notwithstanding, the ddPCR methodology established in this study can be a valuable tool for addressing species adulteration issues.


Assuntos
Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Perciformes/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Animais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
2.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 177: 112850, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499430

RESUMO

In the present study, an accurate and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of plasma talazoparib concentration in rats was developed and established. The purpose of chromatographic separation of talazoparib and the internal standard (bosutinib) was achieved on an Acquity BEH C18 (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 µm) column with a flow rate of 0.40 mL/min, using a gradient elution with acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water as the mobile phase. The detection was performed on a XEVO TQ-S triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer coupled with electrospray ionization interface under positive-ion multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with the precursor-to-product ion transitions of m/z 381.3 → 285.2 for talazoparib and m/z 530.2 → 141.2 for bosutinib (IS), respectively. The method was linear over the range of 0.5-200 ng/mL for talazoparib. The accuracies and precisions of intra- and inter-day were all within the acceptance limits, and no matrix effect was observed in this method. The validated method was further employed to a pharmacokinetic study of talazoparib after oral treatment with 0.2 mg/kg talazoparib to rats.

3.
J Craniofac Surg ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764555

RESUMO

Crainoplasty following decompressive craniotomy is widely applied clinically. Here, a 55-year-old male had clinical presentation of fever, headache, and ulceration at the anterior scalp of left ear, with 4 to 5 mL pus induction per day, where he accepted cranioplastic surgery 17 years ago using the material of medical silicone rubber. The results of experimental test and magnetic resonance imaging indicated a sign of infection. The authors reported a rarely delayed infection 17 years after cranioplastic surgery. The over long-term risks for the previously transplanted materials should be recognized.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17781, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opinion regarding whether Helicobacter pylori infection can promote the occurrence and development of nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) is divided. Therefore, we aimed to assess the exact relationship between H pylori infection and NAFLD by integrating all available data. METHODS: The articles about H pylori infection and NAFLD were collected by searching the databases of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and WanFang. The random-effects model was used for data analysis, followed by subgroup analysis and meta-regression to explore sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: Twenty-one articles were included in the study. Pooled analysis showed that H pylori infection indeed promoted NAFLD. Subgroup analysis and regression analysis showed that case-control ratio may be one of the sources of heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: H pylori infection is indeed one of the factors that promotes the progression of NAFLD for the Asian population. This provides new approaches for clinical prevention and treatment for NAFLD.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/microbiologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco
5.
J Autoimmun ; : 102358, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757716

RESUMO

The hyperproliferation and hyperactivation of CD4+ T cells in salivary gland tissue is a hallmark of Sjögren's syndrome (SS). However, the role of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the pathological process of SS and CD4+ T cell activation has not been fully elucidated. Here, we reported that lncRNA PVT1 was involved in the glycolytic metabolism reprogramming and proliferation upon CD4+ T cell activation. Expression of PVT1 was positively related with CD4+ T cell activation both in SS patients and Ex vivo antigen simulation. Depletion of PVT1 decreased the proliferation of murine CD4+ T cells and Jurkat T cells upon activation. We also showed that expression of the transcription factor Myc is regulated by PVT1 under antigen simulation. Depletion of PVT1 significantly decreased the expression of glycolytic genes, as well as several pivotal glycolytic proteins that were directly transcribed by Myc. Measurement of glucose content and lactate secretion indicated a defected lactate secretion and glucose uptake in PVT1-depleted T cells. Additionally, the real-time extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) measurement also affirmed that PVT1 maintains glycolytic levels, glycolytic capacity under stress and ECAR/OCR ratios during T cell activation. Polarizing assays indicate that PVT1 depletion defected the function of Th1 effector cells as well as down-regulated Myc expression and glycolytic levels. Furthermore, we observed increased glycolytic levels in CD4+ T cells from SS-like NOD/Ltj mice. Treatment with 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG), an inhibitor of glycolysis, significantly decreased the extent of lymphocyte infiltration and CD4+ T cell numbers and attenuated the defect of salivary flow in the lesioned submandibular glands of NOD/Ltj mice. Thus, our study demonstrated that lncRNA PVT1, which was upregulated in the CD4+T cells of SS patients, could maintain the expression of Myc, thus controlling the proliferation and effector functions of CD4+ T cells through regulating the reprogramming of glycolysis. Inhibition of glycolysis could attenuate the proliferation of CD4+ T cells and the SS-like autoimmune response. Our study provides a novel mechanistic function of lncRNA PVT1 in the pathogenesis of SS.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743581

RESUMO

Rechargeable aqueous zinc ion batteries are attractive for high safety, low cost and high energy density. However, the viable cathode materials, e.g., vanadium oxides, suffer from strong Coulombic ion-lattice interactions with divalent Zn2+, leading to very limited stability when cycled at high charge/discharge depth with high capacity. Here we report a synthetic strategy to make oxygen-deficient vanadium oxide cathode, in which the facilitated Zn2+ reaction kinetic enhances capacity and Zn2+ pathways for high reversibility. Benefited from the robust cathode, the aqueous Zinc ion battery shows an unprecedented stability over 200 cycles with high specific capacity of ~400 mAh g-1, achieving 95% utilization of its theoretical capacity, and long cycle life up to 2000 cycles at high utilization of 67%. This work opens up a new avenue to synthesize novel cathode materials for advanced batteries by designing oxygen-deficient structure.

7.
Small ; : e1905903, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769588

RESUMO

Metal anodes, such as zinc and bismuth have been regarded as ideal materials for aqueous batteries due to high gravimetrical capacity, high abundance, low toxicity, and intrinsic safety. However, their translation into practical applications are hindered by the low mass loading (≈1 mg cm-2 ) of active materials. Here, the multiscale integrated structural engineering of 3D scaffold and active material, i.e., bismuth is in situ intercalated in reduced graphene oxide (rGO) wall of network, are reported. Tailoring the rapid charge transport on rGO 3D network and facile access to nano- and microscale bismuth, the rGO/Bi hybrid anode shows high utilization efficiency of 91.4% at effective high load density of ≈40 mg cm-2 , high areal capacity of 3.51 mAh cm-2 at the current density of 2 mA cm-2 and high reversibility of >10 000 cycles. The resulting Ni-Bi full battery exhibits high areal capacity of 3.13 mAh cm-2 at the current density of 2 mA cm-2 , far outperforming the other counterpart batteries. It represents a general and efficient strategy in enhancing the battery performance by designing hierarchically networked structure.

8.
Endocrine ; 66(3): 666-672, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606865

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Up to 40% of patients with pheochromocytomas or paragangliomas (PPGLs) carry a germline mutation. This study aimed to build a nomogram using clinical information to predict the probability of germline mutation in PPGLs. METHODS: The data were collected from 563 patients who were diagnosed with PPGLs between 2002 and 2015. Clinical and pathologic features were assessed with a multivariable logistic regression analysis to predict the presence of germline mutations. A nomogram to predict the probability of germline mutation was constructed with R software. Discrimination and calibration were employed to evaluate the performance of the nomogram. RESULTS: By multivariate analysis, age at manifestation, bilateral, or multifocal tumors and family history were identified as independent predictors of the presence of any germline mutation. The nomogram was then developed using these three variables. The nomogram showed an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0. 841 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.809-0.871). The calibration plot indicated that the nomogram-predicted probabilities compared very well with the actual probabilities (Hosmer-Lemeshow test: P = 0.888). CONCLUSION: The nomogram is a valuable predictive tool for the presence of germline mutations in patients with PPGLs.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatic fibrosis is the final endpoint for most chronic liver diseases and remains a significant public health problem worldwide. Icariin, a naturally occurring flavonol glucoside, has been reported to exhibit protective effects on liver injury and alleviate liver fibrosis. However, the underlying detail molecular mechanism is not fully revealed. METHODS: Mouse primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and carbon tetrachloride (CCL4 )-induced liver fibrosis model in mice were used as in vitro and in vivo models in this study. The expression levels of miR-875-5p were detected by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. The validation of the direct target of miR-875-5p was through dual-luciferase reporter assay and western blotting assay. The cell proliferation and cell mobility were determined using MTT assay and Transwell migration assay, respectively. RESULTS: We found that icariin inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition and collagen protein section of HSCs. Icariin exerted hepatoprotective effects on mice model of CCL4 -induced liver fibrosis. Our further results revealed that miR-875-5p was downregulated in human cirrhosis tissues and activated murine HSCs. Icariin induced miR-875-5p upregulation and subsequently decreased glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (GLI1) expression through direct binding to the three prime untranslated region of GLI1 mRNA. CONCLUSION: Our study highlighted the potential therapeutic application of icariin for liver fibrosis management.

10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14404, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591436

RESUMO

Non-viral transfection of mammalian cardiomyocytes (CMs) is challenging. The current study aims to characterize and determine the non-viral vector based gene transfection efficiency with human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs). hiPSC-CMs differentiated from PCBC hiPSCs were used as a cell model to be transfected with plasmids carrying green fluorescence protein (pGFP) using polyethylenimine (PEI), including Transporter 5 Transfection Reagent (TR5) and PEI25, and liposome, including lipofectamine-2000 (Lipo2K), lipofectamine-3000 (Lipo3K), and Lipofectamine STEM (LipoSTEM). The gene transfection efficiency and cell viability were quantified by flow cytometry. We found that the highest gene transfection efficiency in hiPSC-CMs on day 14 of contraction can be achieved by LipoSTEM which was about 32.5 ± 6.7%. However, it also cuased poor cell viability (60.1 ± 4.5%). Furthermore, a prolonged culture of (transfection on day 23 of contraction) hiPSC-CMs not only improved gene transfection (54.5 ± 8.9%), but also enhanced cell viability (74 ± 4.9%) by LipoSTEM. Based on this optimized gene transfection condition, the highest gene transfection efficiency was 55.6 ± 7.8% or 34.1 ± 4%, respectively, for P1C1 or DP3 hiPSC line that was derived from healthy donor (P1C1) or patient with diabetes (DP3). The cell viability was 80.8 ± 5.2% or 92.9 ± 2.24%, respectively, for P1C1 or DP3. LipoSTEM is a better non-viral vector for gene transfection of hiPSC-CMs. The highest pGFP gene transfection efficiency can reach >50% for normal hiPSC-CMs or >30% for diabetic hiPSC-CMs.

11.
Cell Biol Int ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502734

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to explore the potential function of interleukin-11 (IL-11) in the pathogenesis of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) patients. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to examine IL-11 expression in the labial glands of 30 pSS patients and 30 healthy controls. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to assess the distribution of IL-ll-positive cells in labial glands. The human salivary gland (HSG) cell line was used to study the effects of IL-11 on gland epithelial cells in vitro. Cell viability and cell proliferation were examined by CCK-8 kit and EdU assay, respectively. The population of apoptotic cells was detected in flow cytometry followed by Annexin V/PI and Hoechst staining. We found that the expression levels of IL-11 were remarkably decreased in pSS labial glands and were positively correlated with C-reactive protein levels and negatively correlated with rheumatoid factor levels. Fewer numbers of glandular epithelial cells were observed to be positively stained with IL-11 antibody in labial glands from pSS patients than those in healthy control patients. After IL-11 treatment, the viability and proliferation of HSG cells were significantly higher than those in the control group. The total apoptotic and necrotic rates of HSG cells in the group after IL-11 treatment were significantly lower. In conclusion, the results indicated that IL-11 promoted viability and proliferation and inhibited apoptotic and necrotic rates of glandular epithelial cells. In pSS, downregulated IL-11 might contribute to the apoptosis of salivary gland epithelial cells. However, it might be a potential target to alleviate the pathological atrophy of glandular epithelial cells in pSS patients.

12.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(47): 17054-17060, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523899

RESUMO

Despite efforts to stabilize sodium metal anodes and prevent dendrite formation, achieving long cycle life with high areal capacities remains difficult owing to a combination of complex failure modes that involve retardant uneven sodium nucleation and subsequent dendrite formation. Now, a sodiophilic interphase based on oxygen-functionalized carbon nanotube networks is presented, which concurrently facilitates a homogeneous sodium nucleation and a dendrite-free, lateral growth behavior upon recurring sodium plating/stripping processes. This sodiophilic interphase renders sodium anodes with an ultrahigh capacity of 1078 mAh g-1 (areal capacity of 10 mAh cm-2 ), approaching the theoretical capacity of 1166 mAh g-1 of pure sodium, as well as a long cycle life up to 3000 cycles. Implementation of this anode allows for the construction of a sodium-air battery with largely enhanced cycling performance owing to the oxygen functionalization-mediated, dendrite-free sodium morphology.

13.
Eur J Med Chem ; 183: 111678, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525660

RESUMO

A series of benzofuran-isatin hybrids 6a-n and 7a-g linked by alkyl linkers were designed and synthesized. Among them, hybrids 6a-l and 7a-g were assessed for their in vitro anti-mycobacterial activities against two multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-MTB) strains and the cytotoxicity towards CHO cells. The preliminary results indicated that all hybrids (MIC: 0.125-16 µg/mL) showed excellent activity against the tested MDR-MTB strains, and low cytotoxicity (CC50: 64->512 µg/mL) towards CHO cells. Among them, hybrid 7e (MIC: 0.125 and 0.25 µg/mL) was highly active against the tested two MDR-MTB strains, which was 8-16 folds better than ciprofloxacin (MIC: 1 and 4 µg/mL), ≥512 folds more potent than rifampicin (MIC: 64 and > 128 µg/mL) and isoniazid (MIC: >128 µg/mL), but it was less active than TAM16 (MIC: <0.06 µg/mL). Moreover, the hybrid 7e (CC50: 128 µg/mL) also showed low cytotoxicity towards CHO cells, and high selectivity index (1,024). However, the metabolic stability and in vivo pharmacokinetic profiles of hybrid 7e were inferior to TAM16, so it still needs to be modified so as to get the optimized hybrid for potential use in mycobacterial treatment.

14.
Biotechnol Lett ; 41(11): 1333-1341, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522352

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To enhance the biodesulfurization rate using a kinetic model that directs the ratio of Dsz enzymes. RESULTS: This study established a kinetic model that predicted the optimal ratio of Dsz enzymes in the 4S biodesulfurization system to be A:B:C = 1:2:4 and 1:4:2. When BCAD+1A+4B+2C, the conversion rate of dibenzothiophene (DBT) to 2-hydroxybiphenyl (HBP) was close to 100% in vitro. When the gene dose of dszC was increased, the HBP yield of the recombinant strain BL21(DE3)/BCAD + C reached approximately 0.012 mM in vivo, which was approximately 6-fold higher than that of the BCAD strain. CONCLUSIONS: According to the results predicted by the enzyme kinetic model, maintaining higher concentrations of DszC and DszB in the desulfurization system can effectively improve the desulfurization efficiency.

15.
Placenta ; 85: 1-8, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421528

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The migration and invasion of trophoblast cells into the endometrium and vasculature is a key step in human placentation. Preeclampsia, a devastating multi-system syndrome, is featured by shallow trophoblast invasion and unconverted narrow spiral arteries. Although the alteration in circHIPK3 expression is proved to regulate the invasion and metastasis of various malignant cells, its role in preeclampsia is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the expression pattern of circHIPK3 in preeclampsia and its impact on trophoblast behavior. METHODS: The expression of circHIPK3 in placental tissues obtained from 70 women with preeclampsia and 43 healthy pregnancy controls using quantitative real-time PCR. Clinical information of participants was collected. The effects of circHIPK3 on trophoblast migration, invasion, proliferation, tube formation, and apoptosis were examined in trophoblast cell lines (HTR-8/SVneo) by transfected with knockdown siRNA and overexpression plasmid. Sanger sequencing was performed to verify circHIPK3 in placenta and HTR8/SVneo cells. RESULTS: Significantly decreased circHIPK3 levels were detected in preeclampsia compared with healthy pregnancy controls. The migration, invasion, proliferation, and tube formation capacities of HTR8/SVneo cells were inhibited via circHIPK3 silencing, but circHIPK3 overexpression effectively promotes these capacities except proliferation. No significant difference was observed in apoptosis between cells transfected with siRNA and overexpression plasmid. DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest for the first time that abnormal expression of circHIPK3 may contribute to the development of preeclampsia by leading to the aberrant biological behavior of trophoblast cells. The underlying mechanisms need further study.

17.
Mucosal Immunol ; 12(6): 1280-1290, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462699

RESUMO

The pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2)-mediated aerobic glycolysis has been shown to play a critical role in promoting cell survival and proliferation. However, little is known about the function of intestinal epithelial PKM2 in intestine homeostasis. Here we investigate whether and how intestinal epithelial PKM2 modulates the morphology and function of the adult intestine in experimental colitis. Analyzing colonoscopic biopsies from Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients, we found significantly decreased level of intestinal epithelial PKM2 in patients compared to that in non-inflamed tissues. Similar reduction of intestinal epithelial PKM2 was observed in mice with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. Moreover, intestinal epithelial-specific PKM2-knockout (Pkm2-/-) mice displayed more severe intestinal inflammation, as evidenced by a shortened colon, disruption of epithelial tight junctions, an increase in inflammatory cytokine levels, and immune cell infiltration, when compared to wild-type mice. Gene profiling, western blot, and function analyses indicated that cell survival signals, particularly the Wnt/ß-catenin pathways, were associated with PKM2 activity. Increasing mouse intestinal epithelial PKM2 expression via delivery of a PKM2-expressing plasmid attenuated experimental colitis. In conclusion, our studies demonstrate that intestinal epithelial PKM2 increases cell survival and wound healing under the colitic condition via activating the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling.

18.
Bioorg Chem ; 91: 103162, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382058

RESUMO

In this work, a series of novel moxifloxacin-amide-1,2,3-triazole-isatin hybrids 7a-l were designed and synthesized. The in vitro antibacterial activity against a panel of clinically important Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria including drug-resistant pathogens was also evaluated. All hybrids showed considerable activity against the tested pathogens with MIC values of ≤0.03 to 128 µg/mL, and some of them such as hybrids 7e, 7g and 7j were comparable to or better than the parent moxifloxacin (MIC: ≤0.03-8 µg/mL). Moreover, hybrids 7e, 7g and 7j also demonstrated low cytotoxicity towards CHO cells. However, the in vivo pharmacokinetic profiles of these three hybrids were generally far inferior to the parent moxifloxacin. The structure-activity relationship and structure-cytotoxicity relationship were also studied and discussed which may help with the identification of new chemical entities as potent antibacterial agents.

19.
ACS Nano ; 13(9): 10587-10595, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424915

RESUMO

The response of materials to high stress and strain rates in nature has been a long-term scientific interest. The formation of kinks is a common deformation feature under high pressure and strain rates among foliated structures, such as rock-forming minerals. Although deformation of foliated rock layers in geology has been investigated for a century, the deformation behavior of their nanoscale counterparts, such as two-dimensional (2D) layered materials, under high stress and strain rates has not been investigated. 2D transition metal dichalcogenides have very strong in-plane rigidity, whereas the interlayer shear modulus is 3 orders of magnitude lower than their in-plane Young's modulus. Here, we study the structure and property changes in multilayer WSe2 2D layers during a 3D nanoshaping process where laser-shock pressure at the GPa level is applied to imprint the 2D multilayers into a designed nanomold, forming a large local bending strain of 5-6%. The microstructure of the 2D multilayers after laser shock is observed to be a nanoscale kink-band, similar to that of strained geological layered crystals, due to the high-pressure-induced bending and shearing. The deformed kink-band structure is investigated experimentally by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy and validated by molecular dynamics simulations. The changes in the resulting electronic band structure are investigated by first-principles calculations. The laser-shock straining technology to induce kink-band structures can enrich the understanding and facilitate the applications of many 2D materials.

20.
Chemistry ; 25(59): 13591-13597, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418957

RESUMO

A new generation of N-heterocyclic carbene palladium(II) complexes containing vinyl groups in different positions in the backbone of the N-heterocycle have been developed. The fully characterised monomers were copolymerised with divinylbenzene to fabricate robust polymer supported NHC-PdII complexes and these polymers were applied as heterogeneous catalysts in directed C-H halogenation of arenes with a pyridine-type directing group. The catalysts demonstrated medium-high catalytic activity with up to 90 % conversion and 100 % selectivity in chlorination. They are heterogeneous and recyclable (at least six times) with no significant leaching of palladium in batch mode catalysis. The best catalyst was also applied under continuous flow conditions where it disclosed an exceptional activity (90 % conversion) and 100 % selectivity for the mono-halogenated product for at least six days, with no leaching of palladium, no loss of activity and an ability to maintain the original oxidation state of PdII .

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