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1.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 64(1): 52-57, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433409

RESUMO

Objective: Postoperative recurrence and metastasis of gastric cancer is still a difficult problem in medical field. About 60% of patients with advanced gastric cancer die from peritoneal metastasis, which has become one of the main causes of death of gastric cancer patients. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer can help us better early diagnosis and improve treatment measures. Methods: This project intends to validate the above hypothesis from three different levels of tissue, cell, and animal models by means of fluorescence quantitative PCR, Western blot, double Luciferase Report Analysis and immunohistochemical detection, and to further explore the molecular mechanism of peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer. Results: Our previous studies have shown that PARK7 promotes peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, but its specific regulatory mechanism remains unclear. Conclusion: Our preliminary study showed that the expression of microRNA-216b in gastric cancer tissues with peritoneal metastasis was significantly lower than that in patients without peritoneal metastasis, while the expression of PARK7 was the opposite.

2.
New Phytol ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469925

RESUMO

The patterning of adaxial-abaxial tissues plays a vital role in the morphology of lateral organs, which is maintained by antagonism between the genes that specify adaxial and abaxial tissue identity. The homeo-domain leucine zipper class III (HD-ZIP III) family genes regulate adaxial identity; however, little is known about the physical interactions or transcriptionally regulated downstream genes of HD-ZIP III. In this study, we identified a dominant rice mutant, lateral floret 1 (lf1), which has defects in lateral organ polarity. LF1 encodes the HD-ZIP III transcription factor, which expressed in the adaxial area of lateral organs. LF1 can activate directly the expression of LITTLE ZIPPER family gene OsZPR4 and HD-ZIP II family gene OsHOX1, and OsZPR4 and OsHOX1 respectively interact with LF1 to form a heterodimer to repress the transcriptional activity of LF1. LF1 influences indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content by directly regulating the expression of OsYUCCA6. Thus, LF1 forms negative feedback loops between OsZPR4 and OsHOX1 to affect IAA content, leading to the regulation of lateral organs polarity development. These results reveal the cross-talk among HD-ZIP III, LITTLE ZIPPER, and HD-ZIP II proteins, and provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the polarity development of lateral organs.

3.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462377

RESUMO

DL-3-n-Butylphthalide (DL-NBP), a small molecular compound extracted from the seeds of Apium graveolens Linn (Chinese celery), has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic activities. DL-NBP not only protects against ischemic cerebral injury, but also ameliorates vascular cognitive impairment in dementia patients including AD and PD. In the current study, we investigated whether and how DL-NBP exerted a neuroprotective effect against diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD) in db/db mice, a model of type-2 diabetes. db/db mice were orally administered DL-NBP (20, 60, 120 mg· kg-1· d-1) for 8 weeks. Then the mice were subjected to behavioral test, their brain tissue was collected for morphological and biochemical analyses. We showed that oral administration of DL-NBP significantly ameliorated the cognitive decline with improved learning and memory function in Morris water maze testing. Furthermore, DL-NBP administration attenuated diabetes-induced morphological alterations and increased neuronal survival and restored the levels of synaptic protein PSD95, synaptophysin and synapsin-1 as well as dendritic density in the hippocampus, especially at a dose of 60 mg/kg. Moreover, we revealed that DL-NBP administration suppressed oxidative stress by upregulating Nrf2/HO-1 signaling, and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression by activating PI3K/Akt/CREB signaling in the hippocampus. These beneficial effects of DL-NBP were observed in high glucose-treated PC12 cells. Our results suggest that DL-NBP may be a potential pharmacologic agent for the treatment of DACD.

4.
J Sep Sci ; 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432733

RESUMO

A rapid, efficient and environmentally friendly matrix solid-phase dispersion microextraction was established to determine and quantify terpenoids in Radix Curcumae using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector. Various parameters affecting the extraction were investigated in detail, such as the grinding time, amount of adsorbent, type and concentration of elution solvent, and pH. The optimization of single-factor and response surface methodology was performed to confirm the best conditions in this procedure. The final optimized conditions were obtained by applying 70 mg of cucurbituril as adsorbent, 149 s as the optimum grinding time, and 228 mM of 3-(N,N-Dimethylpalmitylammonio)propanesulfonate aqueous solution (pH = 6.5) as the optimal elution solvent. The validated method showed a satisfactory linear range of 0.10-10 µg mL-1 for curdione and furanodiene, 0.01-10 µg mL-1 for isocurcumenol and germacrone, and 0.05-10 µg mL-1 for furanodienone, while the correlation coefficients ranged from 0.9945-0.9970. The recoveries of the investigated analytes at two spiked concentration levels (0.1 and 1.0 µg mL-1 ) ranged from 96.53-104.60%. In addition, this method displayed acceptable reproducibility (relative standard deviation ≤3.66%). The results showed that the newly proposed matrix solid-phase dispersion microextraction method was successfully applied to analyze curdione, isocurcumenol, furanodienone, germacrone and furanodiene in Radix Curcumae samples. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439102

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) could progress to hepatic fibrosis when absence of effective control. The purpose of our experiment was to investigate the protective effect of drinking water with high concentration of hydrogen in our study named hydrogen rich water (HRW) on mice with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease to elucidate the mechanism underlying the molecular hydrogen therapeutic action. The choline-supplemented, L-amino acid-defined (CSAA) or choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet for 20 weeks were used to induce NASH and fibrosis in the mice model and simultaneously treated with HRW for different periods of time. Primary hepatocytes were stimulated by palmitate in order to mimic a liver lipid metabolism during fatty liver formation. Mice in the CSAA + HRW group had lower serum levels of ALT and AST and milder histological damage. The inflammatory cytokines were expressed at lower levels in the HRW group than in the CSAA group. Importantly, HRW reversed hepatocyte apoptosis as well as hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in pre-existing hepatic fibrosis specimens. Molecular hydrogen inhibits the lipopolysaccharide-induced production of inflammation cytokines through an HO-1/IL-10-independent pathway. Furthermore, HRW improved hepatic steatosis in the CSAA + HRW group. Sirt1 induction by molecular hydrogen via the HO-1/AMPK/PPARα/PPARγ pathway suppresses palmitate-mediated abnormal fat metabolism. Orally administered HRW suppressed steatosis induced by CSAA and attenuated fibrosis induced by CDAA, possibly by reducing oxidative stress and the inflammation response.

6.
Cell Commun Signal ; 19(1): 9, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of lactic acid (LA) on the progression of bone metastasis from colorectal cancer (CRC) and its regulatory effects on primary CD115 (+) osteoclast (OC) precursors. METHODS: The BrdU assay, Annexin-V/PI assay, TRAP staining and immunofluorescence were performed to explore the effect of LA on the proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation of OC precursors in vitro and in vivo. Flow cytometry was performed to sort primary osteoclast precursors and CD4(+) T cells and to analyze the change in the expression of target proteins in osteoclast precursors. A recruitment assay was used to test how LA and Cadhein-11 regulate the recruitment of OC precursors. RT-PCR and Western blotting were performed to analyze the changes in the mRNA and protein expression of genes related to the PI3K-AKT pathway and profibrotic genes. Safranin O-fast green staining, H&E staining and TRAP staining were performed to analyze the severity of bone resorption and accumulation of osteoclasts. RESULTS: LA promoted the expression of CXCL10 and Cadherin-11 in CD115(+) precursors through the PI3K-AKT pathway. We found that CXCL10 and Cadherin-11 were regulated by the activation of CREB and mTOR, respectively. LA-induced overexpression of CXCL10 in CD115(+) precursors indirectly promoted the differentiation of osteoclast precursors through the recruitment of CD4(+) T cells, and the crosstalk between these two cells promoted bone resorption in bone metastasis from CRC. On the other hand, Cadherin-11 mediated the adhesion between osteoclast precursors and upregulated the production of specific collagens, especially Collagen 5, which facilitated fibrotic changes in the tumor microenvironment. Blockade of the PI3K-AKT pathway efficiently prevented the progression of bone metastasis caused by lactate. CONCLUSION: LA promoted metastatic niche formation in the tumor microenvironment through the PI3K-AKT pathway. Our study provides new insight into the role of LA in the progression of bone metastasis from CRC. Video Abstract.

7.
Adv Mater ; : e2003523, 2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33354783

RESUMO

The transfection efficiency of siRNA mediated by cationic polymers is limited due to the instability of polymers/siRNA complexes in the presence of serum. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is usually applied to modify cationic polymers, so as to reduce protein and cell adsorption and then to improve siRNA transfection efficiency. However, the polymers' modification with PEG mostly consumes the free amino of the polymers, which can, in turn, reduce the charge density and limit their siRNA transfection efficacy. Here, a new PEG modification strategy that need not consume the surface aminos of polymers is proposed. Catechol-PEG polymers are coated on the surface of phenylboronic acid (PBA)-modified Generation 5 (G5) poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (G5PBA) via reversible boronate esters to establish PEG-modified dendrimer/siRNA nanoassemblies for efficient siRNA delivery. The PEG/G5PBA/siRNA nanoassemblies have positive charge and show excellent gene silencing efficacy in the absence of serum in vitro. More importantly, the PEG/G5PBA/siRNA nanoassemblies also exhibit excellent serum resistance and gene silencing efficacy in serum-containing medium. Furthermore, the effective antiserum and gene silencing efficacy elicited by these nanoassemblies lead to excellent antitumor effects in vivo. This proposed strategy constitutes an important approach to reach an excellent gene silencing efficacy in the presence of serum.

8.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 371, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The water extract of Quercuse infectoria galls (QIG) is the active ingredient of Uyghur medicine Xipayi Kui Jie'an (KJA) which has promising therapeutic effects on Ulcerative Colitis (UC) as an alternative medicine. Considering the relationship between UC and the development of colorectal cancer (CRC), the present work aims to explore the direct anti-CRC activity of QIG extract. METHODS: CCK8 assay and flow cytometry were used to detect cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), flow cytometry, laser confocal and western blotting were performed to examine autophagy. We also adopted Reactive Oxygen Assay kit, as well as transwell and wound healing tests to study the underlying mechanism of QIG against CRC cells. RESULTS: First, we found that QIG extract could suppress the viability of CRC cells and trigger caspases-dependent apoptosis. Subsequently, we proved for the first time that QIG extract also triggered autophagic cell death in CRC cells, which together with apoptosis contributed to the cytotoxic effect on CRC cells. Further investigation revealed that QIG-induced cytotoxicity associated with intracellular ROS accumulation which could suppress the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, and then induce autophagy and inhibit cell growth. Besides, Erk signaling pathway was also involved in the process of autophagic cell death. Moreover, QIG extract also influenced EMT process and inhibited CRC cell migration. CONCLUSION: Altogether, this study provides a basis for the utilization of QIG as an alternative medicine for CRC prevention and treatment.

9.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; : 113845, 2020 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371968

RESUMO

In the present study, to effectively discover potential ß-secretase inhibitors from Dendrobii Caulis, ß-secretase was immobilized on magnetic beads via direct covalent connection and coupled with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. Mechanochemical-assisted extraction was used to extract active ingredients from Dendrobii Caulis. The main reaction conditions, including screening enzyme inhibitors, were evaluated, and the most important enzyme kinetic parameters were also investigated across the UV-vis spectrophotometer. Five compounds (rutin, scoparone, naringenin, dendrophenol, and erianin) with high binding affinity to magnetic beads were removed from the extract. The results indicated that ß-secretase was successfully immobilized and screened out five potential inhibitor compounds by ligand fishing. The lowest IC50 values were noted for rutin (5.437 µM) and erianin (2.039 µM). This is the first report on immobilized ß-secretase on magnetic beads for the identification of potential active compounds against Alzheimer's disease from complex biological mixtures.

10.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 555715, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33240084

RESUMO

Potentilla longifolia Willd. ex D.F.K.Schltdl., which is a kind of traditional Chinese herb, is often referred to as "Ganyancao" in China, which means "the herb is effective in the treatment of liver inflammation". Three new (ganyearmcaoosides A and B and ganyearmcaoic acid A; 1-3) and 26 known compounds (4-29) were isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of the dried aerial parts of this plant, of which 21 were isolated for the first time from this plant. The chemical structures of these compounds were elucidated using NMR and HR-ESI-MS analysis. The inhibitory effects of the 29 compounds with safe concentrations on the lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells were evaluated using photographic and quantitative assessments of lipid contents by Oil Red O staining, and measurement of the triglyceride levels. Comprehensive analysis showed that compound 12 (3,8-dimethoxy-5,7,4'- trihydroxyflavone) showed the best inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation such as reducing the accumulation of oil droplets and triglyceride level, and was superior to the reference in positive control. Western blot analysis and RT-PCR results showed that compound 12 enhanced the phosphorylations of AMPK and ACC, and inhibited the expressions of adipogenesis-related proteins or genes including SREBP1c, FAS, SCD1, GPAT, PPARγ and C/EBPα, and thereby significantly inhibited lipid accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner. P. longifolia and its bioactive compounds could be promising as potential therapeutic agents for diseases related to lipid accumulation in the future.

11.
Viral Immunol ; 33(10): 634-641, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185509

RESUMO

Interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) are transmembrane proteins induced by interferon that can provide broad-spectrum antiviral activities. However, there are few reports on the antiviral activity of monkey-derived IFITMs. In this study, the IFITM1 and IFITM3 genes of African green monkey (AGM) were cloned and overexpressed in Vero cells, followed by infection with mouse norovirus (MNV) and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV). The results showed that monkey IFITM1 and IFITM3 can be stably overexpressed in Vero cells. Both IFITM1 and IFITM3 from AGM could effectively restrict infection by SFTSV, and the viral inhibition rate of IFITM3 was more obvious compared with IFITM1. However, both monkey IFITM1 and IFITM3 had no significant effect on the replication of MNV. These results indicate that different IFITMs have different functions, which may be related to the structure of the host IFITMs and the types of pathogens.

12.
Food Chem ; : 128422, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143965

RESUMO

A simple and sensitive in situ antioxidation process assisted with a matrix solid-phase dispersion method for extracting chiral flavonoids in citrus fruit was established, and samples were further analyzed using ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry. The collision cross-sections of the target compounds were studied using single-field and stepped-field methods. The optimal conditions were obtained using 30 mg of C18 as a dispersant, methanol as an elution solvent and 0.6 mM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as a radical solution. Additionally, the method showed satisfactory limits of detection (3.70-6.52 ng/mL) and good recoveries (96.78-104.67%) for four flavonoids in citrus fruit. The IC50 values of DPPH radical-scavenging activities ranged from 817.8 to 981.55 µg/mL for tested samples. The method was a good alternative for the microextraction and determination of antioxidant capacity and chiral differentiation of narirutin, naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin in citrus fruit.

13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 131: 110756, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152921

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is a serious cardiovascular complication of diabetes characterized by inflammation and endothelial damage. Indeed, dysfunction of the endothelium is considered an early marker of atherosclerosis. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are prerequisites for blood vessels lined with endothelial cells (ECs), which produce many factors to regulate blood vessel function. Importantly, EPCs also repair some dysfunctions in ECs. Exosomes have been associated with the occurrence and development of disease. Here, we analyzed the microRNAs (miRNAs) contained in exosomes derived from EPCs by using next-generation sequencing. We found that most of the top 10 highest expressed miRNAs in these exosomes were related to atherosclerosis. In a mouse model of atherosclerotic diabetes, treatment with EPC-derived exosomes significantly reduced the production of diabetic atherosclerotic plaques and inflammatory factors. In an in vitro assay examining the contractility of the thoracic aorta from these mice, the addition of EPC-derived exosomes significantly ameliorated the observed endothelium-dependent contractile dysfunction. Taken together, these results indicated that EPC-derived exosomes ameliorated atherosclerotic endothelial dysfunction in a mouse model of atherosclerotic diabetes. Thus, the present study provides a potential therapeutic application of EPC-derived exosomes in cardiovascular disease.

14.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(24): 10437-10449, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170328

RESUMO

In this study, we isolated an endophytic Streptomyces sp. strain, WP-1, from surface-sterilized barks of Pinus dabeshanensis, an endangered Chinese plant. WP-1 showed strong antifungal activity against diverse pathogenic fungi, such as Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora infestan, and Candida albicans. Based on phylogenetic analyses, preliminary identification suggested that the WP-1 strain belonged to the genus Streptomyces. Column chromatogram and HPLC were employed to isolate the primary antifungal component from the culture medium of WP-1, and it was identified as the methylpentaene macrolide antibiotic, fungichromin (FC). In this study, for the first time, using in vitro bioassay studies, we revealed that FC strongly inhibited mycelial growth and conidia germination in Fusarium oxysporum. The median inhibitory concentration of FC was found to be 3.80 mg/L. The fermentation conditions of the WP-1 strain were further investigated to improve FC production. We found that supplementation of the synthetic medium with oils (soybean oil, oleic acid, and so on), particularly during the initial stage of fermentation, significantly increased the FC yield. Ammonium-trapping agent (magnesium phosphate) was used as an additive to increase FC yield to 5741.7 mg/L. It was 2.9-fold more as compared to the highest FC yield reported so far where Streptomyces padanus PMS-702 was used for FC production. KEY POINTS: • Isolation and identification of a fungichromin-producing endophytic actinomycete WP-1 strain. • Fungichromin production was significantly improved via oils and ammonium-trapping agents addition. • Discovery of the antifungal activity of fungichromin against Fusarium oxysporum.

15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(21): 14107-14113, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054201

RESUMO

Microbial antimonate [Sb(V)] respiratory reduction is an important process regulating Sb redox transformation in the environment. However, little is known about the microbial respiratory reductase for Sb(V). Herein, we report Sb(V)-respiring reduction by Shewanella sp. ANA-3 through an arsenate respiratory reductase encoded by arrAB. Incubation experiments showed that Shewanella sp. ANA-3 mediated Sb(V)-respiring reduction, which was dependent on the cell concentration. Both protein analysis and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction results revealed that arrAB was highly expressed in Sb(V)-respiring reduction. In vivo evidence with mutants indicated that neither ANA-3-ΔarrA nor ANA-3-ΔarrB was capable of reducing Sb(V) as efficiently as the wild type, whereas complementation by the wild-type sequences of arrA and arrB rescued the mutants' ability. Our in vitro results showed that ArrAB purified by His-Tag was able to mediate Sb(V) reduction, though with much suppressed catalytic kinetics compared with As(V) reduction. The cell-concentration-dependent reduction of Sb(V) was regulated by quorum sensing via the luxS gene. This study opens a new chapter in the mechanistic understanding of microbial Sb(V) respiratory reduction.

16.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 29(4): 445-448, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089300

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess and compare patient satisfaction and time required between silicon rubber impression and intraoral scanning impression. METHODS: Six undergraduates participated in this study. silicon rubber impression and intraoral scanning impression were taken, the time required to obtain the impressions and the scores of visual analog scale(VAS) were recorded. SPSS 23.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The time and patients satisfaction of silicon rubber impression were better than intraoral scanning impressions, and there were significant differences between the two groups(P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Using silicon rubber impression, the patient experience is better. To use intraoral scanning impression technology, dentists should be more skilled. With the role-playing method,dental interns can learn the operation key points and precautions of different impression-taking methods even better.


Assuntos
Borracha , Silício , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Técnica de Moldagem Odontológica , Humanos , Cintilografia
17.
ISA Trans ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097222

RESUMO

Initial positioning errors and the low adaptability of a priori digital elevation maps result in large positioning uncertainty intervals in the initial stage of terrain-aided navigation (TAN). This produces pseudo-peaks and mismatches in the initial position likelihood function and renders the convergence of the particle filter (PF) slow and unstable, while even causing divergence. Thus, the occurrence of the "kidnapped robot problem" is highly probable during the initial stage of TAN and is a scenario frequently faced by deep-sea and ultra-long-range underwater vehicles. In this study, a PF initialization method based on non-linear multi-terrain aided fusion position (NLMTP) is proposed to improve the stability and accuracy of TAN. NLMTP uses the terrain-aided position (TAP) information during the initial stage of TAN to estimate the high-precision probability distribution of the starting position via backward smoothing. Accordingly, a PF initialization method for non-Gaussian prior distribution probability is proposed to improve the convergence speed of the PF during the initial stage of underwater TAN. Finally, a performance comparison of PF initialized via the NLMTP, TAP confidence interval, and TERCOM methods was performed using the survey data obtained via onboard sensors. The experimental results show that NLMTP initialization improves the convergence speed and positioning accuracy of PF in the initial TAN phase; this improvement is clear in the low terrain-adaptability area.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102244

RESUMO

Background: Many studies have explored changes in the gut microbiome associated with HIV infection, but the consistent pattern of changes has not been clarified. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are very likely to be an independent influencing factor of the gut microbiome, but relevant research is still lacking. Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis by screening 12 published studies of 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of gut microbiomes related to HIV/AIDS (six of these studies contain data that is relevant and available to MSM) from NCBI and EBI databases. The analysis of gut microbiomes related to HIV infection status and MSM status included 1,288 samples (HIV-positive (HIV+) individuals, n = 744; HIV-negative (HIV-) individuals, n = 544) and 632 samples (MSM, n = 328; non-MSM, n = 304), respectively. The alpha diversity indexes, beta diversity indexes, differentially enriched genera, differentially enriched species, and differentially enriched Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) functional pathways related to gut microbiomes were calculated. Finally, the overall trend of the above indicators was evaluated. Results: Our results indicate that HIV+ status is associated with decreased alpha diversity of the gut microbiome. MSM status is an important factor that affects the study of HIV-related gut microbiomes; that is, MSM are associated with alpha diversity changes in the gut microbiome regardless of HIV infection, and the changes in the gut microbiome composition of MSM are more significant than those of HIV+ individuals. A consistent change in Bacteroides caccae, Bacteroides ovatus, Bacteroides uniformis, and Prevotella stercorea was found in HIV+ individuals and MSM. The differential expression of the gut microbiome may be accompanied by changes in functional pathways of carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and lipid Metabolism. Conclusions: This study shows that the changes in the gut microbiome are related to HIV and MSM status. Importantly, MSM status may have a far greater impact on the gut microbiome than HIV status.

19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 772, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CRF_BC recombinants, including CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC, were considered the predominant subtypes in China. Since the discovery of HIV-1 circulating recombinant form CRF 85_BC in Southwest China in 2016, this BC recombinant forms had been reported in different regions of China. However, the history and magnitude of CRF85_BC transmission were still to be investigated. METHOD: We conducted the most recent molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 among newly reported HIV-1 infected patients in Sichuan in 2019 by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 1291 pol sequences. Then, we used maximum likelihood approach and the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling of pol sequences to reconstruct the phylogeographic and demographic dynamics of the CRF85_BC. RESULTS: HIV-1 CRF85_BC (68/1291, 5.27%) became the fourth most prevalent strain revealing a significant increase in local population. CRF85_BC were only found in heterosexually infected individuals and the majority of CRF85_BC (95.45%) were circulating among the people living with HIV aged 50 years and over (PLHIV50+), suggesting a unique prevalent pattern. The founder lineages of CRF85_BC were likely to have first emerged in Yunnan, a province of Southwest China bordering Sichuan, in the early 2000s. It then spread exponentially to various places (including Guangxi, Sichuan, et al) and became endemic around 2008.6 (2006.7-2010.2) in Sichuan. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our findings on HIV-1 subtype CRF85_BC infections provided new insights into the spread of this virus and extended the understanding of the HIV epidemic in China.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/classificação , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , China/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Filogeografia
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(20)2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096644

RESUMO

Soybean (Glycine max), as an important oilseed crop, is constantly threatened by abiotic stress, including that caused by salinity and drought. bZIP transcription factors (TFs) are one of the largest TF families and have been shown to be associated with various environmental-stress tolerances among species; however, their function in abiotic-stress response in soybean remains poorly understood. Here, we characterized the roles of soybean transcription factor GmbZIP15 in response to abiotic stresses. The transcript level of GmbZIP15 was suppressed under salt- and drought-stress conditions. Overexpression of GmbZIP15 in soybean resulted in hypersensitivity to abiotic stress compared with wild-type (WT) plants, which was associated with lower transcript levels of stress-responsive genes involved in both abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent and ABA-independent pathways, defective stomatal aperture regulation, and reduced antioxidant enzyme activities. Furthermore, plants expressing a functional repressor form of GmbZIP15 exhibited drought-stress resistance similar to WT. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analyses revealed that GmbZIP15 positively regulates GmSAHH1 expression and negatively regulates GmWRKY12 and GmABF1 expression in response to abiotic stress. Overall, these data indicate that GmbZIP15 functions as a negative regulator in response to salt and drought stresses.

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