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1.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 14: 720899, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776862

RESUMO

Background: Lower-grade glioma (LGG) is the most common histology identified in gliomas, a heterogeneous tumor that may develop into high-grade malignant glioma that seriously shortens patient survival time. Recent studies reported that glutamatergic synapses might play an essential role in the progress of gliomas. However, the role of glutamatergic synapse-related biomarkers in LGG has not been systemically researched yet. Methods: The mRNA expression data of glioma and normal brain tissue were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas database and Genotype-Tissue Expression, respectively, and the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas database was used as a validation set. Difference analysis was performed to evaluate the expression pattern of glutamatergic synapse-related genes (GSRGs) in LGG. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression was applied to construct the glutamatergic synapse-related risk signature (GSRS), and the risk score of each LGG sample was calculated based on the coefficients and expression value of selected GSRGs. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to investigate the prognostic value of risk score. Immunity profile and single-sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) were performed to explore the association between risk score and the characters of tumor microenvironment in LGG. Gene set variation analysis (GSVA) was performed to investigate the potential pathways related to GSRS. The HPA database and real-time PCR were used to identify the expression of hub genes identified in GSRS. Results: A total of 22 genes of 39 GSRGs were found differentially expressed among normal and LGG samples. Through the LASSO algorithm, 14-genes GSRS constructed were associated with the prognosis and clinicopathological features of patients with LGG. Furthermore, the risk score level was significantly positively correlated with the infiltrating level of immunosuppressive cells, including M2 macrophages and regulatory T cells. GSVA identified a series of cancer-related pathways related to GSRS, such as P13K-AKT and P53 pathways. Moreover, ATAD1, NLGN2, OXTR, and TNR, hub genes identified in GSRS, were considered as potential prognostic biomarkers in LGG. Conclusion: A 14-genes GSRS was constructed and verified in this study. We provided a novel insight into the role of GSRS in LGG through a series of bioinformatics methods.

2.
Front Oncol ; 11: 774332, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804978

RESUMO

Aberrant reprogramming of metabolism has been considered a hallmark in various malignant tumors. The metabolic changes of amino acid not only have dramatic effects in cancer cells but also influence their immune-microenvironment in gliomas. However, the features of the amino acid metabolism-related and immune-associated gene set have not been systematically described. The expression level of mRNA was obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas database and the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas database, which were used as training set and validation set, respectively. Different bioinformatics and statistical methods were combined to construct a robust amino metabolism-related and immune-associated risk signature for distinguishing prognosis and clinical pathology features. Constructing the nomogram enhanced risk stratification and quantified risk assessment based on our gene model. Besides this, the biological mechanism related to the risk score was investigated by gene set enrichment analysis. Hub genes of risk signature were identified by the protein-protein interaction network. The amino acid metabolism-related and immune-associated gene signature recognized high-risk patients, defined as an independent risk factor for overall survival. The nomogram exhibited a high accuracy in predicting the overall survival rate for glioma patients. Furthermore, the high risk score hinted an immunosuppressive microenvironment and a lower sensitivity of immune checkpoint blockade therapy and also identified PSMC5 and PSMD3 as novel biomarkers in glioma. In conclusion, a novel amino acid metabolism-related and immune-associated risk signature for predicting prognosis in glioma has been constructed and identified as two potential novel biomarkers.

3.
Hum Cell ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791597

RESUMO

Ferroptosis, as an new form of non-apoptotic regulated cell death, plays an important role in human cancers. Although it is reported that HSP27 is an novel regulator of ferroptosis in cancer, it remains unknown how HSP27 affects ferroptosis in glioma. In this study, we examined the effect of HSP27 on the ferroptosis of glioblasotma. HSP27 overexpression protects glioblastoma cells from erastin-induced ferroptosis while HSP27 depletion promotes erastin-induced ferroptosis of glioblastoma. Notably, HSP27 phosphorylation is required for the protective function of HSP27 in erastin-induced ferroptosis. Overall, our study reveal novel molecular mechanisms of ferroptosis in glioma and also identify HSP27 as a negative regulator of ferroptosis and a potential target for the treatment of glioma.

4.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 717601, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650972

RESUMO

The tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) has been recognized to be associated with sensitivity to immunotherapy and patient prognosis. Recent research demonstrates that assessing the TIME patterns on large-scale samples will expand insights into TIME and will provide guidance to formulate immunotherapy strategies for tumors. However, until now, thorough research has not yet been reported on the immune infiltration landscape of glioma. Herein, the CIBERSORT algorithm was used to unveil the TIME landscape of 1,975 glioma observations. Three TIME subtypes were established, and the TIMEscore was calculated by least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO)-Cox analysis. The high TIMEscore was distinguished by an elevated tumor mutation burden (TMB) and activation of immune-related biological process, such as IL6-JAK-STAT3 signaling and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) response, which may demonstrate that the patients with high TIMEscore were more sensitive to immunotherapy. Multivariate analysis revealed that the TIMEscore could strongly and independently predict the prognosis of gliomas [Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) cohort: hazard ratio (HR): 2.134, p < 0.001; Gravendeel cohort: HR: 1.872, p < 0.001; Kamoun cohort: HR: 1.705, p < 0.001; The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort: HR: 2.033, p < 0.001; the combined cohort: HR: 1.626, p < 0.001], and survival advantage was evident among those who received chemotherapy. Finally, we validated the performance of the signature in human tissues from Wuhan University (WHU) dataset (HR: 15.090, p = 0.008). Our research suggested that the TIMEscore could be applied as an effective predictor for adjuvant therapy and prognosis assessment.

5.
Cancer Med ; 10(22): 8100-8113, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the role and possible regulatory mechanisms of CYP2E1 in gliomas. METHODS: RNA-seq data and corresponding clinical information of glioma patients were collected from The Cancer Genome Atlas and Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas, and mRNA data of normal brain tissues were obtained by the Genotype-Tissue Expression project. The Wilcoxon test was performed to analyze the correlation between CYP2E1 expression and glioma subtypes. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression, receiver operating characteristic curves, and Kaplan-Meier plots were used to evaluate the prognostic value of CYP2E1 in glioma. Functional enrichment analyses and immune infiltration analyses were performed to investigate the potential function of CYP2E1 in gliomas. Moreover, we investigated the miRNA and epigenetic mechanisms that regulate CYP2E1 expression. Finally, network pharmacology and molecular docking experiments were used to predict drugs that target CYP2E1. RESULTS: The downregulation of CYP2E1 expression may predict a poor prognosis for glioma patients. CYP2E1 expression decreased with increasing WHO grade (II-IV), and its level was correlated with clinical features, including age, 1p19q codeletion status, and IDH state in glioma tissues. Furthermore, CYP2E1 was involved in lipid metabolism and ferroptosis and related to the tumor immune microenvironment due to its strong correlation with the levels of infiltrating monocytes and Tregs. Moreover, variation in the total methylation level and copy number of CYP2E1 was moderately correlated with its mRNA expression (p < 0.05). CYP2E1 was predicted to be targeted by hsa-miR-527, whose expression was negatively related to CYP2E1 mRNA expression (p < 0.05). In addition, effective compounds that target CYP2E1, including 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid, styrene, toluene, nicotine, m-xylene, p-xylene, and colchicine, were identified. CONCLUSION: The downregulation of CYP2E1, which affects lipid metabolism and the ferroptosis signaling pathway, promotes the progression of gliomas.

6.
Front Genet ; 12: 701065, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527020

RESUMO

Background: Clinical benefits from standard therapies against glioblastoma (GBM) are limited in part due to the intrinsic radio- and chemo-resistance. As an essential part of tumor immunotherapy for adjunct, therapeutic tumor vaccines have been effective against multiple solid cancers, while their efficacy against GBM remains undefined. Therefore, this study aims to find the possible tumor antigens of GBM and identify the suitable population for cancer vaccination through immunophenotyping. Method: The genomic and responding clinical data of 169 GBM samples and five normal brain samples were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). The mRNA_seq data of 940 normal brain tissue were downloaded from Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx). Potential GBM mRNA antigens were screened out by differential expression, copy number variant (CNV), and mutation analysis. K-M survival and Cox analysis were carried out to investigate the prognostic association of potential tumor antigens. Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER) was used to explore the association between the antigens and tumor immune infiltrating cells (TIICs). Immunophenotyping of 169 samples was performed through consensus clustering based on the abundance of 22 kinds of immune cells. The characteristics of the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) in each cluster were explored through single-sample gene set enrichment analysis based on 29 kinds of immune-related hallmarks and pathways. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was performed to cluster the genes related to immune subtypes. Finally, pathway enrichment analyses were performed to annotate the potential function of modules screened through WGCNA. Results: Two potential tumor antigens selected were significantly positively associated with the antigen-presenting immune cells (APCs) in GBM. Furthermore, the expression of antigens was verified at the protein level by Immunohistochemistry. Two robust immune subtypes, immune subtype 1 (IS1) and immune subtype 2 (IS2), representing immune status "immune inhibition" and "immune inflamed", respectively, had distinct clinical outcomes in GBM. Conclusion: ARPC1B and HK3 were potential mRNA antigens for developing GBM mRNA vaccination, and the patients in IS2 were considered the most suitable population for vaccination in GBM.

7.
Front Neurol ; 12: 683051, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512505

RESUMO

Background: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) leads to severe disability and functional dependence. However, no reliable method exists to predict the clinical prognosis after aSAH. Thus, this study aimed to develop a web-based dynamic nomogram to precisely evaluate the risk of poor outcomes in patients with aSAH. Methods: Clinical patient data were retrospectively analyzed at two medical centers. One center with 126 patients was used to develop the model. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) analysis was used to select the optimal variables. Multivariable logistic regression was applied to identify independent prognostic factors and construct a nomogram based on the selected variables. The C-index and Hosmer-Lemeshow p-value and Brier score was used to reflect the discrimination and calibration capacities of the model. Receiver operating characteristic curve and calibration curve (1,000 bootstrap resamples) were generated for internal validation, while another center with 84 patients was used to validate the model externally. Decision curve analysis (DCA) and clinical impact curves (CICs) were used to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the nomogram. Results: Unfavorable prognosis was observed in 46 (37%) patients in the training cohort and 24 (29%) patients in the external validation cohort. The independent prognostic factors of the nomogram, including neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (p = 0.005), World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade (p = 0.002), and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) (p = 0.0003), were identified using LASSO and multivariable logistic regression. A dynamic nomogram (https://hu-ping.shinyapps.io/DynNomapp/) was developed. The nomogram model demonstrated excellent discrimination, with a bias-corrected C-index of 0.85, and calibration capacities (Hosmer-Lemeshow p-value, 0.412; Brier score, 0.12) in the training cohort. Application of the model to the external validation cohort yielded a C-index of 0.84 and a Brier score of 0.13. Both DCA and CIC showed a superior overall net benefit over the entire range of threshold probabilities. Conclusion: This study identified that NLR on admission, WFNS grade, and DCI independently predicted unfavorable prognosis in patients with aSAH. These factors were used to develop a web-based dynamic nomogram application to calculate the precise probability of a poor patient outcome. This tool will benefit personalized treatment and patient management and help neurosurgeons make better clinical decisions.

8.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 352, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As an important part of tumor immunotherapy for adjunct, therapeutic tumor vaccines have been effective against multiple solid cancers, while their efficacy against lower grade glioma (LGG) remains undefined. Immunophenotyping of tumors is an essential tool to evaluate the immune function of patients with immunodeficiency or autoimmunity. Therefore, this study aims to find the potential tumor antigen of LGG and identify the suitable population for cancer vaccination based on the immune landscape. METHOD: The genomic and clinical data of 529 patients with LGG were obtained from TCGA, the mRNA_seq data of normal brain tissue were downloaded from GTEx. Differential expression gene and mutation analysis were performed to screen out potential antigens, K-M curves were carried out to investigate the correlation between the level of potential antigens and OS and DFS of patients. TIMER dataset was used to explore the correlation between genes and immune infiltrating cells. Immunophenotyping of 529 tumor samples was based on the single-sample gene sets enrichment analysis. Cibersort and Estimate algorithm were used to explore the tumor immune microenvironment characteristics in each immune subtype. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) clustered immune-related genes and screened the hub genes, and pathway enrichment analyses were performed on the hub modules related to immune subtype in the WGCNA. RESULTS: Selecting for the mutated, up-regulated, prognosis- and immune-related genes, four potential tumor antigens were identified in LGG. They were also significantly positively associated with the antigen-presenting immune cells (APCs). Three robust immune subtypes, IS1, IS2 and IS3, represented immune status "desert", "immune inhibition", and "inflamed" respectively, which might serve as a predictive parameter. Subsequently, clinicopathological features, including the codeletion status of 1p19q, IDH mutation status, tumor mutation burden, tumor stemness, etc., were significantly different among subtypes. CONCLUSION: FCGBP, FLNC, TLR7, and CSF2RA were potential antigens for developing cancer vaccination, and the patients in IS3 were considered the most suitable for vaccination in LGG.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioma , Vacinas , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Glioma/genética , Humanos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Microambiente Tumoral
9.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 659511, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381355

RESUMO

The most common primary central nervous system tumor in adults is glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The high invasiveness of GBM cells is an important factor leading to inevitable tumor recurrence and a poor prognosis of patients. GNE-477, a novel PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, has been reported to exert antiproliferative effects on other cancer cells. However, researchers have not clearly determined whether GNE-477 produces antitumor effects on GBM. In the present study, GNE-477 significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of U87 and U251 cells. In addition, GNE-477 also induced apoptosis of GBM cells, arresting the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. More importantly, GNE-477 also reduced the levels of AKT and mTOR phosphorylation in the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in a concentration-dependent manner. An increase in AKT activity induced by SC79 rescued the GNE-477-mediated inhibition of GBM cell proliferation and apoptosis. The antitumor effects of GNE-477 and the regulatory effects on related molecules were further confirmed in vivo using a nude mouse intracranial xenograft model. In conclusion, our study indicated that GNE-477 exerted significant antitumor effects on GBM cells in vitro and in vivo by downregulating the AKT/mTOR pathway.

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