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1.
Adv Immunol ; 144: 155-171, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699216

RESUMO

B-cell follicle represents a functionally dynamic microstructure within second lymphoid tissues, predominantly consisting of B cells, follicular T cells and DCs. Through intimate interactions with cognate B cells, follicular helper T cells (Tfh) initiate and facilitate germinal center (GC) reactions by providing signals required for producing high-affinity antibodies, as well as for the generation of long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells. Concomitantly, germinal center reaction needs to be fine controlled to avoid autoimmunity or B-cell malignancies. Among immune cells residing in follicles, follicular regulatory T cells (Tfr), converted from naïve Treg cells, are specifically assigned to repress excessive GC responses by suppressing Tfh and GC B cells within GC structure. Hence, through Yin and Yang (positive and negative) regulation of GC reaction, Tfh cells play concert with Tfr cells in maintaining immune homeostasis. Besides CD4+ T cells, a small portion of CXCR5 expressing CD8+ T cells, regarded as follicular cytotoxic T cells (Tfc), could migrate into B cell follicles during chronic viral infection and several types of cancers, and this population exhibit lower level of exhaustion than its CXCR5- counterparts. Besides, Tfc cells demonstrate a stem-cell like phenotype during chronic infection which could further differentiate into terminally differentiated CXCR5-CD8+ T cells. Collectively, in this review, we will discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the ontology and differentiation of B-cell follicle resident Tfh, Tfr and Tfc cells.

2.
Parasite Immunol ; : e12682, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644820

RESUMO

A whole-killed malaria blood-stage vaccine (WKV) is promising in reducing the morbidity and mortality of malaria patients, but its efficacy needs to be improved. We found that the antimalarial drug chloroquine could augment the protective efficacy of the WKV of Plasmodium yoelii. The direct antimalarial effect of chloroquine on parasites during immunization could be excluded, as the administration of chloroquine or chloroquine plus alum every two weeks had a slight effect on parasitemia, and an immunization with NP-KLH (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetyl Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin) plus chloroquine could significantly promote the generation of NP-specific antibodies. Additionally, alum was required for chloroquine to augment the immunogenicity of the pRBC lysate. Chloroquine did not promote the parasite-specific CD4+ T-cell responses, but significantly enhanced the WKV-induced germinal centre B cell reactions, class-switch recombination and secretion of functionally protective antibodies to plasmodium. The elevated parasite-specific antibodies were demonstrated to largely contribute to the chloroquine-enhanced protective immunity. Thus, we report that chloroquine could be used as an adjuvant to enhance the protective immunity of WKVs through promoting humoral responses.

3.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541182

RESUMO

Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) regulates CD8+ T-cell differentiation and function. Despite the links between PI3K-AKT and mTORC1 activation in CD8+ T cells, the molecular mechanism underlying mTORC1 activation remains unclear. Here, we show that both the kinase activity and the death domain of DAPK1 are required for maximal mTOR activation and CD8+ T-cell function. We found that TCR-induced activation of calcineurin activates DAPK1, which subsequently interacts with TSC2 via its death domain and phosphorylates TSC2 to mediate mTORC1 activation. Furthermore, both the kinase domain and death domain of DAPK1 are required for CD8+ T-cell antiviral responses in an LCMV infection model. Together, our data reveal a novel mechanism of mTORC1 activation that mediates optimal CD8+ T-cell function and antiviral activity.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3859, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455769

RESUMO

Induction of long-lived antibody responses during infection or vaccination is often essential for subsequent protection, but the relative contributions of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and T helper 1 (Th1) cells for induction of antigen specific antibody responses to viruses are unclear. Here, we establish an acute Zika virus (ZIKV) infection model in immunocompetent mice, and show that ZIKV infection elicits robust Th1-like Tfh cell and protective antibody responses. While these Th1-like Tfh cells share phenotypic and transcriptomic profiles with both Tfh and Th1 cells, they also have unique surface markers and gene expression characteristics, and are dependent on T-bet for their development. Th1-like Tfh cells, but not Th1 cells, are essential for class switching of ZIKV-specific IgG2c antibodies and maintenance of long-term neutralizing antibody responses. Our study suggests that specific modulation of the Th1-like Tfh cell response during infection or vaccination may augment the induction of antiviral antibody response to ZIKV and other viruses.

5.
J Immunol ; 203(2): 323-327, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175159

RESUMO

The differentiation of memory CD8+ T cells is critical to the long-term cellular immunity. The transcription factor BCL6 has been reportedly important for the generation and maintenance of memory CD8+ T cells; however, using the newly established BCL6 conditional knockout mouse model, we demonstrate that BCL6 is dispensable for the maintenance of established memory CD8+ T cell pool, although BCL6 is still required for the generation of CD8+ memory precursors upon acute viral infection. In addition, BCL6 promotes the expression of TCF-1 via directly binding to the Tcf7 (gene symbol for TCF-1) allele in CD8+ memory precursors and forced expression of TCF-1 restores the generation of BCL6-deficient memory precursors. Thus, our findings clarify that BCL6 is dispensable for the maintenance of memory CD8+ T cells, but functions as an important upstream of TCF-1 to regulate the generation of memory precursors in acute viral infection.

6.
Biomater Sci ; 7(6): 2533-2544, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968875

RESUMO

Cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTLs) are crucial for controlling intracellular pathogens as well as cancer. However, how to promote the cytotoxic activity of CTL cells in vitro and in vivo remains largely unknown. On the other hand, ceria nanoparticles (CNPs) are widely used in biomedical fields, but the role of CNPs in CTL cells is still unclear. In this study, we found that the activated antigen-specific (P14) and nonspecific CD8+ T cells with CNP treatment both produced more cytokines, including interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and released more effector molecules, such as granzyme B and perforin, and then exhibited higher killing activity of P14 cells in vitro and stronger viral clearance capacity of CTL cells in vivo. Mechanistically, the activated P14 cells with CNP treatment inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species, and therefore promoted the activity of NF-κB signaling. Importantly, while the P14 cells were simultaneously treated by IMD-0354, a specific inhibitor of NF-κB signaling, the increases of IL-2 and TNF-α productions and granzyme B and perforin releases were remedied, and the P14 cells eventually exhibited the natural killing activity in vitro. Thus, our results demonstrated that CNP treatment promoted the cytotoxic activity of CTL cells and provide new ideas in the usage of CNPs and fascinating pharmacological potentials for clinical application, especially cancer immunotherapy.

7.
Front Immunol ; 10: 606, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30984183

RESUMO

Follicular helper T cells (TFH cells), known as the primary "helpers" of the germinal center (GC) reaction, promote the humoral immune response to defend against various pathogens. Under conditions of infection by different types of pathogens, many shared transcription factors (TFs), such as Bcl-6, TCF-1, and Maf, are selectively enriched in pathogen-specific TFH cells, orchestrating TFH cell differentiation and function. In addition, TFH cells also coexpress environmentally associated TFs as their conventional T cell counterparts (such as T-bet, GATA-3, or ROR-γt, which are expressed in Th1, Th2, or Th17 cells, respectively). These features likely indicate both the lineage-specificity and environmental adaption of the TFH cell responses. However, the extent to which the TFH cell response relies on these environmentally specific TFs is not completely understood. Here, we found that T-bet was specifically expressed in Type I TFH cells but not Type II TFH cells. While dispensable for the early fate commitment of TFH cells, T-bet was essential for the maintenance of differentiated TFH cells, promoting their proliferation, and inhibiting their apoptosis during acute viral infection. Microarray analysis showed both similarities and differences in transcriptome dependency on T-bet in TFH and TH1 cells, suggesting the distinctive role of T-bet in TFH cells. Collectively, our findings reveal an important and specific supporting role for T-bet in type I TFH cell response, which can help us gain a deeper understanding of TFH cell subsets.

8.
Nature ; 567(7749): 525-529, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814730

RESUMO

T cells become dysfunctional when they encounter self antigens or are exposed to chronic infection or to the tumour microenvironment1. The function of T cells is tightly regulated by a combinational co-stimulatory signal, and dominance of negative co-stimulation results in T cell dysfunction2. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie this dysfunction remain unclear. Here, using an in vitro T cell tolerance induction system in mice, we characterize genome-wide epigenetic and gene expression features in tolerant T cells, and show that they are distinct from effector and regulatory T cells. Notably, the transcription factor NR4A1 is stably expressed at high levels in tolerant T cells. Overexpression of NR4A1 inhibits effector T cell differentiation, whereas deletion of NR4A1 overcomes T cell tolerance and exaggerates effector function, as well as enhancing immunity against tumour and chronic virus. Mechanistically, NR4A1 is preferentially recruited to binding sites of the transcription factor AP-1, where it represses effector-gene expression by inhibiting AP-1 function. NR4A1 binding also promotes acetylation of histone 3 at lysine 27 (H3K27ac), leading to activation of tolerance-related genes. This study thus identifies NR4A1 as a key general regulator in the induction of T cell dysfunction, and a potential target for tumour immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Genoma , Membro 1 do Grupo A da Subfamília 4 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/patologia , Acetilação , Animais , Infecções por Arenaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Arenaviridae/virologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Colite/imunologia , Colite/patologia , Colite/terapia , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Histonas/química , Histonas/metabolismo , Tolerância Imunológica/genética , Imunoterapia , Vírus da Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
9.
Front Immunol ; 10: 169, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814995

RESUMO

The long-term persistence of viral antigens drives virus-specific CD8 T cell exhaustion during chronic viral infection. Yet exhausted, CD8 T cells are still endowed with certain levels of effector function, by which they can keep viral replication in check in chronic infection. However, the regulatory factors involved in regulating the effector function of exhausted CD8 T cell are largely unknown. Using mouse model of chronic LCMV infection, we found that the deletion of transcription factor TCF-1 in LCMV-specific exhausted CD8 T cells led to the profound reduction in cytokine production and degranulation. Conversely, ectopic expression of TCF-1 or using agonist to activate TCF-1 activities promotes the effector function of exhausted CD8 T cells. Mechanistically, TCF-1 fuels the functionalities of exhausted CD8 T cells by promoting the expression of an array of key effector function-associated transcription regulators, including Foxo1, Zeb2, Id3, and Eomes. These results collectively indicate that targeting TCF-1 mediated transcriptional pathway may represent a promising immunotherapy strategy against chronic viral infections by reinvigorating the effector function of exhausted virus-specific CD8 T cells.

10.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842630

RESUMO

Epigenetic modifications to histones dictate the differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into different subsets of effector T helper (TH) cells. The histone methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) has been implicated in the mechanism regulating the differentiation of TH1, TH2 and regulatory T (Treg) cells. However, whether and how EZH2 regulates follicular helper T (TFH) cell differentiation remain unknown. Using a mouse model of acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection, we observed abundant EZH2 expression and associated H3K27me3 modifications preferentially in the early committed virus-specific TFH cells compared to those in TH1 cells. Ablation of EZH2 in LCMV-specific CD4+ T cells leads to a selective impairment of early TFH cell fate commitment, but not late TFH differentiation or memory TFH maintenance. Mechanistically, EZH2 specifically stabilizes the chromatin accessibility of a cluster of genes that are important for TFH fate commitment, particularly B cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl6), and thus directs TFH cell commitment. Therefore, we identified the chromatin-modifying enzyme EZH2 as a novel regulator of early TFH differentiation during acute viral infection.

11.
Front Immunol ; 10: 249, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30828337

RESUMO

During viral infection, virus-specific follicular helper T cells provide important help to cognate B cells for their survival, consecutive proliferation and mutation and eventual differentiation into memory B cells and antibody-secreting plasma cells. Similar to Tfh cells generated in other conditions, the differentiation of virus-specific Tfh cells can also be characterized as a process involved multiple factors and stages, however, which also exhibits distinct features. Here, we mainly focus on the current understanding of Tfh fate commitment, functional maturation, lineage maintenance and memory transition and formation in the context of viral infection.

12.
Immunity ; 50(2): 403-417.e4, 2019 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709740

RESUMO

The tolerogenic microenvironment of the liver is associated with impaired hepatic T cell function. Here, we examined the contribution of liver-resident natural killer (LrNK) cells, a prominent hepatic NK cell compartment, to T cell antiviral responses in the liver. The number of virus-specific T cells increased in LrNK-cell-deficient mice during both acute and chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Upon infection with adenovirus, hepatic T cells from these mice produced more cytokines, which was accompanied by reduced viral loads. Transfer of LrNK cells into LrNK-cell-deficient or wild-type mice inhibited hepatic T cell function, resulting in impaired viral clearance, whereas transfer of conventional NK cells promoted T cell antiviral responses. LrNK-cell-mediated inhibition of T cell function was dependent on the PD-1-PD-L1 axis. Our findings reveal a role for LrNK cells in the regulation of T cell immunity and provide insight into the mechanisms of immune tolerance in the liver.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Fígado/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/imunologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/virologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/virologia , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/metabolismo , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/virologia , Vírus da Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Vírus da Coriomeningite Linfocítica/fisiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/virologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Transcriptoma/imunologia
13.
Trends Immunol ; 39(12): 965-979, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30377045

RESUMO

CD8+ T cells differentiate into multiple effector and memory subsets to carry out immune clearance of infected and cancerous cells and provide long-term protection. Recent research identified a CXCR5+Tcf1+Tim-3- subset that localizes in, or proximal to, B cell follicles in secondary lymphoid organs of mice, non-human primates, and humans, hereby termed follicular cytotoxic T (TFC) cells. With remarkable similarity to follicular helper T (TFH) cells, TFC differentiation is dependent on transcription factors E2A, Bcl6, and Tcf1, but inhibited by other regulators, including Blimp1, Id2, and Id3. This review summarizes the phenotype, function, and differentiation of this new subset. Owing to its follicular location and self-renewal capability, we propose immunotherapeutic strategies to target TFC cells to potentially treat certain cancers and chronic infections such as HIV-1.

14.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4874, 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451838

RESUMO

The metabolic checkpoint kinase mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates natural killer (NK) cell development and function, but the exact underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show, via conditional deletion of Raptor (mTORC1) or Rictor (mTORC2), that mTORC1 and mTORC2 promote NK cell maturation in a cooperative and non-redundant manner, mainly by controlling the expression of Tbx21 and Eomes. Intriguingly, mTORC1 and mTORC2 regulate cytolytic function in an opposing way, exhibiting promoting and inhibitory effects on the anti-tumor ability and metabolism, respectively. mTORC1 sustains mTORC2 activity by maintaining CD122-mediated IL-15 signaling, whereas mTORC2 represses mTORC1-modulated NK cell effector functions by restraining STAT5-mediated SLC7A5 expression. These positive and negative crosstalks between mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling thus variegate the magnitudes and kinetics of NK cell activation, and help define a paradigm for the modulation of NK maturation and effector functions.

15.
Nat Med ; 24(10): 1536-1544, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297899

RESUMO

Impaired immunity in patients with late-stage cancer is not limited to antitumor responses, as demonstrated by poor vaccination protection and high susceptibility to infection1-3. This has been largely attributed to chemotherapy-induced impairment of innate immunity, such as neutropenia2, whereas systemic effects of tumors on hematopoiesis and adoptive immunity remain incompletely understood. Here we observed anemia associated with severe deficiency of CD8+ T cell responses against pathogens in treatment-naive mice bearing large tumors. Specifically, we identify CD45+ erythroid progenitor cells (CD71+TER119+; EPCs) as robust immunosuppressors. CD45+ EPCs, induced by tumor growth-associated extramedullary hematopoiesis, accumulate in the spleen to become a major population, outnumbering regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). The CD45+ EPC transcriptome closely resembles that of MDSCs, and, like MDSCs, reactive oxygen species production is a major mechanism underlying CD45+ EPC-mediated immunosuppression. Similarly, an immunosuppressive CD45+ EPC population was detected in patients with cancer who have anemia. These findings identify a major population of immunosuppressive cells that likely contributes to the impaired T cell responses commonly observed in patients with advanced cancer.

16.
Sci China Life Sci ; 61(9): 1132-1134, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30069671
17.
Eur J Immunol ; 48(9): 1539-1549, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29856484

RESUMO

The presence of shared T-cell clonotypes was found in several different diseases, but its relationship with the progression of disease remains unclear. By sequencing the complementary determining region 3 of T-cell receptor (TCR) ß chains from the purified antigen-experienced CD8+ T cells, we characterized the T-cell repertoire in a prospective cohort study among 75 patients with chronic hepatitis B in China, as well as a healthy control and a validation cohort. We found that most T-cell clones from patients harbored the "patient-specific" TCR sequences. However, "patient-shared" TCR clonotypes were also widely found, which correlated with the favorable turnover of disease. Interestingly, the frequency of the "patient-shared" clonotypes can serve as a biomarker for favorable prognosis. Based on the clonotypes in those patients with favorable outcomes, we created a database including several clusters of protective anti-HBV CD8+ T-cell clonotypes that might be a reasonable target for therapeutic vaccine development or adoptive cell transfer therapy. These findings were validated in an additional independent cohort of patients. These results suggest that the "patient-shared" TCR clonotypes may serve as a valuable prognostic tool in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B and possibly other chronic viral diseases.

18.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1095, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29872434

RESUMO

The combination antiretroviral therapeutic (cART) regime effectively suppresses human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication and prevents progression to acquired immunodeficiency diseases. However, cART is not a cure, and viral rebound will occur immediately after treatment is interrupted largely due to the long-term presence of an HIV reservoir that is composed of latently infected target cells that maintain a quiescent state or persistently produce infectious viruses. CD4 T cells that reside in B-cell follicles within lymphoid tissues, called follicular helper T cells (TFH), have been identified as a major HIV reservoir. Due to their specialized anatomical structure, HIV-specific CD8 T cells are largely insulated from this TFH reservoir. It is increasingly clear that the elimination of TFH reservoirs is a key step toward a functional cure for HIV infection. Recently, several studies have suggested that a fraction of HIV-specific CD8 T cells can differentiate into a CXCR5-expressing subset, which are able to migrate into B-cell follicles and inhibit viral replication. In this review, we discuss the differentiation and functions of this newly identified CD8 T-cell subset and propose potential strategies for purging TFH HIV reservoirs by utilizing this unique population.

19.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1127, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29875775

RESUMO

Follicular helper CD4+ T (TFH) cells are critical for optimal B-cell-mediated humoral immunity by initiating, fueling, and sustaining germinal center reactions. The differentiation of TFH cells relies on multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors; however, the details by which these factors are integrated to coordinate TFH differentiation are largely unknown. In this study, using a mouse model of acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) viral infection, we demonstrate that mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) kinase integrates TCR signaling and ICOS-mediated co-stimulation to promote late differentiation and functional maturation of virus-specific TFH cells. Specifically, mTORC2 functions to maintain TFH lineage specifications, including phenotypes, migratory characteristics, and functional properties. Thus, our results highlight the importance of mTORC2 in guarding TFH phenotypic and functional maturation.

20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1707: 15-38, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29388097

RESUMO

B cell responses play a central role in humoral immunity, which protects an individual from invading pathogens by antigen-specific antibodies. Understanding the basic principles of the B cell responses during viral infection is of substantial importance for anti-viral vaccine development. In inbred mice, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection elicits robust and typical T cell-dependent B cell responses, including germinal center reaction, memory B cell formation, and a long-lived plasma cell pool in bone marrow. Therefore, this system represents an ideal model to investigate anti-viral B cell responses. In this protocol, we describe how to propagate and quantify LCMV and successfully establish an acute LCMV infection in mice. This protocol also provides three different techniques to analyze B cell responses specific to an acute LCMV infection: the identification of germinal center (GC) B cells and follicular helper CD4 T (TFH) cells from the spleens and lymph nodes via flow cytometry, titration of LCMV-specific IgG in the serum after LCMV infection using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis, and detection of LCMV-IgG secreted plasma cells from bone marrow with an enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Células da Medula Óssea/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Vírus da Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/patologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/patologia , Camundongos , Plasmócitos/patologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/patologia
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