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1.
Vaccine ; 37(36): 5466-5473, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was recently shown to be effective against PCV13-type invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and pneumococcal community acquired pneumonia (CAPSpn) in healthy adults aged ≥65 years, prompting many countries to re-assess adult immunization. In Canada, the potential benefits of adult PCV13 immunization were unclear given anticipated herd immunity from PCV13 childhood immunization introduced since 2010. This study describes the serotype distribution and clinical outcomes of Canadian adults aged ≥16 years, who were hospitalized with CAPSpn and IPD from 2010 to 2015. METHODS: Active surveillance for CAP and IPD was performed in adult hospitals across five Canadian provinces. IPD was identified when Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from sterile sites. Bacteremic and non-bacteremic CAPSpn were identified using blood culture, and sputum culture or PCV13-specific urine antigen detection (UADPCV13), respectively. Serotype was assigned using Quellung reaction, PCR, or UADPCV13. RESULTS: Of 6687 CAP cases where a test was performed, S. pneumoniae positivity decreased from 15.9% in 2011 to 8.8% in 2014, but increased to 12.9% in 2015. CAPSpn attributed to PCV13 serotypes followed a similar trend, dropping from 8.3% in 2010 to 4.6% in 2014, but increasing to 6.3% in 2015. The decline was primarily attributed to serotypes 7F and 19A, and the proportional increase to serotype 3. Similar trends were noted for bacteremic and non-bacteremic CAPSpn. Serious outcomes such as 30-day mortality, intensive care unit admission, and requirement for mechanical ventilation were prominent in CAPSpn and IPD cases, but remained unchanged over the study years. CONCLUSION: Herd immunity afforded primarily by serotypes 7F and 19A appears to be partly masked by a concomitant proportional increase of serotype 3. Despite evidence of herd immunity, these PCV13 serotypes remain persistent in Canadian adults hospitalized with CAPSpn, and represent between 5 and 10% of all CAP in this patient population.

2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(14)2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311160

RESUMO

Dead time estimation is important in the design process of quartz flexure accelerometers. However, to the authors' knowledge, the dead time existing in quartz flexure accelerometers is not well investigated in conventional identification studies. In this paper, the dead time, together with the open-loop transfer function of quartz flexure accelerometers, is identified from step excitation experiments using two steps. Firstly, a monotonicity number was proposed to estimate the dead time. Analysis showed that the monotonicity number was robust enough to measurement noise and sensitive to step excitation. Secondly, parameters of the open-loop transfer function were identified using the least mean squares algorithm. A simulation example was applied to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. The verified method was used to test a quartz flexure accelerometer. The experimental result shows that the dead time was 500 µs.

3.
Chest ; 155(1): 69-78, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of influenza vaccination in reducing influenza-related hospitalizations among patients with COPD is not well described, and influenza vaccination uptake remains suboptimal. METHODS: Data were analyzed from a national, prospective, multicenter cohort study including patients with COPD, hospitalized with any acute respiratory illness or exacerbation between 2011 and 2015. All patients underwent nasopharyngeal swab screening with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for influenza. The primary outcome was an influenza-related hospitalization. We identified influenza-positive cases and negative control subjects and used multivariable logistic regression with a standard test-negative design to estimate the vaccine effectiveness for preventing influenza-related hospitalizations. RESULTS: Among 4,755 hospitalized patients with COPD, 4,198 (88.3%) patients with known vaccination status were analyzed. The adjusted analysis showed a 38% reduction in influenza-related hospitalizations in vaccinated vs unvaccinated individuals. Influenza-positive patients (n = 1,833 [38.5%]) experienced higher crude mortality (9.7% vs 7.9%; P = .047) and critical illness (17.2% vs 12.1%; P < .001) compared with influenza-negative patients. Risk factors for mortality in influenza-positive patients included age > 75 years (OR, 3.7 [95% CI, 0.4-30.3]), cardiac comorbidity (OR, 2.0 [95% CI, 1.3-3.2]), residence in long-term care (OR, 2.6 [95% CI, 1.5-4.5]), and home oxygen use (OR, 2.9 [95% CI, 1.6-5.1]). CONCLUSIONS: Influenza vaccination significantly reduced influenza-related hospitalization among patients with COPD. Initiatives to increase vaccination uptake and early use of antiviral agents among patients with COPD could reduce influenza-related hospitalization and critical illness and improve health-care costs in this vulnerable population. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.govNo.:NCT01517191; URL www.clinicaltrials.gov.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 67(7): 1063-1071, 2018 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30010773

RESUMO

Background: Immunization of pregnant women with tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) provides protection against pertussis to the newborn infant. Methods: In a randomized, controlled, observer-blind, multicenter clinical trial, we measured the safety and immunogenicity of Tdap during pregnancy and the effect on the infant's immune response to primary vaccination at 2, 4, and 6 months and booster vaccination at 12 months of age. A total of 273 women received either Tdap or tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccine in the third trimester and provided information for the safety analysis and samples for the immunogenicity analyses; 261 infants provided serum for the immunogenicity analyses. Results: Rates of adverse events were similar in both groups. Infants of Tdap recipients had cord blood levels that were 21% higher than maternal levels for pertussis toxoid (PT), 13% higher for filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), 4% higher for pertactin (PRN), and 7% higher for fimbriae (FIM). These infants had significantly higher PT antibody levels at birth and at 2 months and significantly higher FHA, PRN, and FIM antibodies at birth and 2 and 4 months, but significantly lower PT and FHA antibody levels at 6 and 7 months and significantly lower PRN and FIM antibody levels at 7 months than infants whose mothers received Td. Differences persisted prebooster at 12 months for all antigens and postbooster 1 month later for PT, FHA, and FIM. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that Tdap during pregnancy results in higher levels of antibodies early in infancy but lower levels after the primary vaccine series. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT00553228.

5.
BMC Pediatr ; 18(1): 134, 2018 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29642863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In children with epilepsy, fever and infection can trigger seizures. Immunization can also induce inflammation and fever, which could theoretically trigger a seizure. The risk of seizure after immunization in children with pre-existing epilepsy is not known. The study objective was to determine the risk of medically attended seizure after immunization in children with epilepsy < 7 years of age. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of children < 7 years of age with epilepsy in Nova Scotia, Canada from 2010 to 2014. Hospitalizations, emergency visits, unscheduled clinic visits, and telephone calls for seizures were extracted from medical records. Immunization records were obtained from family physicians and Public Health with informed consent. We conducted a risk interval analysis to estimate the relative risk (RR) of seizure during risk periods 0-14, 0-2, and 5-14 days post-immunization versus a control period 21-83 days post-immunization. RESULTS: There were 302 children with epilepsy who were eligible for the study. Immunization records were retrieved on 147 patients (49%), of whom 80 (54%) had one or more immunizations between the epilepsy diagnosis date and age 7 years. These 80 children had 161 immunization visits and 197 medically attended seizures. Children with immunizations had more seizures than either those with no immunizations or those with no records (mean 2.5 versus 0.7 versus 0.9, p < 0.001). The risk of medically attended seizure was not increased 0-14 days after any vaccine (RR = 1.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.5-2.8) or 0-2 days after inactivated vaccines (RR = 0.9, 95% CI: 0.1-7.1) versus 21-83 days post-immunization. No seizure events occurred 5-14 days after live vaccines. CONCLUSIONS: Children with epilepsy do not appear to be at increased risk of medically attended seizure following immunization. These findings suggest that immunization is safe in children with epilepsy, with benefits outweighing risks.

6.
J Infect Dis ; 218(3): 378-387, 2018 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29617814

RESUMO

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus infection can cause lower respiratory tract infection in older adults comparable to influenza, but no vaccines are available. Methods: This was a randomized, observer-blinded, first-in-humans study of a novel synthetic RSV antigen based on the ectodomain of the small hydrophobic glycoprotein (SHe) of RSV subgroup A, formulated with either the lipid and oil-based vaccine platform DepoVax (DPX-RSV[A]) or alum (RSV[A]-Alum), in healthy, 50-64-year-old individuals. Two dose levels (10 or 25 µg) of SHe with each formulation were compared to placebo. A booster dose was administered on day 56. Results: There was no indication that the vaccine was unsafe. Mild pain, drowsiness, and muscles aches were the most common solicited adverse events (AEs), and the frequencies of the AEs did not increase after dose 2. Robust anti-SHe-specific immune responses were demonstrated in the DPX-RSV(A) 10-µg and 25-µg groups (geometric mean titer, approximately 10-fold and 100-fold greater than that of placebo at days 56 and 236, respectively), and responses were sustained in the DPX-RSV(A) 25-µg group at day 421. Responses to the RSV(A)-Alum vaccines were very low. Conclusions: A novel antigen from the SH protein of RSV, formulated in a lipid and oil-based vaccine platform, was highly immunogenic, with sustained antigen-specific antibody responses, and had an acceptable safety profile.

7.
Vaccine ; 36(16): 2166-2175, 2018 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29548608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ongoing assessment of influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) is critical to inform public health policy. This study aimed to determine the VE of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) for preventing influenza-related hospitalizations and other serious outcomes over three consecutive influenza seasons. METHODS: The Serious Outcomes Surveillance (SOS) Network of the Canadian Immunization Research Network (CIRN) conducted active surveillance for influenza in adults ≥16 years (y) of age during the 2011/2012, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 seasons in hospitals across Canada. A test-negative design was employed: cases were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for influenza; controls were PCR-negative for influenza and were matched to cases by date, admission site, and age (≥65 y or <65 y). All cases and controls had demographic and clinical characteristics (including influenza immunization status) obtained from the medical record. VE was estimated as 1-OR (odds ratio) in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated patients × 100%. The primary outcome was VE of TIV for preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza-related hospitalization; secondary outcomes included VE of TIV for preventing influenza-related intensive care unit (ICU) admission/mechanical ventilation, and influenza-related death. RESULTS: Overall, 3394 cases and 4560 controls were enrolled; 2078 (61.2%) cases and 2939 (64.5%) controls were ≥65 y. Overall matched, adjusted VE was 41.7% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 34.4-48.3%); corresponding VE in adults ≥65 y was 39.3% (95% CI: 29.4-47.8%) and 48.0% (95% CI: 37.5-56.7%) in adults <65 y, respectively. VE for preventing influenza-related ICU admission/mechanical ventilation in all ages was 54.1% (95% CI: 39.8-65.0%); in adults ≥65 y, VE for preventing influenza-related death was 74.5% (95% CI: 44.0-88.4%). CONCLUSIONS: While effectiveness of TIV to prevent serious outcomes varies year to year, we demonstrate a statistically significant and clinically important TIV VE for preventing hospitalization and other serious outcomes over three seasons. Public health messaging should highlight the overall benefit of influenza vaccines over time while acknowledging year to year variability. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01517191.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Estações do Ano , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/história , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Vacinação
8.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 12(2): 232-240, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29125689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consideration of cost determinants is crucial to inform delivery of public vaccination programs. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the average total cost of laboratory-confirmed influenza requiring hospitalization in Canadians prior to, during, and 30 days following discharge. To analyze effects of patient/disease characteristics, treatment, and regional differences in costs. METHODS: Study utilized previously recorded clinical characteristics, resource use, and outcomes of laboratory-confirmed influenza patients admitted to hospitals in the Serious Outcomes Surveillance (SOS), Canadian Immunization Research Network (CIRN), from 2010/11 to 2012/13. Unit costs including hospital overheads were linked to inpatient/outpatient resource utilization before and after admissions. RESULTS: Dataset included 2943 adult admissions to 17 SOS Network hospitals and 24 Toronto Invasive Bacterial Disease Network hospitals. Mean age was 69.5 years. Average hospital stay was 10.8 days (95% CI: 10.3, 11.3), general ward stays were 9.4 days (95% CI: 9.0, 9.8), and ICU stays were 9.8 days (95% CI: 8.6, 11.1) for the 14% of patients admitted to the ICU. Average cost per case was $14 612 CAD (95% CI: $13 852, $15 372) including $133 (95% CI: $116, $150) for medical care prior to admission, $14 031 (95% CI: $13 295, $14 768) during initial hospital stay, $447 (95% CI: $271, $624) post-discharge, including readmission within 30 days. CONCLUSION: The cost of laboratory-confirmed influenza was higher than previous estimates, driven mostly by length of stay and analyzing only laboratory-confirmed influenza cases. The true per-patient cost of influenza-related hospitalization has been underestimated, and prevention programs should be evaluated in this context.

9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 17(1): 805, 2017 12 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29284435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Serious Outcomes Surveillance (SOS) Network was established to monitor seasonal influenza complications among hospitalized Canadian adults and to assess the effectiveness of influenza vaccination against severe outcomes. Here we report age- and strain-specific vaccine effectiveness (VE) in preventing severe outcomes during a season characterized by mixed outbreaks of four different influenza strains. METHODS: This prospective, multicentre, test-negative case-control study evaluated the VE of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) in the prevention of laboratory-confirmed influenza-hospitalization in adults aged ≥16 years (all adults) and adults aged 16-64 years (younger adults). The SOS Network identified hospitalized patients with diagnoses potentially attributable to influenza during the 2011/12 influenza season. Swabs collected at admission were tested by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR) or viral culture to discriminate influenza cases (positive) from controls (negative). VE was calculated as 1-odds ratio (OR) of vaccination in cases versus controls × 100. RESULTS: Overall, in all adults, the unadjusted and adjusted VEs of TIV against influenza-hospitalization were 41.8% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 26.0, 54.3), and 42.8% (95% CI: 23.8, 57.0), respectively. In younger adults (16-64 years), the unadjusted and adjusted VEs of TIV against influenza-hospitalization were 35.8% (95% CI: 4.5, 56.8) and 33.2% (95% CI: -6.7, 58.2), respectively. In the all adults group, adjusted VE against influenza A/H1N1 was 72.5% (95% CI: 30.5, 89.1), against A/H3N2 was 86.1% (95% CI: 40.1, 96.8), against B/Victoria was 40.5% (95% CI: -28.9, 72.6), and against B/Yamagata was 32.3% (95% CI: -8.3, 57.7). The adjusted estimate of early season VE (from November 1 to March 11) was 54.4% (95% CI: 29.7-70.4), which was higher than late season (from March 11 to May 25) VE estimate (VE: 29.7%, 95% CI: -5.3, 53.1). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that TIV was highly effective against A viruses and moderately effective against B viruses during a mild season characterised by co-circulation of four influenza strains in Canada. Findings underscore the need to provide VE assessment by subtype/lineage as well as the timing of vaccination (early season vs late season) to accurately evaluate vaccine performance and thus guide public health decision-making. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01517191. Registration was retrospective and the date of registration was January 17, 2012.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/patogenicidade , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/patogenicidade , Vírus da Influenza B/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza B/patogenicidade , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Estações do Ano , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Infect Dis ; 216(4): 405-414, 2017 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28931244

RESUMO

Background: Influenza is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among older adults. Even so, effectiveness of influenza vaccine for older adults has been reported to be lower than for younger adults, and the impact of frailty on vaccine effectiveness (VE) and outcomes is uncertain. We aimed to study VE against influenza hospitalization in older adults, focusing on the impact of frailty. Methods: We report VE of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) in people ≥65 years of age hospitalized during the 2011-2012 influenza season using a multicenter, prospective, test-negative case-control design. A validated frailty index (FI) was used to measure frailty. Results: Three hundred twenty cases and 564 controls (mean age, 80.6 and 78.7 years, respectively) were enrolled. Cases had higher baseline frailty than controls (P = .006). In the fully adjusted model, VE against influenza hospitalization was 58.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 34.2%-73.2%). The contribution of frailty was important; adjusting for frailty alone yielded a VE estimate of 58.7% (95% CI, 36.2%-73.2%). VE was 77.6% among nonfrail older adults and declined as frailty increased. Conclusions: Despite commonly held views that VE is poor in older adults, we found that TIV provided good protection against influenza hospitalization in older adults who were not frail, though VE diminished as frailty increased. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT01517191.


Assuntos
Idoso Fragilizado , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Potência de Vacina , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Estações do Ano , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Vaccine ; 35(29): 3647-3654, 2017 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28554501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal community acquired pneumonia (CAPSpn) and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although childhood immunization programs have reduced the overall burden of pneumococcal disease, there is insufficient data in Canada to inform immunization policy in immunocompetent adults. This study aimed to describe clinical outcomes of pneumococcal disease in hospitalized Canadian adults, and determine the proportion of cases caused by vaccine-preventable serotypes. METHODS: Active surveillance for CAPSpn and IPD in hospitalized adults was performed in hospitals across five Canadian provinces from December 2010 to 2013. CAPSpn were identified using sputum culture, blood culture, a commercial pan-pneumococcal urine antigen detection (UAD), or a serotype-specific UAD. The serotype distribution was characterized using Quellung reaction, and PCR-based serotyping on cultured isolates, or using a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) serotype-specific UAD assay. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: In total, 4769 all-cause CAP cases and 81 cases of IPD (non-CAP) were identified. Of the 4769 all-cause CAP cases, a laboratory test for S. pneumoniae was performed in 3851, identifying 14.3% as CAPSpn. Of CAP cases among whom all four diagnostic test were performed, S. pneumoniae was identified in 23.2% (144/621). CAPSpn cases increased with age and the disease burden of illness was evident in terms of requirement for mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, and 30-day mortality. Of serotypeable CAPSpn or IPD results, predominance for serotypes 3, 7F, 19A, and 22F was observed. The proportion of hospitalized CAP cases caused by a PCV13-type S. pneumoniae ranged between 7.0% and 14.8% among cases with at least one test for S. pneumoniae performed or in whom all four diagnostic tests were performed, respectively. Overall, vaccine-preventable pneumococcal CAP and IPD were shown to be significant causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized Canadian adults in the three years following infant PCV13 immunization programs in Canada.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Sorogrupo , Streptococcus pneumoniae/classificação , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Sorotipagem , Adulto Jovem
12.
Cancer Cell Int ; 17: 40, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28360820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancer comprises the majority of lung cancer cases and is insensitive to chemotherapy. Most patients develop drug resistance. Recently, tetrandrine (TET), a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, was identified as a novel anti-cancer agent. However, the effect of tetrandrine combined with cisplatin on lung cancer has not yet been studied. We aimed to identify a possible synergistic effect between tetrandrine and cisplatin, besides, to investigate the effects of TET in combination with DDP on proliferation and apoptosis in cisplatin-resistant and cisplatin-sensitive A549 cell lines, and to study the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Cell viability was confirmed with CCK8 assays, and the IC50 values for each treatment group were calculated. The synergistic interaction of these drugs was evaluated using an isobolographic analysis. Proliferation was assessed by EDU staining. Hoechst staining and flow cytometry were used to assess apoptosis. Apoptosis- and autophagy-associated proteins were analyzed by western blot. Transmission electron microscopy was used to detect autophagy, RFP-GFP-LC3 lentivirus was used to perform autophagic flux assay. RESULTS: Tetrandrine and cisplatin exerted synergistic cytotoxic effects on both cisplatin-resistant and cisplatin-sensitive A549 cell lines. The combination of tetrandrine and cisplatin induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in a synergistic manner. The formation of autophagosomes was evident by transmission electron microscopy. The autophagic flux of combination treatment was increased. CONCLUSIONS: Tetrandrine synergized with cisplatin to reduce the viability of cisplatin-resistant and cisplatin-sensitive A549 cells, tetrandrine could reverse the resistance of A549 cells to cisplatin. Tetrandrine combined with cisplatin could induce autophagy. Therefore, tetrandrine is a potent autophagy agonist and may be a promising drug for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.

13.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) ; 48(6): 528-35, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27084520

RESUMO

Several studies have shown that combination treatment with natural products and chemotherapy agents can improve the sensitivity and cytotoxicity of chemotherapy agents. Resveratrol, a natural product, has many biological effects including antitumor and antiviral activities, as well as vascular protective effect. The aim of this study is to investigate the synergistic anticancer effect of resveratrol in combination with cisplatin and the potential anticancer mechanisms involved in A549 cells. The results obtained from Cell Counting Kit-8 and isobolographic analysis demonstrated that combination of resveratrol and cisplatin resulted in synergistic cytotoxic effects in A549 cells. Results from Hoechst staining, flow cytometry and western blot analysis suggested that resveratrol enhanced cisplatin-mediated apoptosis. Meanwhile, the changes of LC3-II and P62 levels and formation of autophagosome suggested that resveratrol in combination with cisplatin triggered autophagy. More importantly, inhibiting autophagy by 3-methyladenine markedly attenuated the apoptosis caused by combination of resveratrol and cisplatin in A549 cells. Taken together, our study provides the first evidence that resveratrol combined with cisplatin synergistically induce apoptosis via modulating autophagic cell death in A549 cells. These findings also help us to understand the role of natural products in combination with chemotherapy agents in lung cancer.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Estilbenos/administração & dosagem , Células A549 , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Adenina/farmacologia , Adenocarcinoma Bronquioloalveolar/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma Bronquioloalveolar/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma Bronquioloalveolar/patologia , Autofagossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagossomos/patologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Resveratrol
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 14(10): 18075-95, 2014 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25268911

RESUMO

This paper proposes a low cost and small size attitude and heading reference system based on MEMS inertial sensors. A dual-axis rotation structure with a proper rotary scheme according to the design principles is applied in the system to compensate for the attitude and heading drift caused by the large gyroscope biases. An optimization algorithm is applied to compensate for the installation angle error between the body frame and the rotation table's frame. Simulations and experiments are carried out to evaluate the performance of the AHRS. The results show that the proper rotation could significantly reduce the attitude and heading drifts. Moreover, the new AHRS is not affected by magnetic interference. After the rotation, the attitude and heading are almost just oscillating in a range. The attitude error is about 3° and the heading error is less than 3° which are at least 5 times better than the non-rotation condition.

15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 14(6): 10381-94, 2014 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24926694

RESUMO

In this paper, a novel method for respiratory monitoring is presented. The method is based on Trichel pulses (TPs) using a simple field ionization sensor which consists of a needle electrode and a plate electrode. Experiments have been conducted to demonstrate that different respiratory patterns, including normal, ultra-fast, deep breaths, and apnea could be easily monitored in real time by detecting the changes in the TP frequency. The vital capacity could also be assessed by calculating the variation of TP frequency. It is found that the operation principle of the proposed sensor is based on the effects of breath airflow and the atomized water in exhaled air on the TP frequency by changing the ionization process and the dynamics of charged particles in the short gap. The influences of applied voltage and ambient parameters have also been investigated.


Assuntos
Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Eletrodos , Expiração/fisiologia , Humanos , Umidade , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
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