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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(15): 6981-6991, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35394289

RESUMO

Significant advances have been achieved for the construction of chiral skeletons containing 1,2,3-triazoles via transition-metal-catalyzed asymmetric azide-alkyne cycloaddition; however, most of them have been limited to terminal alkynes in the synthesis of central chirality via desymmetrization and dynamic/dynamic kinetic resolution. Enantioselective transition-metal-catalyzed azide-internal-alkyne cycloaddition is extremely limited. Moreover, the construction of a challenging five-membered (hetero)biaryl axially chiral molecule via transition-metal-catalyzed asymmetric azide-internal-alkyne cycloaddition is still underexplored. Herein, we first report an atroposelective and atom-economical synthesis of axially chiral 1,4,5-trisubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles, directly acting as core chiral units of challenging five-membered atropisomers, via the enantioselective Rh-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (E-RhAAC) of internal alkynes and azides. The reaction demonstrates excellent functional group tolerance, forging a variety of C-C axially chiral 1,2,3-triazoles under mild conditions with moderate to excellent yields (up to 99% yield) and generally high to excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee) along with specific regiocontrol. The origin of regio- and enantioselectivity control is disclosed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations, providing new guidance for the facile construction of axially chiral compounds.


Assuntos
Azidas , Ródio , Alcinos , Catálise , Reação de Cicloadição , Estereoisomerismo , Triazóis
2.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202204603, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35474275

RESUMO

Medium-sized N,S-heterocycles have received tremendous interest due to their biological activities and potential medical applications. However, asymmetric synthesis of these compounds are extremely rare. Described herein is a catalyst-dependent [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of sulfoxide-ynamides, enabling divergent and atom-economic synthesis of a series of valuable medium-sized N,S-heterocycles in moderate to good yields with broad substrate scope. Importantly, excellent enantioselectivities have been achieved via an unprecedented chirality-transfer. Moreover, theoretical calculations are employed to elucidate the origins of the catalyst-dependent stereospecific [3,3]-rearrangement.

3.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 61(20): e202201436, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35246909

RESUMO

In recent years, asymmetric catalysis of ynamides has attracted much attention, but these reactions mostly constructed central chirality, except for a few examples on the synthesis of axially chiral compounds which exclusively relied on noble-metal catalysis. Herein, a facile access to axially chiral N-heterocycles enabled by chiral Brønsted acid-catalyzed 5-endo-dig cyclization of ynamides is disclosed, which represents the first metal-free protocol for the construction of axially chiral compounds from ynamides. This method allows the practical and atom-economical synthesis of valuable N-arylindoles in excellent yields with generally excellent enantioselectivities. Moreover, organocatalysts and ligands based on such axially chiral N-arylindole skeletons are demonstrated to be applicable to asymmetric catalysis.

4.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 61(7): e202115554, 2022 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34904775

RESUMO

Here, we report a copper-catalyzed asymmetric cascade cyclization/[1,2]-Stevens-type rearrangement via a non-diazo approach, leading to the practical and atom-economic assembly of various valuable chiral chromeno[3,4-c]pyrroles bearing a quaternary carbon stereocenter in generally moderate to good yields with wide substrate scope and excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99 % ee). Importantly, this protocol not only represents the first example of catalytic asymmetric [1,2]-Stevens-type rearrangement based on alkynes but also constitutes the first asymmetric formal carbene insertion into the Si-O bond.

5.
Org Lett ; 24(1): 196-201, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34931837

RESUMO

Transition-metal-catalyzed Si-H bond insertion reactions are generally limited to stabilized diazo compounds. An efficient copper-catalyzed Si-H bond insertion reaction of N-propargyl ynamides with hydrosilanes is described, allowing practical and atom-economic construction of valuable organosilanes in generally moderate to excellent yields under mild reaction conditions. Notably, this reaction constitutes a new method of Si-H bond insertion reaction involving vinyl cations as key intermediates.

6.
Small Methods ; 5(3): e2000673, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34927818

RESUMO

Ynamides are electron-rich heteroatom-substituted alkynes with C-C triple bond directly tethered to the amide group. Over the past decades, ynamides have proven to be versatile reagents for organic synthesis and have received extensive attention. Compared with the well-established ionic reactions of ynamides, radical-based ynamide reactions have been exploited relatively seldom. Herein, radical reactions of ynamides, classified by radical attack at the α-position and ß-position of ynamides, are reviewed by highlighting the reaction selectivity, scope, mechanism, and applicability. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summarization of these advances, casting light on the further development of ynamide chemistry.

7.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(52): 27164-27170, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672067

RESUMO

Described herein is a novel Brønsted acid catalyzed intramolecular hydroalkoxylation/Claisen rearrangement, allowing the practical and atom-economic synthesis of a range of valuable spirolactams from readily available ynamides in generally good to excellent yields with excellent diastereoselectivities and broad substrate scope. Importantly, an unexpected dearomatization of nonactivated arenes and heteroaromatic compounds is involved in this tandem sequence. Moreover, an asymmetric version of this tandem cyclization was also achieved by efficient kinetic resolution by chiral phosphoric acid catalysis. In addition, the [3,3]-rearrangement is shown to be kinetically preferred over the related [1,3]-rearrangement by theoretical calculations.

8.
Nat Chem ; 13(11): 1093-1100, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635816

RESUMO

Chiral Brønsted acid-catalysed asymmetric synthesis has received tremendous interest over the past decades, and numerous efficient synthetic methods have been developed based on this approach. However, the use of chiral Brønsted acids in these reactions is mostly limited to the activation of imine and carbonyl moieties, and the direct activation of carbon-carbon triple bonds has so far not been invoked. Here we show that chiral Brønsted acids enable the catalytic asymmetric dearomatization reactions of naphthol-, phenol- and pyrrole-ynamides by the direct activation of alkynes. This method leads to the practical and atom-economic construction of various valuable spirocyclic enones and 2H-pyrroles that bear a chiral quaternary carbon stereocentre in generally good-to-excellent yields with excellent chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivities. The activation mode of chiral Brønsted acid catalysis revealed in this study is expected to be of broad utility in catalytic asymmetric reactions that involve ynamides and the related heteroatom-substituted alkynes.

9.
Org Lett ; 23(20): 8067-8071, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609887

RESUMO

An efficient copper-catalyzed cyclization of N-propargyl ynamides with borane adducts through B-H bond insertion has been developed. A series of valuable organoboron compounds are constructed in generally good yields with a wide substrate scope and good functional group tolerance under mild reaction conditions. Importantly, this protocol via vinyl cation intermediates constitutes a novel way of B-H bond insertion.

10.
Chem Sci ; 12(27): 9466-9474, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349921

RESUMO

Metal carbenes have proven to be one of the most important and useful intermediates in organic synthesis, but catalytic asymmetric reactions involving metal carbenes are still scarce and remain a challenge. Particularly, the mechanistic pathway and chiral induction model in these asymmetric transformations are far from clear. Described herein is a copper-catalyzed asymmetric cyclization of alkenyl diynes involving a vinylic C(sp2)-H functionalization, which constitutes the first asymmetric vinylic C(sp2)-H functionalization through cyclopentannulation. Significantly, based on extensive mechanistic studies including control experiments and theoretical calculations, a revised mechanism involving a novel type of endocyclic copper carbene via remote-stereocontrol is proposed, thus providing new mechanistic insight into the copper-catalyzed asymmetric diyne cyclization and representing a new chiral control pattern in asymmetric catalysis based on remote-stereocontrol and vinyl cations. This method enables the practical and atom-economical construction of an array of valuable chiral polycyclic-pyrroles in high yields and enantioselectivities.

11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(41): 5032-5035, 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33881063

RESUMO

An efficient regio- and diastereoselective method for the construction of valuable trans-3,4-diaryldihydrocoumarins via metal-free [4+2] annulation of ynamides with o-hydroxybenzyl alcohols has been developed. Ynamides are first treated as 2-π partners to react with o-hydroxybenzyl alcohols via traceless sulfonamide directing groups, affording trans-3,4-diaryldihydrocoumarins in good yields with high regio- and diastereoselectivities. This metal-free methodology is also characterized by a wide substrate scope, good functional group tolerance, and efficiency on a gram scale.

12.
Chem Rev ; 121(14): 9039-9112, 2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786423

RESUMO

Catalytic transformations involving metal carbenes are considered one of the most important aspects of homogeneous transition metal catalysis. Recently, gold-catalyzed generation of gold carbenes from readily available alkynes represents a significant advance in metal carbene chemistry. This Review summarizes the advances in the gold-catalyzed nitrene-transfer reactions of alkynes with nitrogen-transfer reagents, such as azides, nitrogen ylides, isoxazoles, and anthranils, and gold-catalyzed carbene-transfer reactions, involving oxygen atom-transfer reactions of alkynes with nitro compounds, nitrones, sulfoxides, and pyridine N-oxides, through the presumable α-imino gold carbene and α-oxo gold carbene intermediates, respectively. Gold-catalyzed processes are reviewed by highlighting their product diversity, selectivity, and applicability, and the mechanistic rationale is presented where possible.

13.
Chem Soc Rev ; 49(24): 8897-8909, 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135691

RESUMO

Over the past two decades, the development and application of ynamide chemistry have received more and more attention. Ynamides have proven to be versatile reagents for organic synthesis, and have been widely applied to the rapid assembly of a diverse range of structurally complex N-containing molecules, especially the valuable N-heterocycles. In comparison with the well-established transition metal-catalyzed reactions of ynamides, metal-free ynamide transformations have relatively seldom been exploited. Recently, Brønsted acid-mediated reactions of ynamides represent significant advances in ynamide chemistry. This review summarizes the latest trends and developments of Brønsted acid-mediated reactions of ynamides, including cycloaddition, cyclization, intramolecular alkoxylation-initiated rearrangement, oxygen atom transfer reactions and hydro-heteroatom addition reactions.

14.
Acc Chem Res ; 53(9): 2003-2019, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869969

RESUMO

ConspectusYnamides are electron-rich heteroatom-substituted alkynes with a C-C triple bond directly attached to the amide group. Importantly, this amide group is able to impose an electronic bias, thus resulting in the highly regioselective attack of this polarized alkyne by a large variety of nucleophiles. Over the past two decades, catalytic reactions of ynamides have experienced dramatic developments, especially those catalyzed by transition metals. As a result, ynamides have been widely applied to the rapid and efficient assembly of versatile structurally complex N-containing molecules, especially in an atom-economic and stereoselective way.On the basis of newly developed ynamide preparations and new alkyne transformations, we first developed oxidation-initiated tandem reactions of ynamides such as zinc-catalyzed ynamide oxidation/C-H functionalization and copper-catalyzed ynamide oxidation/carbene metathesis, leading to divergent synthesis of isoquinolones, ß-carbolines, and pyrrolo[3,4-c]quinolin-1-ones. Importantly, this protocol represents the first non-noble-metal-catalyzed intermolecular oxidation of alkynes by N-oxide type oxidants, and the related overoxidation could be dramatically inhibited in this non-noble-metal catalysis. Then, we achieved gold-catalyzed amination-initiated tandem reactions of ynamides via α-imino gold carbenes for efficient construction of various 2-aminoindoles, 3-amino-ß-carbolines, and 2-aminopyrroles, where two new types of nitrene transfer reagents (benzyl azides and isoxazoles) were discovered. In particular, the use of isoxazoles as nitrene transfer reagents for atom-economic generation of α-imino metal carbenes has also been elegantly exploited by Hashmi, Liu, and many other groups, providing ready access to a wide range of functionalized N-heterocycles. Moreover, we revealed that donor/donor copper carbenes could be generated via copper-catalyzed diyne cyclization under mild conditions. These novel copper carbenes could undergo asymmetric C-H insertion, cyclopropanation, and formal [3 + 2] cycloaddition to produce diverse chiral polycyclic pyrroles with good to excellent enantioselectivities. Thus, this strategy may open new avenues in catalytic asymmetric reaction of ynamides, which remain largely unexplored and deserve more attention. Meanwhile, we also accomplished the efficient and practical synthesis of medium-sized lactams by yttrium-catalyzed cascade cyclization of allyl alcohol-tethered ynamides and the combination of radical chemistry based on visible-light photoredox catalysis with ynamide chemistry for divergent synthesis of useful 2-benzhydrylindoles and 3-benzhydrylisoquinolines.In this Account, we describe a panoramic picture of our recent contributions since 2015 to the development and application of ynamide chemistry in organic synthesis via transition metal-catalyzed tandem reactions by focusing on the tetrafunctionalization of ynamides. These studies provide not only efficient and attractive methods for divergent synthesis of valuable N-heterocycles but also some new insights into the exploration of alkyne chemistry and metal carbene chemistry.

15.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(41): 17984-17990, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621338

RESUMO

Here an efficient copper-catalyzed cascade cyclization of azide-ynamides via α-imino copper carbene intermediates is reported, representing the first generation of α-imino copper carbenes from alkynes. This protocol enables the practical and divergent synthesis of an array of polycyclic N-heterocycles in generally good to excellent yields with broad substrate scope and excellent diastereoselectivities. Moreover, an asymmetric azide-ynamide cyclization has been achieved with high enantioselectivities (up to 98:2 e.r.) by employing BOX-Cu complexes as chiral catalysts. Thus, this protocol constitutes the first example of an asymmetric azide-alkyne cyclization. The proposed mechanistic rationale for this cascade cyclization is further supported by theoretical calculations.

16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(35): 4832-4835, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236203

RESUMO

An efficient copper-catalyzed tandem regioselective cis-carbometallation/cyclization of imine-ynamides with arylboronic acids has been developed. This method leads to a facile and practical synthesis of valuable 2,3-disubstituted indolines in moderate to excellent yields and features a broad substrate scope and wide functional group tolerance. Other significant features of this protocol include the use of readily available starting materials, high flexibility, simple procedure and mild reaction conditions.

17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(16): 7618-7626, 2020 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237743

RESUMO

The generation of metal-containing 1,3-dipoles from metal carbenes represents a significant advance in 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions. However, these transformations have so far been limited to reactions based on diazo compounds or triazoles as precursors. Herein, we disclose a copper-catalyzed enantioselective reaction of alkenyl N-propargyl ynamides with styrene derivatives by formal [3 + 2] cycloaddition via Cu-containing all-carbon 1,3-dipoles, which constitutes a novel way for the generation of metal-containing 1,3-dipoles via metal carbenes. This protocol allows the practical and atom-economical synthesis of valuable chiral pyrrole-fused bridged [2.2.1] skeletons in moderate to good yields (up to 90% yield) with excellent diastereoselectivities (dr > 50/1) and generally excellent enantioselectivities (up to >99% ee).

18.
Org Biomol Chem ; 18(10): 1843-1850, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076693

RESUMO

This article gives a short review on the visible-light promoted synthesis of α-functionalized ketones from alkenes. Various α-functionalized ketones, including α-halo, sulfinyl/sulfonyl, aryl, azido and thiocyanato ketones can be synthesized from the reaction of alkenes with different radical species generated by visible-light catalysis. These transformations typically use dioxygen as the terminal oxidant and do not require a transition metal to activate the double bond, which is quite different from the transition-metal catalysed reactions (Wacker oxidation or hydroformylation).

19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(7): 3636-3644, 2020 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003986

RESUMO

In the past decades, significant advances have been made on radical Smiles rearrangement. However, the eventually formed radical intermediates in these reactions are limited to the amidyl radical, except for the few examples initiated by a N-centered radical. Here, a novel and practical radical Smiles rearrangement triggered by photoredox-catalyzed regioselective ketyl-ynamide coupling is reported, which represents the first radical Smiles rearrangement of ynamides. This method enables facile access to a variety of valuable 2-benzhydrylindoles with broad substrate scope in generally good yields under mild reaction conditions. In addition, this chemistry can also be extended to the divergent synthesis of versatile 3-benzhydrylisoquinolines through a similar ketyl-ynamide coupling and radical Smiles rearrangement, followed by dehydrogenative oxidation. Moreover, such an ynamide Smiles rearrangement initiated by intermolecular photoredox catalysis via addition of external radical sources is also achieved. By control experiments, the reaction was shown to proceed via key ketyl radical and α-imino carbon radical intermediates.

20.
Org Lett ; 22(2): 648-652, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887060

RESUMO

A novel Brønsted acid-catalyzed reaction of alkynyl thioethers with o-hydroxybenzyl alcohols via an unexpected formal [4 + 2] annulation has been developed. This metal-free protocol leads to the facile and practical synthesis of valuable polysubstituted 2H-chromenes in mostly good to excellent yields under mild reaction conditions and features a wide substrate scope and excellent functional group tolerance.

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