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1.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893979

RESUMO

Evolutionary developmental biology, or Evo-Devo for short, has become an established field that, broadly speaking, seeks to understand how changes in development drive major transitions and innovation in organismal evolution. It does so via integrating the principles and methods of many subdisciplines of biology. Although we have gained unprecedented knowledge from the studies on model organisms in the past decades, many fundamental and crucially essential processes remain a mystery. Considering the tremendous biodiversity of our planet, the current model organisms seem insufficient for us to understand the evolutionary and physiological processes of life and its adaptation to exterior environments. The currently increasing genomic data and the recently available gene-editing tools make it possible to extend our studies to non-model organisms. In this review, we review the recent work on the regulatory signaling of developmental and regeneration processes, environmental adaptation, and evolutionary mechanisms using both the existing model animals such as zebrafish and Drosophila, and the emerging nonstandard model organisms including amphioxus, ascidian, ciliates, single-celled phytoplankton, and marine nematode. In addition, the challenging questions and new directions in these systems are outlined as well.

2.
Mar Biotechnol (NY) ; 23(2): 255-275, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689052

RESUMO

With atmospheric CO2 increasing, a large amount of CO2 is absorbed by oceans and lakes, which changes the carbonate system and affects the survival of aquatic plants, especially microalgae. The main aim of our study was to explore the responses of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyceae) to elevated CO2 by combined transcriptome and metabolome analysis under three different scenarios: control (CK, 400 ppm), short-term elevated CO2 (ST, 1000 ppm), and long-term elevated CO2 (LT, 1000 ppm). The transcriptomic data showed moderate changes between ST and CK. However, metabolic analysis indicated that fatty acids (FAs) and partial amino acids (AAs) were increased under ST. There was a global downregulation of genes involved in photosynthesis, glycolysis, lipid metabolism, and nitrogen metabolism but increase in the TCA cycle and ß-oxidation under LT. Integrated transcriptome and metabolome analyses demonstrated that the nutritional constituents (FAs, AAs) under LT were poor compared with CK, and most genes and metabolites involved in C and N metabolism were significantly downregulated. However, the growth and photosynthesis of cells under LT increased significantly. Thus, C. reinhardtii could form a specific adaptive evolution to elevated CO2, affecting future biogeochemical cycles.

3.
Plant Mol Biol ; 105(6): 611-623, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528753

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: We applied an integrative approach using multiple methods to verify cytosine methylation in the chloroplast DNA of the multicellular brown alga Saccharina japonica. Cytosine DNA methylation is a heritable process which plays important roles in regulating development throughout the life cycle of an organism. Although methylation of nuclear DNA has been studied extensively, little is known about the state and role of DNA methylation in chloroplast genomes, especially in marine algae. Here, we have applied an integrated approach encompassing whole-genome bisulfite sequencing, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation, gene co-expression networks and photophysiological analyses to provide evidence for the role of chloroplast DNA methylation in a marine alga, the multicellular brown alga Saccharina japonica. Although the overall methylation level was relatively low in the chloroplast genome of S. japonica, gametophytes exhibited higher methylation levels than sporophytes. Gene-specific bisulfite-cloning sequencing provided additional evidence for the methylation of key photosynthetic genes. Many of them were highly expressed in sporophytes whereas genes involved in transcription, translation and biosynthesis were strongly expressed in gametophytes. Nucleus-encoded photosynthesis genes were co-expressed with their chloroplast-encoded counterparts potentially contributing to the higher photosynthetic performance in sporophytes compared to gametophytes where these co-expression networks were less pronounced. A nucleus-encoded DNA methyltransferase of the DNMT2 family is assumed to be responsible for the methylation of the chloroplast genome because it is predicted to possess a plastid transit peptide.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , DNA de Cloroplastos/genética , DNA de Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Feófitas/genética , Feófitas/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular , Cloroplastos/genética , Citosina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Fotossíntese
4.
Physiol Plant ; 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547806

RESUMO

Oxylipins are important oxygenated derivatives of fatty acids that regulate a variety of plant physiological and pathological processes in response to specific external challenges. A large body of evidence has indicated that algae can also produce a surprisingly diverse array of volatile oxylipins, yet little is known about the roles of volatile oxylipins as defense signals in macroalgae. In this study, the kelp Macrocystis pyrifera was treated by the oxylipin messenger 1-octen-3-ol and then a genome-wide gene expression profile and fatty acid spectrum analysis were performed. We found that M. pyrifera responded rapidly to the exposure of the oxylipin messenger 1-octen-3-ol. It regulated the expression levels of genes mainly involved in signal transduction, lipid metabolism, oxidation prevention, cell wall synthesis, photosynthesis, and development. Moreover, 1-octen-3-ol treatments decreased several types of total fatty acid contents and increased free fatty acid contents, especially for the C18 and C20 fatty acids. In addition, it decreased the content of indole-3-acetic acid, abscisic acid, and zeatin and increased the gibberellic acid content. Our findings demonstrated that 1-octen-3-ol is an available inducer for M. pyrifera, which is capable of rapidly upregulating kelp's defense response.

5.
ISME J ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452476

RESUMO

Arsenic pollution is a widespread threat to marine life, but the ongoing rise pCO2 levels is predicted to decrease bio-toxicity of arsenic. However, the effects of arsenic toxicity on marine primary producers under elevated pCO2 are not well characterized. Here, we studied the effects of arsenic toxicity in three globally distributed diatom species (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Thalassiosira pseudonana, and Chaetoceros mulleri) after short-term acclimation (ST, 30 days), medium-term exposure (MT, 750 days), and long-term (LT, 1460 days) selection under ambient (400 µatm) and elevated (1000 and 2000 µatm) pCO2. We found that elevated pCO2 alleviated arsenic toxicity even after short acclimation times but the magnitude of the response decreased after mid and long-term adaptation. When fed with these elevated pCO2 selected diatoms, the scallop Patinopecten yessoensis had significantly lower arsenic content (3.26-52.83%). Transcriptomic and biochemical analysis indicated that the diatoms rapidly developed arsenic detoxification strategies, which included upregulation of transporters associated with shuttling harmful compounds out of the cell to reduce arsenic accumulation, and upregulation of proteins involved in synthesizing glutathione (GSH) to chelate intracellular arsenic to reduce arsenic toxicity. Thus, our results will expand our knowledge to fully understand the ecological risk of trace metal pollution under increasing human activity induced ocean acidification.

6.
Mar Environ Res ; 164: 105233, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310685

RESUMO

Under the present CO2 condition, the efficiency of biological pump mediating carbon sequestration is predicted to decline in the future because respiration tends to be more sensitive to rising temperature than is photosynthesis. However, it remains unknown whether the impacts of global warming on metabolic rates of phytoplankton can be modulated by elevated CO2 induced ocean acidification. Here we show that in the model diatom species Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Ea (activation energy) of photosynthesis (~0.5 eV) was significantly lower than that of respiration (1.8 eV), while CO2 concentration had no effect on the Ea value. Eh (deactivation energy) of respiration was increased to 2.5 eV, that was equivalent to Eh of photosynthesis in high CO2-grown cells and 28.4% higher than that in low CO2-grown ones. The respiration to photosynthesis ratio (R/P) was consistently higher in high CO2 condition, which increased with temperature at the beginning and subsequently decreased in both CO2 conditions. The ratio of R/P in high CO2 to R/P in low CO2 gradually increased with temperature above the optimal temperature. Our results imply that ocean acidification will aggravate the negative impacts or offset the alleviating effects of warming on the R/P ratio depending on the temperature range in Phaeodactylum tricornutum.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oceanos e Mares , Fotossíntese , Água do Mar
7.
J Phycol ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211355

RESUMO

Saccharina japonica is an important large brown alga and a major component of productive beds on the northwest coast of the Pacific Ocean. Abiotic stress response mechanisms are receiving considerable attention because global climate change is increasing their abiotic stress levels. However, our knowledge of how S. japonica broadly respond to stress is limited. In this study, we investigated the S. japonica responsive genes underlying acclimation to diverse stresses of acidification, high light, high temperature, hypersalinity and hyposalinity and identified 408 core genes constantly and differentially expressed in response to all stresses. Our results confrm that stresses had strong effects on genes participated in photosynthesis, amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, halogen metabolism and reactive oxygen species defense. These findings will improve our understanding of brown algal response mechanisms linked to environmental stresses and provide a list of candidate genes for improving algal stress tolerance in light of environmental stresses in future studies.

8.
J Phycol ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150587

RESUMO

Kelps provide critical services for coastal food chains and ecosystem, and they are important food source for some segments of human population. Despite their ecological importance, little is known about long-term impacts of elevated CO2 (eCO2 ) on nutrient metabolites in kelps and the underlying regulation mechanisms. In this study, the kelp Saccharina japonica was cultured in CO2 enriched coastal mesocosm systems for up to 3 months. We found that though eCO2 significantly increased the growth rate, carbon concentrations and C/N ratio of S. japonica, it had no effect on total nitrogen and protein contents at the end of cultivation period. Meanwhile it decreased the lipid, magnesium, sodium, calcium contents and changed the amino acid and fatty acid composition. Combining the genome-wide transcriptomic and metabolic evidence, we obtained a systems-level understanding of metabolic response of S. japonica to eCO2 . The unique ornithine-urea cycle (OUC) and aspartate-argininosuccinate shunt (AAS), coupled with TCA cycle balanced the carbon and nitrogen metabolism under eCO2 by providing carbon skeleton for amino acid synthesis and reduced power for nitrogen assimilation. This research provides a major advance in the understanding of kelp nutrient metabolic mechanism in the context of global climate change, and such CO2 -induced shifts in nutritional value may induce changes in the structure and stability of marine trophic webs and affect the quality of human nutrition resources.

9.
Sci Adv ; 6(18): eaba0111, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494685

RESUMO

The extent and role of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in phytoplankton and, more broadly, eukaryotic evolution remain controversial topics. Recent studies substantiate the importance of HGT in modifying or expanding functions such as metal or reactive species detoxification and buttressing halotolerance. Yet, the potential of HGT to significantly alter the fate of species in a major eukaryotic assemblage remains to be established. We provide such an example for the ecologically important lineages encompassed by cryptophytes, rhizarians, alveolates, stramenopiles, and haptophytes ("CRASH" taxa). We describe robust evidence of prokaryotic HGTs in these taxa affecting functions such as polysaccharide biosynthesis. Numbers of HGTs range from 0.16 to 1.44% of CRASH species gene inventories, comparable to the ca. 1% prokaryote-derived HGTs found in the genomes of extremophilic red algae. Our results substantially expand the impact of HGT in eukaryotes and define a set of general principles for prokaryotic gene fixation in phytoplankton genomes.

10.
J Hazard Mater ; 396: 122749, 2020 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361134

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a widespread threat to marine life, and ongoing ocean acidification (OA) is predicted to impact bio-toxicity of Cd compounds. However, the cascading effects of changed Cd toxicity to marine primary producers are not well characterized. Here, we studied the impact of OA on Cd toxicity responses in a globally important diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum under both ambient and elevated pCO2 conditions. We found that increased pCO2 alleviated the impact of additive Cd toxicity on P. tricornutum not only under controlled indoor experiments but also in outdoor mesocosm experiments that reflect more natural growth conditions. Transcriptome analysis suggested that genes involved in Cd efflux and phytochelatin production were up-regulated and genes involved in Cd influx were down-regulated in long-term selected lineages under elevated pCO2. We further found a significant reduction of Cd transfer across trophic level, when the scallop Argopecten irradians was fed with Cd-exposed P. tricornutum previously cultured under elevated pCO2. Our results indicate that after long-term selection of P. tricornutum exposed to future OA conditions (i.e. elevated pCO2), the diatom alters its Cd detoxification strategy, which could have broader impacts on the bio-geochemical cycle of Cd in the marine ecosystem.

11.
New Phytol ; 225(1): 234-249, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419316

RESUMO

Brown algae have convergently evolved plant-like body plans and reproductive cycles, which in plants are controlled by differential DNA methylation. This contribution provides the first single-base methylome profiles of haploid gametophytes and diploid sporophytes of a multicellular alga. Although only c. 1.4% of cytosines in Saccharina japonica were methylated mainly at CHH sites and characterized by 5-methylcytosine (5mC), there were significant differences between life-cycle stages. DNA methyltransferase 2 (DNMT2), known to efficiently catalyze tRNA methylation, is assumed to methylate the genome of S. japonica in the structural context of tRNAs as the genome does not encode any other DNA methyltransferases. Circular and long noncoding RNA genes were the most strongly methylated regulatory elements in S. japonica. Differential expression of genes was negatively correlated with DNA methylation with the highest methylation levels measured in both haploid gametophytes. Hypomethylated and highly expressed genes in diploid sporophytes included genes involved in morphogenesis and halogen metabolism. The data herein provide evidence that cytosine methylation, although occurring at a low level, is significantly contributing to the formation of different life-cycle stages, tissue differentiation and metabolism in brown algae.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Kelp/genética , Microalgas/genética , Plantas/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Citosina/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Heterozigoto , Metiltransferases/genética , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Oxirredutases O-Desmetilantes/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
12.
Protoplasma ; 256(4): 1119-1132, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941581

RESUMO

Xylosyltransferases (XylTs) play key roles in the biosynthesis of many different polysaccharides. These enzymes transfer D-xylose from UDP-xylose to substrate acceptors. In this study, we identified 30 XylTs from primary endosymbionts (green algae, red algae, and glaucophytes) and secondary or higher endosymbionts (brown algae, diatoms, Eustigmatophyceae, Pelagophyceae, and Cryptophyta). We performed comparative phylogenetic studies on key XylT subfamilies, and investigated the functional divergence of genes using RNA-Seq. Of the 30 XylTs, one ß-1,4-XylT IRX14-related, one ß-1,4 XylT IRX10L-related, and one xyloglucan 6-XylT 1-related gene were identified in the Charophyta, showing strong similarities to their land plant descendants. This implied the ancient occurrence of xylan and xyloglucan biosynthetic machineries in Charophyta. The other 27 XylTs were identified as UDP-D-xylose: L-fucose-α-1,3-D-XylT (FucXylT) type that specifically transferred D-xylose to fucose. We propose that FucXylTs originated from the last eukaryotic common ancestor, rather than being plant specific, because they are also distributed in Choanoflagellatea and Echinodermata. Considering the evidence from many aspects, we hypothesize that the FucXylTs likely participated in fucoidan biosynthesis in brown algae. We provide the first insights into the evolutionary history and functional divergence of FucXylT in algal biology.


Assuntos
Clorófitas/enzimologia , Pentosiltransferases/classificação , Pentosiltransferases/genética , Feófitas/enzimologia , Rodófitas/enzimologia , Carofíceas/genética , Clorófitas/genética , Embriófitas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Pentosiltransferases/química , Pentosiltransferases/metabolismo , Feófitas/genética , Filogenia , Polissacarídeos , Conformação Proteica , Rodófitas/genética
13.
Planta ; 249(3): 647-661, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341489

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Comparative genomic analysis of cytochromes P450 revealed high diversification and dynamic changes in stramenopiles, associated with transcriptional responsiveness to various environmental stimuli. Comparative genomic and molecular evolution approaches were used to characterize cytochromes P450 (P450) diversity in stramenopiles. Phylogenetic analysis pointed to a high diversity of P450 in stramenopiles and identified three major clans. The CYP51 and CYP97 clans were present in brown algae, diatoms and Nannochloropsis gaditana, whereas the CYP5014 clan mainly includes oomycetes. Gene gain and loss patterns revealed that six CYP families-CYP51, CYP97, CYP5160, CYP5021, CYP5022, and CYP5165-predated the split of brown algae and diatoms. After they diverged, diatoms gained more CYP families, especially in the cold-adapted species Fragilariopsis cylindrus, in which eight new CYP families were found. Selection analysis revealed that the expanded CYP51 family in the brown alga Cladosiphon okamuranus exhibited a more relaxed selection constraint compared with those of other brown algae and diatoms. Our RNA-seq data further evidenced that most of P450s in Saccharina japonica are highly expressed in large sporophytes, which could potentially promote the large kelp formation in this developmental stage. A survey of Ectocarpus siliculosus and diatom transcriptomes showed that many P450s are responsive to stress, nutrient limitation or light quality, suggesting pivotal roles in detoxification or metabolic processes under adverse environmental conditions. The information provided in this study will be helpful in designing functional experiments and interpreting P450 roles in this particular lineage.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética/genética , Estramenópilas/genética , Genômica , Feófitas/enzimologia , Feófitas/genética , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Estramenópilas/enzimologia , Transcriptoma
14.
Glob Chang Biol ; 25(2): 629-639, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30295390

RESUMO

Kelp are main iodine accumulators in the ocean, and their growth and photosynthesis are likely to benefit from elevated seawater CO2 levels due to ocean acidification. However, there are currently no data on the effects of ocean acidification on iodine metabolism in kelp. As key primary producers in coastal ecosystems worldwide, any change in their iodine metabolism caused by climate change will potentially have important consequences for global geochemical cycles of iodine, including iodine levels of coastal food webs that underpin the nutrition of billions of humans around the world. Here, we found that elevated pCO2 enhanced growth and increased iodine accumulation not only in the model kelp Saccharina japonica using both short-term laboratory experiment and long-term in situ mesocosms, but also in several other edible and ecologically significant seaweeds using long-term in situ mesocosms. Transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of S. japonica revealed that most vanadium-dependent haloperoxidase genes involved in iodine efflux during oxidative stress are down-regulated under increasing pCO2 , suggesting that ocean acidification alleviates oxidative stress in kelp, which might contribute to their enhanced growth. When consumed by abalone (Haliotis discus), elevated iodine concentrations in S. japonica caused increased iodine accumulation in abalone, accompanied by reduced synthesis of thyroid hormones. Thus, our results suggest that kelp will benefit from ocean acidification by a reduction in environmental stress however; iodine levels, in kelp-based coastal food webs will increase, with potential impacts on biogeochemical cycles of iodine in coastal ecosystems.


Assuntos
Clorófitas/metabolismo , Cadeia Alimentar , Gastrópodes/metabolismo , Iodo/metabolismo , Kelp/metabolismo , Água do Mar/química , Animais , Mudança Climática , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oceanos e Mares
15.
Front Plant Sci ; 8: 2018, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29234336

RESUMO

Lipoxygenase (LOX) plays important roles in fatty acid oxidation and lipid mediator biosynthesis. In this study, we give first insights into brown algal LOX evolution. Whole genome searches revealed four, three, and eleven LOXs in Ectocarpus siliculosus, Cladosiphon okamuranus, and Saccharina japonica, respectively. In phylogenetic analyses, LOXs from brown algae form a robust clade with those from prokaryotes, suggesting an ancestral origin and slow evolution. Brown algal LOXs were divided into two clades, C1 and C2 in a phylogenetic tree. Compared to the two species of Ectocarpales, LOX gene expansion occurred in the kelp S. japonica through tandem duplication and segmental duplication. Selection pressure analysis showed that LOX genes in brown algae have undergone strong purifying selection, while the selective constraint in the C2 clade was more relaxed than that in the C1 clade. Furthermore, within each clade, LOXs of S. japonica evolved under more relaxed selection constraints than E. siliculosus and C. okamuranus. Structural modeling showed that unlike LOXs of plants and animals, which contain a ß barrel in the N-terminal part of the protein, LOXs in brown algae fold into a single domain. Analysis of previously published transcriptomic data showed that LOXs in E. siliculosus are responsive to hyposaline, hypersaline, oxidative, and copper stresses. Moreover, clear divergence of expression patterns was observed among different life stages, as well as between duplicate gene pairs. In E. siliculosus, all four LOXs are male-biased in immature gametophytes, and mature gametophytes showed significantly higher LOX mRNA levels than immature gametophytes and sporophytes. In S. japonica, however, our RNA-Seq data showed that most LOXs are highly expressed in sporophytes. Even the most recently duplicated gene pairs showed divergent expression patterns, suggesting that functional divergence has likely occurred since LOX genes duplicated, which potentially contributes to the production of various oxylipins in brown algae.

16.
Front Plant Sci ; 8: 1429, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28861104

RESUMO

Brown algae are an important taxonomic group in coastal ecosystems. The model brown algal species Ectocarpus siliculosus and Saccharina japonica are closely related lineages. Despite their close phylogenetic relationship, they vary greatly in morphology and physiology. To obtain further insights into the evolutionary forces driving divergence in brown algae, we analyzed 3,909 orthologs from both species to identify Genes Under Positive Selection (GUPS). About 12% of the orthologs in each species were considered to be under positive selection. Many GUPS are involved in membrane transport, regulation of homeostasis, and sexual reproduction in the small sporophyte of E. siliculosus, which is known to have a complex life cycle and to occupy a wide range of habitats. Genes involved in photosynthesis and cell division dominated the group of GUPS in the large kelp of S. japonica, which might explain why this alga has evolved the ability to grow very rapidly and to form some of the largest sporophytes. A significant number of molecular chaperones (e.g., heat-shock proteins) involved in stress responses were identified to be under positive selection in both species, potentially indicating their important roles for macroalgae to cope with the relatively variable environment of coastal ecosystems. Moreover, analysis of previously published microarray data of E. siliculosus showed that many GUPS in E. siliculosus were responsive to stress conditions, such as oxidative and hyposaline stress, whereas our RNA-seq data of S. japonica showed that GUPS in this species were most highly expressed in large sporophytes, which supports the suggestion that selection largely acts on different sets of genes in both marcoalgal species, potentially reflecting their adaptation to different ecological niches.

17.
Glob Chang Biol ; 23(11): 4828-4839, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28346724

RESUMO

Macroalgae contribute approximately 15% of the primary productivity in coastal marine ecosystems, fix up to 27.4 Tg of carbon per year, and provide important structural components for life in coastal waters. Despite this ecological and commercial importance, direct measurements and comparisons of the short-term responses to elevated pCO2 in seaweeds with different life-history strategies are scarce. Here, we cultured several seaweed species (bloom forming/nonbloom forming/perennial/annual) in the laboratory, in tanks in an indoor mesocosm facility, and in coastal mesocosms under pCO2 levels ranging from 400 to 2,000 µatm. We find that, across all scales of the experimental setup, ephemeral species of the genus Ulva increase their photosynthesis and growth rates in response to elevated pCO2 the most, whereas longer-lived perennial species show a smaller increase or a decrease. These differences in short-term growth and photosynthesis rates are likely to give bloom-forming green seaweeds a competitive advantage in mixed communities, and our results thus suggest that coastal seaweed assemblages in eutrophic waters may undergo an initial shift toward communities dominated by bloom-forming, short-lived seaweeds.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Traços de História de Vida , Fotossíntese , Alga Marinha/fisiologia , Eutrofização , Alga Marinha/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal ; 27(5): 3693-4, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26358639

RESUMO

The complete sequence (37 657 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the Saccharina sp. ye-F was determined using Illumina sequencing data (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). The genome contains 38 protein-coding genes (PCG), three ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and 25 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes that are typical of Saccharina mtDNA. A phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial genomes of brown algae indicated that Saccharina sp. ye-F and Saccharina longissima, Saccharina japonica are the most closely related species, which strongly supports their close phylogenetic affinity.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Genoma de Planta , Feófitas/genética , Feófitas/classificação , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA de Transferência/genética
19.
Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal ; 27(3): 2125-6, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25423511

RESUMO

The complete sequence (37,673 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the Saccharina sp. ye-G was determined using Illumina sequencing data. The genome contains 38 protein-coding genes (PCG), 3 ribosomal RNA (rRNA), 25 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes that are typical of Saccharina mtDNA. A phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial genomes of brown algae indicated that Saccharina sp. ye-G and Saccharina longissima, Saccharina japonica are the most closely related species, which strongly supports their close phylogenetic affinity.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Feófitas/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Pareamento de Bases/genética , Sequência de Bases , Genes Mitocondriais , Filogenia , RNA de Transferência/genética
20.
Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal ; 27(6): 4037-4038, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25629480

RESUMO

The complete the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Saccharina latissima ye-C14 (37,659 bp) was determined using Illumina sequencing data. The genome contains 38 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 3 ribosomal RNA (rRNA), 25 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes that are typical of Saccharina mtDNA. A phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial genome of brown algae and coxI gene indicated that S. latissima and S. coriacea are closely related a sister taxon, which strongly supports their close phylogenetic affinity.


Assuntos
Clorófitas/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial , Clorófitas/classificação , Códon de Iniciação , Códon de Terminação , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Genes de Plantas , Filogenia
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