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1.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(4): 1050-1060, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33867828

RESUMO

Renal tubular cell injury induced by calcium oxalate (CaOx) is a critical initial stage of kidney stone formation. Theaflavin (TF) has been known for its strong antioxidative capacity; however, the effect and molecular mechanism of TF against oxidative stress and injury caused by CaOx crystal exposure in kidneys remains unknown. To explore the potential function of TF on renal crystal deposition and its underlying mechanisms, experiments were conducted using a CaOx nephrocalcinosis mouse model established by glyoxylate intraperitoneal injection, and HK-2 cells were subjected to calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals, with or without the treatment of TF. We discovered that TF treatment remarkably protected against CaOx-induced kidney oxidative stress injury and reduced crystal deposition. Additionally, miR-128-3p expression was decreased and negatively correlated with SIRT1 level in mouse CaOx nephrocalcinosis model following TF treatment. Moreover, TF suppressed miR-128-3p expression and further abolished its inhibition on SIRT1 to attenuate oxidative stress in vitro. Mechanistically, TF interacted with miR-128-3p and suppressed its expression. In addition, miR-128-3p inhibited SIRT1 expression by directly binding its 3'-untranslated region (UTR). Furthermore, miR-128-3p activation partially reversed the acceerative effect of TF on SIRT1 expression. Taken together, TF exhibits a strong nephroprotective ability to suppress CaOx-induced kidney damage through the recovery of the antioxidant defense system regulated by miR-128-3p/SIRT1 axis. These findings provide novel insights for the prevention and treatment of renal calculus.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248680, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857151

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feed restriction on mammary miRNAs and coding gene expression in midlactation cows. Five Holstein cows and 6 Montbéliarde cows underwent 6 days of feed restriction, during which feed allowance was reduced to meet 50% of their net energy for lactation requirements. Mammary biopsies were performed before and at the end of the restriction period. Mammary miRNA and mRNA analyses were performed using high-throughput sequencing and microarray analyses, respectively. Feed restriction induced a negative energy balance and decreased milk production and fat and protein yields in both breeds. Feed restriction modified the expression of 27 miRNAs and 374 mRNAs in mammary glands from Holstein cows, whereas no significant miRNA change was observed in Montbéliarde cows. Among the 27 differentially expressed miRNAs, 8 miRNAs were associated with dairy QTL. Analysis of target genes indicate that the 8 most abundantly expressed miRNAs control transcripts related to lipid metabolism, mammary remodeling and stress response. A comparison between the mRNAs targeted by the 8 most strongly expressed miRNAs and 374 differentially expressed mRNAs identified 59 mRNAs in common. The bioinformatic analyses of these 59 mRNAs revealed their implication in lipid metabolism and endothelial cell proliferation. These effects of feed restriction on mammary miRNAs and mRNAs observed in Holstein cows suggest a potential role of miRNAs in mammary structure and lipid biosynthesis that could explain changes in milk production and composition.

3.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 33(3): 318-323, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the age-related differences in the management strategies and outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) under the chest pain center model. METHODS: Clinical data of 2 833 patients with ACS were enrolled in the retrospective observational registry between January 2017 and June 2019 at 11 hospitals with chest pain centers in Chengdu. The patients were divided into four groups according to their ages: < 55 years old group (n = 569), 55-64 years old group (n = 556), 65-74 years old group (n = 804), ≥ 75 years old group (n = 904). The collected data included the patients' demographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, medical history, symptoms and signs of onset, experimental examination, types of ACS and the time from the symptom to the hospital (S-to-D), etc., and the clinical characteristics, management strategies, all-cause mortality in the hospital, and the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) within 1 year after discharge were compared. The primary end point was the clinical outcome of ACS patients in different age groups, including all-cause deaths in the hospital and the incidence of MACCE within 1 year after discharge. The secondary end point was the proportion of ACS patients underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in different age groups. Multivariate Logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors of all-cause deaths in ACS patients. Kaplan-Meier curve was used to express the incidence of MACCE within 1 year after discharge in different age groups. Multivariate Cox regression was used to analyze the factors affecting the incidence of MACCE within 1 year after discharge of ACS patients. RESULTS: As age increased, the proportion of male patients gradually decreased, and the percentages of male patients aged < 55 years old, 55-64 years old, 65-74 years old, and ≥ 75 years old were 87.2% (496/569), 77.0% (428/556), 66.4% (534/804), and 60.1% (543/904), respectively; and ACS patients combined with hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke history were more common [the percentages of patients with hypertension aged < 55 years old, 55-64 years old, 65-74 years old, ≥ 75 years old were 41.3% (235/569), 52.2% (290/556), 59.7% (480/804), and 66.9% (605/904); the percentages of diabetes were 18.6% (106/569), 25.5% (142/556), 27.0% (217/804), and 28.2% (255/904); the percentages of coronary heart disease were 10.1% (57/564), 13.9% (77/555), 17.6% (141/803), and 23.7% (213/899); the percentages of stroke were 0.7% (4/564), 4.0% (22/552), 4.5% (36/801), and 8.6% (77/894)]. But the percentages of patients with a history of active smoking, typical chest pain/chest tightness and dyslipidemia were significantly reduced [the percentages of smoking history were 60.2% (340/565), 48.0% (266/554), 33.7% (270/801), and 21.7% (195/899), typical chest pain/chest tightness were 96.9% (536/553), 96.4% (516/535), 91.8% (716/780), 90.2% (776/860); the percentages of dyslipidemia were 11.2% (63/565), 9.2% (51/553), 5.7% (46/802), and 4.9% (44/896)], the time of S-to-D was significantly prolonged [minutes: 176.0 (73.5, 557.0), 194.5 (89.3, 682.3), 221.0 (98.8, 940.5), and 270.0 (115.0, 867.0)], hemoglobin (Hb) level was significantly reduced (g/L: 145.44±17.43, 135.95±19.25, 129.75±19.03, 122.19±20.55), and the incidence of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) increased significantly [18.6% (106/569), 20.5% (114/556), 26.6% (214/804), 26.5% (240/904)], and the differences were statistically significant (all P < 0.05). The proportion of Killip grade III-IV were the highest in patients aged ≥ 75 years old, 9.0% and 12.6%, respectively. Compared with the groups aged < 55 years old, 55-64 years old, and 65-74 years old, the proportion of patients aged ≥ 75 years old who underwent PCI was the lowest, and the all-cause mortality in the hospital and the incidence of 1-year MACCE of patients underwent PCI were significantly lower than those of patients underwent conservative treatment [6.0% (28/463) vs. 10.4% (45/434), 14.6% (43/294) vs. 24.3 % (55/226), both P < 0.05]. As age increased, the hospital all-cause mortality and the 1-year MACCE incidence increased (all-cause mortality rates in < 55 years old, 55-64 years old, 65-74 years old, ≥ 75 years old groups were 0.9%, 2.2%, 5.5%, 8.3%, and the 1-year MACCE incidences were 5.0%, 6.7%, 13.9%, 18.7%, both P < 0.01). The multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that age, cardiogenic shock, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), the number of vascular disease and underwent PCI were the independent risk factors of all-cause mortality [the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were 1.644 (1.356-1.993), 11.794 (7.469-18.621), 2.449 (1.419-4.227), 1.334 (1.096-1.624), 0.391 (0.247-0.619), all P < 0.001]. Cox regression analysis showed that age, STEMI, the number of vascular disease and underwent PCI were independent risk factors of the occurrence of MACCE within 1 year after discharge [hazard ratio (HR) and 95%CI were 1.354 (1.205-1.521), 1.387 (1.003-1.916), 1.314 (1.155-1.495), 0.547 (0.402-0.745), all P < 0.05]. CONCLUSIONS: In the chest pain center model, compared with other age of ACS patients, the proportion of NSTEMI in elderly patients group aged ≥ 75 years old was higher, the proportion of PCI was lower, and the clinical outcome was worse. However, the prognosis of elderly patients receiving PCI treatment was better than the patients receiving conservative treatment.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Idoso , Dor no Peito/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Clínicas de Dor , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(17)2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893236

RESUMO

The production of proinflammatory cytokines, particularly granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), by pathogenic CD4+ T cells is central for mediating tissue injury in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, the factors regulating the T cell pathogenic gene expression program remain unclear. Here, we investigated how the Ikaros transcription factor regulates the global gene expression and chromatin accessibility changes in murine T cells during Th17 polarization and after activation via the T cell receptor (TCR) and CD28. We found that, in both conditions, Ikaros represses the expression of genes from the pathogenic signature, particularly Csf2, which encodes GM-CSF. We show that, in TCR/CD28-activated T cells, Ikaros binds a critical enhancer downstream of Csf2 and is required to regulate chromatin accessibility at multiple regions across this locus. Genome-wide Ikaros binding is associated with more compact chromatin, notably at multiple sites containing NFκB or STAT5 target motifs, and STAT5 or NFκB inhibition prevents GM-CSF production in Ikaros-deficient cells. Importantly, Ikaros also limits GM-CSF production in TCR/CD28-activated human T cells. Our data therefore highlight a critical conserved transcriptional mechanism that antagonizes GM-CSF expression in T cells.

5.
Environ Microbiol ; 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848048

RESUMO

Acid mine drainage (AMD) generated by rare earth elements (REEs) deposits exploration contains high concentrations of REEs, ammonium and sulfates, which is quite different from typical metallic AMD. Currently, microbial responses and ecological functions in REEs-AMD impacted rivers are unknown. Here, 16S rRNA analysis and genome-resolved metagenomics were performed on microbial community collected from a REEs-AMD contaminated river. The results showed that REEs-AMD significantly changed river microbial diversity and shaped unique indicator species (e.g. Thaumarchaeota, Methylophilales, Rhodospirillales and Burkholderiales). The main environmental factors regulating community were pH, ammonium and REEs, among which high concentration of REEs increased REEs-dependent enzyme-encoding genes (XoxF and ExaF/PedH). Additionally, we reconstructed 566 metagenome-assembled genomes covering 70.4% of identifying indicators. Genome-centric analysis revealed that the abundant archaea Thaumarchaeota and Xanthomonadaceae were often involved in nitrification and denitrification, while family Burkholderiaceae were capable of sulfide oxidation coupled with dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium. These indicators play crucial roles in nitrogen and sulfur cycling as well as REEs immobilization in REEs-AMD contaminated rivers. This study confirmed the potential dual effect of REEs on microbial community at the functional gene level. Our investigation on the ecological roles of indicators further provided new insights for the development of REEs-AMD bioremediation.

6.
Mar Drugs ; 19(5)2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925490

RESUMO

The asymmetric total synthesis of four diastereomers of laingolide A was achieved, which led to the unambiguous assignment of the stereochemistry of the natural product. The salient features of the convergent, fully stereocontrolled approach were a copper-catalysed stereospecific Kumada-type coupling, a Julia-Kocienski olefination and an RCM/alkene migration sequence to access the desired macrocyclic enamide.

7.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(1): 239-245, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792268

RESUMO

The burden of cardiovascular disease is predicted to escalate in developing countries. The aim of this study is to assess the characteristics, management strategies and outcomes of the patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who were admitted to hospitals under the chest pain center mode in southwest P. R. China. Adults hospitalized with a diagnosis of ACS were enrolled in the retrospective, observational registry between January 2017 and June 2019 at 11 hospitals in Chengdu, P. R. China. The collected data included the patients' baseline characteristics, clinical management and in-hospital outcomes. After Statistical analysis, (1) A total of 2857 patients with ACS, among which 1482 have ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), 681 have non-STEMI (NSTEMI) and 694 have unstable angina (UA) were enrolled in the study. (2) 61.3% of the ACS patients received reperfusion therapy. More patients with STEMI underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) compared with NSTEMI/UA patients (80.6% vs. 38.8%, P < 0.001), while thrombolytics were administered in only 1.8% of STEMI patients. (3) The median time from symptoms to hospital was 190 min (IQR 94-468) in STEMI, 283 min (IQR 112-1084) in NSTEMI and 337 min (IQR 97-2220) in UA (P < 0.001), and the door-to-balloon time for primary PCI (pPCI) was 85 min (IQR 55-121) in STEMI. (4) The in-hospital outcomes for STEMI patients included death (8.1%) and acute heart failure (22.6%), while the outcomes for those with NSTEMI and UA were better: death (4.0% and 0.9%, P < 0.001) and acute heart failure (15.3% and 9.9%, P < 0.001). (5) Antiplatelet drugs, lipid-lowering drugs, ß-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) /angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) were used in about 98.3%, 95.0%, 67.7% and 54.3% of the ACS patients, respectively. Therefore, the management capacity in Chengdu has relatively increased compared with previous studies, but important gaps still exist compared with developed countries, especially regarding the management of the NSTEMI/UA patients.

8.
J Food Biochem ; 45(4): e13708, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733512

RESUMO

High-pressure processing (HPP) at 300 MPa for 20 min at 25°C was used for shucking Chinese mitten crab. The shelf-life, quality as well as internal protein changes in HPP-shucked meat were investigated during superchilled storage at -4o C. Upon 3-week storage, the lightness and whiteness of HPP-shucked crab meat start to decline, while no significant changes were observed in the hardness, gumminess, and chewiness. Sensory and microbial evaluation suggested that HPP-shucked crab meat can be generally preserved in an acceptable manner within 3 weeks, although a negative influence on drip loss was found. The loss of entrapped water in crab meat as revealed by low field nuclear magnetic resonance was responsible for the relatively high thawing drip loss. The severe deterioration of meat quality and sensory occurred at 4-week storage probably as a result of exacerbated myofibrillar protein oxidation, denaturation, and crosslinking. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: It has been confirmed that HPP shucking can maintain the fresh-state of the crab meat and save energy compared to the conventional treatment, which could meet consumers' demand for minimally processed seafood products. In this work, the shelf-life of HPP-shucked crab meat stored at -4o C was evaluated to be 3 weeks and HPP shucking combined with superchilling can be an effective way to preserve the crab meat. These results can provide basic knowledge for the storage and distribution of HPP-shucked crab meat.

9.
Metallomics ; 13(4)2021 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765153

RESUMO

Hyperaccumulators have exceptional phloem translocation capability for heavy metals. This study aims at quantifying the mobility and accumulation of Ni and Co via the phloem in the model hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens. "Phloem loading capability (PLC)," which is calculated by the "Metal content in phloem sap/Metal content in leaves," was introduced to evaluate the metal phloem mobility, while "Phloem mobility value (PMV)" was used for the normalization of PLC, which sets the PLC of Sr as PMV 0 and that of Rb as 100. The results showed that the PMVs of Ni and Co were 63 and 47, respectively. And the phloem mobility of Rb, Ni, Co, and Sr could be graded as highly mobile, mobile, intermediate, and immobile accordingly. The phloem stream can supply up to 19.1% and 16.0% of the total Ni and Co accumulated in the young leaves, respectively, while for Rb and Sr, the phloem contributes to 29% and 1.4% of the total Rb or Sr, indicating phloem contribution of certain metal is directly linked with its mobility. The results of this study raise the importance of phloem translocation on metal accumulation in shoots and provide insights on the metal cycling process in hyperaccumulators.

10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nanoparticles can improve the bioavailability of bioactive compounds. Concomitant intake of food can affect pharmacokinetic profiles by altering dissolution, absorption, metabolism, and elimination behavior. Studies on the effects of food and its supplements on the bioavailability of bioactives in nanoformulations are few. In this study, the effects of typical food (milk, sugar, high-fat diet, and regular kibble) and a widely consumed probiotic [Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12® (Bb-12)] on the bioavailability of curcumin in four formulations [simply suspended curcumin (Cur-SS) and curcumin in nanoemulsions (Cur-NEs), in single-walled carbon nanotubes (Cur-SWNTs), and in nanostructured lipid carriers (Cur-NLCs)] were investigated. RESULTS: Fasting treatment and sugar co-ingestion can significantly enhance the bioavailability of curcumin in Cur-NEs and Cur-SWNTs, respectively. Compared with the fasting treatment, co-ingestion with regular kibble reduced the absorption of curcumin in Cur-NEs and Cur-SWNTs. Ingesting milk along with Cur-NE is also not recommended. The mechanisms behind these phenomena were briefly discussed. This study revealed for the first time that the intestinal colonization of Bb-12 reduces the bioavailability of curcumin and this reduction can be attenuated by nanoformulations SWNTs and NLCs, but not NEs. The reason for this difference was the protective effects of the former two nanoformulations against curcumin degradation by Bb-12 according to in vitro experiments. CONCLUSION: Dietary status (including supplementary probiotics) can dramatically influence the bioavailability of curcumin in nanoformulations. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

11.
Cell Death Differ ; 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731875

RESUMO

Co-activator complexes dynamically deposit post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histones, or remove them, to regulate chromatin accessibility and/or to create/erase docking surfaces for proteins that recognize histone PTMs. SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5 Acetyltransferase) is an evolutionary conserved multisubunit co-activator complex with modular organization. The deubiquitylation module (DUB) of mammalian SAGA complex is composed of the ubiquitin-specific protease 22 (USP22) and three adaptor proteins, ATXN7, ATXN7L3 and ENY2, which are all needed for the full activity of the USP22 enzyme to remove monoubiquitin (ub1) from histone H2B. Two additional USP22-related ubiquitin hydrolases (called USP27X or USP51) have been described to form alternative DUBs with ATXN7L3 and ENY2, which can also deubiquitylate H2Bub1. Here we report that USP22 and ATXN7L3 are essential for normal embryonic development of mice, however their requirements are not identical during this process, as Atxn7l3-/- embryos show developmental delay already at embryonic day (E) 7.5, while Usp22-/- embryos are normal at this stage, but die at E14.5. Global histone H2Bub1 levels were only slightly affected in Usp22 null embryos, in contrast H2Bub1 levels were strongly increased in Atxn7l3 null embryos and derived cell lines. Our transcriptomic analyses carried out from wild type and Atxn7l3-/- mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), or primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) suggest that the ATXN7L3-related DUB activity regulates only a subset of genes in both cell types. However, the gene sets and the extent of their deregulation were different in mESCs and MEFs. Interestingly, the strong increase of H2Bub1 levels observed in the Atxn7l3-/- mESCs, or Atxn7l3-/- MEFs, does not correlate with the modest changes in RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) occupancy and lack of changes in Pol II elongation observed in the two Atxn7l3-/- cellular systems. These observations together indicate that deubiquitylation of histone H2Bub1 does not directly regulate global Pol II transcription elongation.

12.
Org Lett ; 23(7): 2616-2620, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736433

RESUMO

Mycotoxin cyclochlorotine (1) and structurally related astins are cyclic pentapeptides containing unique nonproteinogenic amino acids, such as ß-phenylalanine, l-allo-threonine, and 3,4-dichloroproline. Herein, we report the biosynthetic pathway for 1, which involves intriguing tailoring processes mediated by DUF3328 proteins, including stereo- and regiospecific chlorination and hydroxylation and intramolecular O,N-transacylation. Our findings demonstrate that DUF3328 proteins, which are known to be involved in oxidative cyclization of fungal ribosomal peptides, have much higher functional diversity than previously expected.

13.
Theranostics ; 11(9): 4155-4170, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754054

RESUMO

Background: Anti-PD-1-based immunotherapy has emerged as a promising therapy for several cancers. However, it only benefits a small subset of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Mounting data supports the pivotal role of gut microbiota in shaping immune system. Pectin, a widely consumed soluble fiber, has been reported to ameliorate the imbalance of gut microbiota. Therefore, we aimed to explore the effect and the underlying mechanisms of pectin in improving anti-PD-1 mAb efficacy. Methods: The C57BL/6 mice were treated with a broad-spectrum antibiotic (ATB) cocktail to depleted endogenous gut microbiota and subsequently humanized with feces from healthy controls or newly diagnosed CRC patients. The antitumor efficacies of anti-PD-1 mAb combined with or without pectin were assessed using these mice. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were conducted to investigate the tumor immune microenvironment after treatment. The gut microbiota profiles and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) levels were determined by 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The effect of gut microbiota on anti-PD-1 mAb efficacy after pectin supplement was further tested by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Results: The anti-PD-1 mAb efficacy was largely impaired in the mice humanized with feces from newly diagnosed CRC patients compared to those from healthy controls. However, pectin significantly enhanced the anti-PD-1 mAb efficacy in the tumor-bearing mice humanized with CRC patient gut microbiota. Flow cytometry and IHC analysis revealed increased T cell infiltration and activation in the tumor microenvironment of mice treated with anti-PD-1 mAb plus pectin. In vivo depletion of CD8+ T cells diminished the anti-tumor effect of anti-PD-1 mAb combined with pectin. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that pectin significantly increased gut microbial diversity and beneficially regulated microbial composition. In addition, we identified unique bacterial modules that were significantly enriched in the anti-PD-1 mAb + pectin group, which composed of butyrate-producing bacteria indicative of good response to immunotherapy. Meanwhile, GC-MS showed that pectin altered the level of SCFA butyrate. Furthermore, butyrate, a main product of dietary fiber in gut microbial fermentation, was found to be sufficient to promote T cells infiltration and thus enhance the efficacy of anti-PD-1 mAb. In addition, FMT demonstrated the effects of pectin were dependent on gut microbiota. Importantly, the beneficial effects of pectin were confirmed in the mice humanized with gut microbiota from patient with resistance to anti-PD-1 mAb. Conclusion: Pectin facilitated the anti-PD-1 mAb efficacy in CRC via regulating the T cell infiltration in the tumor microenvironment, which was potentially mediated by the metabolite butyrate.

14.
Asian J Androl ; 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723097

RESUMO

We aimed to explore the associations between the age at which children undergo surgery for hypospadias and a range of social and clinical factors in a single center. Our aim was to promote the early surgical treatment of children with hypospadias. For a 6-year period, social and clinical data were collected from all children undergoing surgery to repair hypospadias in Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University (Chongqing, China), located in southwest of China. We analyzed the correlations between age at surgery and a range of social and clinical factors. A total of 1611 eligible cases were recruited, with a mean age of 54.3 months and a median age of 42 months: 234 cases (14.5%) were classified into a "timely operation" group, 419 (26.0%) cases into a "subtimely operation" group, and 958 (59.5%) cases into a "delayed operation" group. According to multivariate regression analyses, the higher the regional economic level, the closer the urethral opening to the perineum, and the higher the educational level of the guardians was, the younger the children were when they underwent the initial surgery for hypospadias; this was also the case for families without other children. Our subgroup analysis showed that the primary educational level of the guardians was a risk factor for subtimely surgery in their children (odds ratio [OR] = 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-2.15, P < 0.05). A lower regional economic level (OR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.26-2.78, P < 0.01), a lower educational level of the guardians (OR = 3.84, 95% CI: 2.31-6.41, P < 0.01), and an anterior-segment urethral opening (OR1 [vs middle hypospadias] = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.42-3.03; OR2 [vs posterior hypospadias] = 2.63, 95% CI: 1.75-3.95; P < 0.01) were all risk factors for delayed surgery in children.

15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705120

RESUMO

Black orthorhombic (B-γ) CsSnI3 with reduced biotoxicity and environmental impact and excellent optoelectronic properties is being considered as a promising eco-friendly candidate for high-performing perovskite solar cells (PSCs). A major challenge in a large-scale implementation of CsSnI3 PSCs includes the rapid transformation of Sn2+ to Sn4+ (within a few minutes) under an ambient-air condition. Here, we demonstrate that ambient-air stable B-γ CsSnI3 PSCs can be fabricated by incorporating N,N'-methylenebis(acrylamide) (MBAA) into the perovskite layer and by using poly(3-hexylthiophene) as the hole transporting material. The lone electron pairs of -NH and -CO units of MBAA are designed to form coordination bonding with Sn2+ in the B-γ CsSnI3, resulting in a reduced defect (Sn4+) density and better stability under multiple conditions for the perovskite light absorber. After a modification, the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.50% is documented under an ambient-air condition for the unencapsulated CsSnI3-MBAA PSC. Furthermore, the MBAA-modified devices sustain 60.2%, 76.5%, and 58.4% of their initial PCEs after 1440 h of storage in an inert condition, after 120 h of storage in an ambient-air condition, and after 120 h of 1 Sun continuous illumination, respectively.

16.
Funct Plant Biol ; 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663680

RESUMO

Lignin is a natural polymer interlaced with cellulose and hemicellulose in secondary cell walls (SCWs). Auxin acts via its signalling transduction to regulate most of plant physiological processes. Lignification responds to auxin signals likewise and affects the development of anther and secondary xylem in plants. In this review, the research advances of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF)-dependent signalling pathways regulating lignin formation are discussed in detail. In an effort to facilitate the understanding of several key regulators in this process, we present a regulatory framework that comprises protein-protein interactions at the top and protein-gene regulation divided into five tiers. This characterises the regulatory roles of auxin in lignin biosynthesis and links auxin signalling transduction to transcriptional cascade of lignin biosynthesis. Our works further point to several of significant problems that need to be resolved in the future to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms through which auxin regulates lignin biosynthesis.

17.
Ann Bot ; 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The fern Dicranopteris linearis is a hyperaccumulator of rare earth elements (REEs), aluminium (Al) and silicon (Si). However, the physiological mechanisms of tissue-level tolerance to high concentrations of REE and Al, and possible interactions with Si, are currently incompletely known. METHODS: In this study, particle-induced X-ray emission (µPIXE) microprobe with the Maia detector, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and chemical speciation modelling were used to decipher the localisation and biochemistry of REEs, Al and Si in D. linearis during uptake, translocation and sequestration processes. RESULTS: The results show that in the roots more than 80% REEs and Al are in apoplastic fractions, among which the REEs are most significantly co-localised with Si and phosphorus (P) in the epidermis. In the xylem sap, REEs are nearly 100% present as REEH3SiO4  2+, without significant differences between the REEs; while 24-45% Al as Al-citrate, and only 1.7-16% Al as AlH3SiO4  2+. In the pinnules, REEs are mainly concentrated in necrotic lesions and in the epidermis, and REEs and Al are possibly co-deposited within phytoliths (SiO2). Finally, we report that different REEs have similar spatial localisations in the epidermis and exodermis of roots, the necrosis, veins and epidermis of pinnae of D. linearis. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we posit that Si plays a critical role in REEs and Al tolerance within the root apoplast, transport within vascular bundle, and sequestration within the blade of D. linearis.

18.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 195, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580208

RESUMO

The dysregulation of gene dosage due to duplication or haploinsufficiency is a major cause of autosomal dominant diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. However, there is currently no rapid and efficient method for manipulating gene dosage in a human model system such as human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Here, we demonstrate a simple and precise method to simultaneously generate iPSC lines with different gene dosages using paired Cas9 nickases. We first generate a Cas9 nickase variant with broader protospacer-adjacent motif specificity to expand the targetability of double-nicking-mediated genome editing. As a proof-of-concept study, we examine the gene dosage effects on an Alzheimer's disease patient-derived iPSC line that carries three copies of APP (amyloid precursor protein). This method enables the rapid and simultaneous generation of iPSC lines with monoallelic, biallelic, or triallelic knockout of APP. The cortical neurons generated from isogenically corrected iPSCs exhibit gene dosage-dependent correction of disease-associated phenotypes of amyloid-beta secretion and Tau hyperphosphorylation. Thus, the rapid generation of iPSCs with different gene dosages using our method described herein can be a useful model system for investigating disease mechanisms and therapeutic development.

19.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation might play a role in bipolar disorder (BD), but it remains unclear the relationship between inflammation and brain structural and functional abnormalities in patients with BD. In this study, we focused on the alterations of functional connectivity (FC), peripheral pro-inflammatory cytokines and their correlations to investigate the role of inflammation in FC in BD depression. METHODS: In this study, 42 unmedicated patients with BD II depression and 62 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled. Resting-state-functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in all participants and independent component analysis was used. Serum levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured in all participants. Correlation between FC values and IL-6 and IL-8 levels in BD was calculated. RESULTS: Compared with the HCs, BD II patients showed decreased FC in the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) implicating the limbic network and the right precentral gyrus implicating the somatomotor network. BD II showed increased IL-6 (p = 0.039), IL-8 (p = 0.002) levels. Moreover, abnormal FC in the right precentral gyrus were inversely correlated with the IL-8 (r = -0.458, p = 0.004) levels in BD II. No significant correlation was found between FC in the left OFC and cytokines levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings that serum IL-8 levels are associated with impaired FC in the right precentral gyrus in BD II patients suggest that inflammation might play a crucial role in brain functional abnormalities in BD.

20.
Mol Cancer ; 20(1): 4, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397425

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs), which are single-stranded closed-loop RNA molecules lacking terminal 5' caps and 3' poly(A) tails, are attracting increasing scientific attention for their crucial regulatory roles in the occurrence and development of various diseases. With the rapid development of high-throughput sequencing technologies, increasing numbers of differentially expressed circRNAs have been identified in bladder cancer (BCa) via exploration of the expression profiles of BCa and normal tissues and cell lines. CircRNAs are critically involved in BCa biological behaviours, including cell proliferation, tumour growth suppression, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, invasion, migration, metastasis, angiogenesis, and cisplatin chemoresistance. Most of the studied circRNAs in BCa regulate cancer biological behaviours via miRNA sponging regulatory mechanisms. CircRNAs have been reported to be significantly associated with many clinicopathologic characteristics of BCa, including tumour size, grade, differentiation, and stage; lymph node metastasis; tumour numbers; distant metastasis; invasion; and recurrence. Moreover, circRNA expression levels can be used to predict BCa patients' survival parameters, such as overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and progression-free survival (PFS). The abundance, conservation, stability, specificity and detectability of circRNAs render them potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for BCa. Additionally, circRNAs play crucial regulatory roles upstream of various signalling pathways related to BCa carcinogenesis and progression, reflecting their potential as therapeutic targets for BCa. Herein, we briefly summarize the expression profiles, biological functions and mechanisms of circRNAs and the potential clinical applications of these molecules for BCa diagnosis, prognosis, and targeted therapy.

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